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2017-08-29
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9625
Souhir Tounsi
Abstract In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
2017-04-11
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9076
Ioannis Karakitsios, Evangelos Karfopoulos, Nikolay Madjarov, Aitor Bustillo, Marc Ponsar, Dionisio Del Pozo, Luca Marengo
Abstract The aim of this paper is to introduce a complete fast dynamic inductive charging infrastructure from the back-office system (EV management system) up to the Electric Vehicle (EV) (inductive power transfer module, positioning mechanism, electric vehicle modifications) and the EV user (User interface). Moreover, in order to assess the impact of the additional demand of inductive charging on the grid operation, an estimation of the 24-hour power profile of dynamic inductive charging is presented considering, apart from the road traffic, the probability of the need for fast charging, as well as the specifications of the proposed solution. In addition, an energy management system is presented enabling the management of the operation of the inductive charging infrastructure, the interaction with the EV users and the provision of demand response services to different stakeholders.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0629
John Kuo, George Garfinkel
Detailed thermal modeling of liquid-cooled vehicle traction battery assemblies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis techniques usually involves large models to accurately resolve small cooling channel details. For large battery packs, some of these meshes may exceed current computational capabilities or result in long and expensive computational efforts. Moreover, only steady-state thermal predictions are usually performed, as drive-cycle transient simulations become impractical due to the exceedingly long solving times. To tackle this problem, an innovative segregated method has been developed for thermal analysis of liquid-cooled traction batteries, where battery cells and their active cooling system are divided into three parts: the cell, the cold plate and the interface between them.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0027
Li Xu, Eric Tseng, Thomas Pilutti, Steven Schondorf
Reversing a vehicle while towing a trailer can be challenging for many drivers, particularly for those who only tow on an occasionally basis. Systems used to assist a driver with backing a trailer typically estimate the heading angle of the trailer relative to that of the vehicle, i.e., the hitch angle. In the current Ford Trailer Backup Assist (TBA) system, the hitch angle is determined utilizing the existing reverse camera with added software in the image processing module. One potential issue for the vision-based hitch angle estimation approach is that environment factors may limit the system usage, since either the camera lenses or the target may be blocked or partially blocked. Furthermore, it is very difficult to apply the vision-based approach to gooseneck or fifth wheel trailers. In this paper, a yaw rate based hitch angle observer is proposed as an alternative sensing solution for TBA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1668
Amin Emrani, Steve Spadoni
In this paper, Smart Step-Down Convertor is introduced as a power supply to power a device which operates at a voltage below the power net voltage while protecting the power net and the device against faults as well. In the proposed architecture, each Smart Step-Down Converter is connected to the battery or the power source with the nominal voltage (e.g. 48V) and it provides a programmable output voltage that can be set to the rated voltage of the electric load coupled to it. The rated voltage of electric loads can be equal or lower than the nominal voltage. The proposed system with Smart Step-Down Converters has several advantages compared to other multi-voltage system architectures. First, the 12V battery and 12V power distribution box are eliminated, resulting in not only material savings but also solving some packaging challenges.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0060
Heiko Doerr, Thomas End, Lena Kaland
The release of the ISO 26262 in November 2011 was a major milestone for the safeguarding of safety-related systems that include one or more electrical and / or electronic (E/E) systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars. Although no specific requirements exist for a model-based software development process, ISO 26262 compiles general requirements and recommendations that need to be interpreted for model-based development. The second edition of the ISO 26262 is about to be released. This revised edition not only integrates the experiences of the last few years but also extends the overall scope of safety-related systems. In order to determine the necessary adaptions for already existing software development processes, a detailed analysis of this revision is necessary. In this work, we focus on an analysis and the impact on model-based software development of safety-related systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0045
Guirong Zhuo, Cheng Wu, Fengbo Zhang
Vehicle active collision avoidance includes collision avoidance by braking and by steering, however both of these two methods have their limitations. When the vehicle’s speed is high or road adhesion coefficient is small, critical braking distance is long by braking to avoid collision, and collision avoidance by steering is restricted to the vehicle driving condition on the side lane. Therefore, it is significant to establish the feasible region of active collision avoidance to choose the optimal way to avoid traffic accidents. Model predictive control (MPC), as an optimized method, not only makes the control input of current time to achieve the best, but also can achieve the optimal control input in a future time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0054
