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2017-08-29
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-04-11
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9625
Souhir Tounsi
Abstract In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1672
Siddartha Khastgir, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Stewart Birrell, Sean Redmond, Ross Addinall, Paul Jennings
The advent of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and autonomous driving has offered a new challenge for functional verification and validation. The explosion of the test sample space for possible combinations of inputs needs to be handled in an intelligent manner to meet cost and time targets for the development of such systems. Various test methods like VEHiL (Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop), Vehicle-in-the-Loop and Co-ordinated automated driving have been developed for validation of ADAS and autonomous systems. Increasingly, driving simulators are being used for testing ADAS and autonomous systems as they offer a safer and a more reproducible environment for verifying such systems. While each of these test methods serves a specific purpose, they have a common challenge between them. All of these methods require the generation of test scenarios for which the systems are to be tested.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1691
Aseim Elfrgani, C. J. Reddy
A simple low profile high directivity antenna is designed to operate at 5.9 GHz for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communications to ensure connectivity in different propagation channels. Patch antennas are still an ongoing topic of interest due to their advantages: low profile, low cost and ease of fabrication. One of the disadvantages of patch antenna is low directivity which results in low range performance. There are several techniques to improve the directivity of the patch antenna; among these, the use of stacked patch, the use of fractal boundary, incorporating metamaterials in the substrate, and optimizing the shape of the patch. In this paper, we introduce an efficient and novel way to improve the directivity of patch antenna using topology optimization and design of experiments (DoE).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1636
Lukas Preusser
Problem Already in the initial design failure mode analysis of this relatively young feature it became clear that an accurate sensor reading is critical to the performance of the heated steering wheel system. As the temperature reception capability of the human palm is very distinct, small deviations [≤0.1°??/??] from the targeted wheel temperature may be registered as "getting too hot" or "remaining too cold". As per industry standard, heated wheels only utilize a single sensor input to the temperature control circuitry, making it even more important for the sensor to reflect the current surface temperature. Certainly the sensor must be placed where it neither can be seen nor felt, decoupling surface from the sensor's temperature. Production tolerances for sensor placement on the heater mat along with heater mat placement tolerances relative to the armature's position add to the decoupling issue, causing unacceptably high or low steering wheel surface temperatures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1696
John F. Locke, Stephen Schmidt
This paper proposes a novel antenna design for automotive communication applications. This antenna design provides horizontal polarization and omni directional coverage along the horizon provided by an electrically small loop but with superior efficiencies. In addition, the design allows for relatively low profile mounting desired by automotive styling. Ideal for remote keyless entry application this antenna design can also be used as part of a diversity system for WiFi, V2V, V2X, cellular or Bluetooth.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0101
Alexandru Gurghian, Francois Charette
This paper presents the implementation of a 1/10th scale track with multiple vehicles that serves as a framework used for introducing new employees, interns or groups of student to autonomous vehicle and ADAS technologies. The framework allows new generations of potential engineers to experience software development at the intersection between computer science and engineering. Additionally, the framework can serve as a gentle and exciting introduction to automotive software development. The proposed system is based on an off the shelf 1/10th scale remote controlled car and is equipped with an Intel NUC, a full-fledged computer powered by an Intel i7 processor, providing sufficient compute power for computationally expensive perception and control algorithm. Steering and throttle actuators are accessible through a microcontroller connected to the Intel NUC via USB, which also acts as a safety controller that allows to override control signals with a remote control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0620
Chandrakant Parmar, Sethuramalingam Tyagarajan, Sashikant Tiwari, Ravindra Thonge, S Arun Paul
The engine compartment of passenger car application contain various source which radiates the produced heat and raises the temperature level of the compartment. The rise in compartment temperature increases the individual component body temperature. The rise in body temperature of critical components can endanger the life or functionality of the specific component or a system in which it operates. The aim of this paper is to strategise thermal protection of the rear mounted engine and it's components of a vehicle having radiator and cooling fan mounted in front. An additional ventilation fan with speed sensor is fitted alongside rear mounted engine and a unique monitoring technique framed in the EMS ECU to protect critical components like HT cables, alternators, ECU, wiring harness etc. from thermal damage. The EMS continuously monitors the engine speed, vehicle speed and the PWM signal of ventilation fan to ensure the intended operation of the ventilation fan.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0628
Rahul Fageria, Satvik Jain
Turbochargers have become an inevitable part of modern engines for their ability to improve an engine's efficiency and power output through forced induction using the exhaust gas energy which otherwise would have been wasted. And with their use, there is always some unwanted heat as a by-product. For that, turbo intercoolers are employed, they reduce the temperature of the forced air before reaching the engine and improve their volumetric efficiency by increasing intake air charge density through an isobaric cooling. The forced air produced by the turbocharger is routed through the intercooler where its temperature is reduced before reaching the engine. Intercoolers also eliminate the need for using the wasteful method of lowering intake charge temperature by the injection of excess fuel into the cylinders' air induction chambers, to cool the intake air charge, prior to its flowing into the cylinders.This has made modern heavy duty diesel vehicles far more efficient.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1180
Stefan Brandstätter, Michael Striednig, David Aldrian, Alexander Trattner, Manfred Klell, Tomas Dehne, Christoph Kügele, Michael Paulweber
The limitation of global warming to less than 2 °C till the end of the century is regarded as the main challenge of our time. In order to meet COP21 objectives, a clear transition from carbon-based energy sources towards renewable and carbon-free energy carriers is mandatory. Polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells allow an energy-efficient, resource-efficient and emission-free conversion of regenerative produced hydrogen. For these reasons fuel cell technologies emerge in stationary, mobile and logistic applications with acceptable cruising ranges as well as short refueling times. In order to perform applied research in the area of PEM fuel cell systems a highly integrated fuel cell analysis infrastructure for systems up to 150 kW electric power was developed and established within a cooperative research project by HyCentA Research GmbH and AVL List GmbH in Graz, Austria. A novel system-open testing facility with hardware in the loop (HiL) capability is presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1184
Kiyoshi Handa, Shigehiro Yamaguchi, Kazuya Minowa, Steven Mathison
Fuel cell automobiles are already on the market, and construction of hydrogen refueling stations is proceeding. Meanwhile, fuel cell motorcycles are still in the development stage, and it is necessary to develop a hydrogen refueling method for motorcycles. Automobiles and motorcycles should be able to share hydrogen refueling stations in the same manner as gasoline stations in order to reduce investment into infrastructure construction. However, the hydrogen vessel capacity of motorcycles is only a fraction that of automobiles, so the flow rate is too small and adjustment is a challenge when using a refueling method with a fixed pressure ramp rate, such as that of the automobile refueling standard. In addition, there are a number of issues for using the same refueling method as automobiles, such as cases in which the vessel becomes full simply by the refueling for initial pressure detection. For these reasons, it is a challenge to share hydrogen refueling stations with automobiles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0024
Yuto Imanishi, Naoyuki Tashiro, Yoichi Iihoshi, Takashi Okada
In recent years, improvement of in-use fuel economy is required with tightening of exhaust emission regulation. We assume that one of the most effective solutions is ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control), which can control a powertrain in detail more than a driver. We have been developing a fuel saving ADAS application named “Sailing-