Daniel Kaestner, Antoine Miné, André Schmidt, Heinz Hille, Laurent Mauborgne, Stephan Wilhelm, Xavier Rival, Jérôme Feret, Patrick Cousot, Christian Ferdinand
Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. All contemporary safety standards require evidence that no data races and no critical run-time errors occur, such as invalid pointer accesses, buffer overflows, or arithmetic overflows. Such errors can cause software crashes, invalidate separation mechanisms in mixed-criticality software, and are a frequent cause of errors in concurrent and multi-core applications. In the past stablished semantics-based static analysis tools could not handle concurrent programs with the same level of soundness, coverage, and automation as sequential programs. Typically they didn't cover all potential process interleavings, required extensive user interaction, had limited support for concurrency primitives and failed to detect all potential concurrency-specific hazards such as data races. We present an extension of the static analyzer Astrée to soundly and automatically analyze concurrent software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0040
Michael Hafner, Thomas Pilutti
We propose a steering controller for automated trailer backup, which can be used on tractor-trailer configurations including fifth wheel campers and gooseneck style trailers. The controller steers the trailer based on real-time driver issued trailer curvature commands. We give a stability proof for the hierarchical control system, and demonstrate robustness under a specific set of modeling errors. Simulation results are provided along with experimental data from a test vehicle and 5th wheel trailer.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0020
Mark Zachos
Since 2001, all sensitive information by U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)140-2 Security Requirements. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective hardware. This paper describes strong FIPS 140-2 encryption for vehicle communications, using as an example the J1939 protocol. The encrypted J1939 data and commands are tamper-proof, since they cannot be changed or altered -- accidentally or otherwise. The encrypted J1939 data and proprietary commands can be stored and transported securely, giving no unauthorized read access. The examples will show J1939 encryption, including both wired and wireless communication. Two-factor authentication is achieved, since both the hardware and a decryption key are need to decrypt.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1555
Mirosław Jan Gidlewski, Krystof JANKOWSKI, Andrzej MUSZYŃSKI, Dariusz ŻARDECKI
Lane change automation appears to be a fundamental problem of vehicle automated control, especially when the vehicle is driven at high speed. Selected relevant parts of the recent research project are reported in this paper, including literature review, the developed models and control systems, as well as crucial simulation results. In the project, two original models describing the dynamics of the controlled motion of the vehicle were used, verified during the road tests and in the laboratory environment. The first model – fully developed (multi-mass, 3D, nonlinear) – was used in simulations as a virtual plant to be controlled. The second model – a simplified reference model of the lateral dynamics of the vehicle (single-mass, 2D, linearized) – formed the basis for theoretical analysis, including the synthesis of the algorithm for automatic control. That algorithm was based on the optimal control theory.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1248
Ming Su, Chingchi Chen, Krishna Prasad Bhat, Jun Kikuchi, Shrivatsal Sharma, Thomas Lei
Due to global trends and government regulations for CO2 emission reduction, the automotive industry is actively working toward vehicle electrification to improve fuel efficiency and minimize tail-pipe pollutions. For the traction inverter systems in today’s hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), silicon IGBTs and power diodes are the main control devices. These mature components are reliable and cost-effective, but have their limitation on energy losses. SiC wide bandgap semiconductor, on the other hand, has potential to offer additional boost of efficiency for the HEV drive system. In recent years, commercial SiC MOSFETs are significantly improved in terms of conduction and switching losses. However, reliability concerns and high prices still place a limit on their overall competitiveness against silicon. Ford Motor Company has partnered with major semiconductor manufacturers to evaluate SiC products for the HEV inverter system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1640
Peng Liu, Liyun Fan, Wenbo Peng, Xiuzhen Ma, Enzhe Song
A novel high-speed electromagnetic actuator for electronic fuel injection system of diesel engine is proposed in this paper. By using permanent magnet and annular flange, the design of novel actuator aims to overcome the inherent drawbacks of the conventional solenoid electromagnetic actuator, such as high power consumption and so on. The finite element model (FEM) of novel actuator is developed. Combined with design of experiments and finite element analysis, the second order polynomial response surface models (RSM) of electromagnetic force of novel actuator are produced by the least square principle. Then the influence mechanisms and interaction effects of key design variables on the electromagnetic characteristics of novel actuator are revealed by RSM.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0050
Mario Berk, Hans-Martin Kroll, Olaf Schubert, Boris Buschardt, Daniel Straub
With increasing levels of driving automation, the information provided by automotive environment sensors becomes highly safety relevant. A correct assessment of the sensor’s reliability is therefore crucial for ensuring the safety of the customer functions. There are currently no standardized procedures or guidelines for demonstrating the reliability of the sensor information. Engineers are faced with setting up test procedures and estimating efforts. Statistical hypothesis tests are commonly employed in this context. In this contribution, we present an alternative method based on Bayesian parameter inference, which is easy to implement and whose interpretation is more intuitive for engineers without a profound statistical education. It also enables a more realistic representation of dependencies among errors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0394
Junrui Li, Ruiyan Yang, Zhen Li, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Lianxiang Yang
Advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is gaining popularity in the automotive industry due to its higher final part strength with the better formability compares to the conventional steel. However, the edge fracture occurs during the forming procedure for the pre-strained part. To avoid the edge fracture happens during the manufacturing, the effect of pre-strain on edge cracking limit need to be studied. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC), as a high accuracy optical method, is adopted in the strain measurement for the edge cracking limit determination. Sets of the wide coupons are pre-strained to obtain the samples at different pre-strain level. The pre-strain of each sample is precisely measured during this procedure using DIC. After pre-straining, the half dog bone samples are cut from these wide coupons. The edge of the notch in the half dog bone samples is created by different methods for the distinct edge condition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1251
Bin Zhou, Jeffrey Burl, Amir Rezaei
This paper introduced Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS), and presents simulation results on how the ECMS penalty factor effects Lithium ion battery aging based on Matlab simulations. The vehicles simulated are the Honda Civic Hybrid and the Michigan Technological University developed Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MTU-HEV). The battery data was used from A123 systems 20Ah Prismatic Pouch Cell for MTU-HEV, and A123 systems ANR26650 for Honda Civic Hybrid. Both vehicles are simulated using multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, six ECMS penalty factor values are used. Battery aging is evaluated using the semiempirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery state of charge trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The tradeoff between fuel cost and battery aging cost is explicitly displayed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1372
Bo Wang, Smruti Panigrahi, Mayur Narsude, Amit Mohanty
Increasing numbers of vehicles are equipped with telematics devices and they are able to transmit vehicle CAN bus information remotely. We examine the possibility of identifying individual drivers from their on-road driving behaviors. This study collected vehicle telematics data from a small fleet of Ford Fiesta vehicles over 6 months in London, UK. The collected variables included vehicle speed, acceleration pedal position, brake pedal pressure, steering angle position, gear position, and engine RPM. A list of driving metrics were developed to quantify driver behaviors, such as mean brake pedal pressure and turning speed. The Random Forest (RF) machine learning algorithm is used to predict driver IDs based on the developed driving metrics. The RF model is also used to rank the importance of each driving metric on driver identification. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates the possibility of identifying drivers from their on-road driving behaviors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1419
Smruti Panigrahi, Jianbo Lu, Sanghyun Hong
Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. Frequent light crashes reveal not only abusive driver behaviors but also increase the probability of damaging a vehicle. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1209
Zhichao Luo, Xuezhe Wei
Nowadays, wireless power transfer (WPT) gradually prevails and many researchers has devoted themselves to it because it is a safe, convenient and reliable way for recharging electric vehicles comparing to the conventional plug-in contact-based methods . Square coils are one of the most commonly used in WPT systems. However, there is few theoretical analysis of self- and mutual inductance of square coils between two magnetic shielding materials. In this paper, in order to study the spatial magnetic field distribution, the analytical model of n-turn square planar spiral coils between two semi-infinite multilayer media is developed based on the Maxwell equations and the Dual Fourier transformation. And then, by means of surface integrals, the self- and mutual inductance can be carried out, with respect to the main parameters of the WPT systems such as the operating frequency, the geometry feature of the coupling coils and the properties of the multilayer media.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0626
LeeAnn Wang, George Garfinkel, Ahteram Khan, Mayur Harsha, Prashanth Rao
When a driver completes an aggressive drive cycle on a hybrid vehicle, the High Voltage (HV) battery system may risk exceeding the power limit temperature, due to continuous absorption of radiative and convective heat from the exhaust and pavement, even after key-off. In such case, the vehicle may not be keyed-on after a certain time. A transient thermal analysis is conducted on a HV battery system to simulate the key-off operation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The analysis is partitioned into two stages, due to complex geometry and multiple phenomena captured in the model. The first stage involves two steady-state simulations. The first simulation is to model the HV battery system, during an aggressive drive cycle. The second simulation is to model the vehicle at an idle condition immediately after the aggressive drive cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0044
Roman Schmied, Gunda Obereigner, Harald Waschl
In the field of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) the capability to accurately estimate and predict the driving behavior of surrounding traffic participants has shown to enable significant improvements of the respective ADAS in terms of economy and comfort. The interaction between the different participants can be an important aspect. One example for this interaction is the car-following behavior in dense urban traffic situations.There are different phenomenological or psychological models of human car following which also consider variations between different participants. Unfortunately, these models can seldom be applied for control directly or prediction in vehicle applications. A different way is to follow a control oriented approach, to model the human as a time delay controller which tracks the inter-vehicle distance. The parameters are typically chosen based on empirical rules and do not consider variations between drivers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1647
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Jaehak Yu
Driving is a complex activity with the continuously changing environment. Safe driving can be challenged by changes in drivers’ physical, emotional, and mental condition. Population in the developed world is aging, so the number of older drivers is increasing. Older drivers have relatively higher incidences of crashes precipitated by drivers’ medical emergencies when compared to another age group. On the aged population, automakers paying more attention to developing cars that can measure and monitor drivers’ health status to protect them. In recent years, the automotive industry integrating health, wellness, and wellbeing technologies into cars with Internet of Things (IoT). A broad range of application for IoT-based elderly smart healthcare monitoring system is possible. For example, smart car, smart home, smart bed, etc., Both luxury automakers and key global original equipment manufacturers integrating healthcare services into their next-generation products.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1617
Sherif Aly
A major automotive trend is the consolidation of multiple domains on single powerful SoCs. This paper will explore the reasons for this trend and available architectures for achieving this consolidation. AUTOSAR on Linux has been popular in ADAS and infotainment applications, allowing complex functions to smoothly integrate into the vehicle network.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1622
Ronald Brombach, Anup Gadkari
The Body Control Module (BCM) is a huge integration site for vehicle features and functions.(i.e., Locking, Alarms, interior lighting, exterior lighting, etc…) . Every few years the demands to add more feature/functions and integrate more vehicle content increases. The expectation of the model year 2013 BCM, was to double the feature content and use it globally. The growth in feature/function content grew from 140 to over 300. This posed a major challenge to the current software development team based on the methods and process that were deployed at the time. This paper sites the cultural and technology changes that were overcome. Ford Motor Company partnered with Tata Consulting services to help manage and define this new software engineering development.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1645
Marjorie Myers
Harness and terminal manufacturers are working to support the Automotive industry’s need to reduce energy consumption (and costs) via weight savings initiatives by converting from Cu to Al electrical cables within the traditional open style cable harness termination manufacturing environment. As the Automotive industry is fully aware, terminating nominally same sized Al cable to existing Cu cable designed terminals is neither a functional, nor a reliable, equivalent option – termination design changes are required to be able successfully qualify any such Al cable to Cu terminal connections for Automotive applications. In addition, the harness industry are looking for any new Al ‘open’ crimp termination designs to work well within the existing manufacturing and connector/harness design environment; e.g., ‘open’ crimp termination, on par termination process speed, no post-treatment, etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0103
Thomas Beyerl, Bernard Ibru, Charvi Popat, Deborah Ojo, Alexander Bakus, Jessica Elder, Valentin Soloiu
Non-standard intersections, which do not follow a simple orthogonal three or four way configuration, present a navigational challenge to autonomous vehicles. Conventional navigation systems which gather data from the surrounding area then plan a path through the collected data require faultless and complex analysis of extremely unstructured environments. The vehicle must then avoid obstacles as well as successfully navigate the intersection with extremely low tolerance for error. Computer decision making challenges can arise from this method of navigation, especially when interacting with non-autonomous vehicles. This research presents a computational method of optimizing navigation through intersections based on pre-planned routing data. The static nature of roadways enabled detailed path planning, using a series of lines and arcs, which reduced, even the most complex intersections, into simply navigable splines.
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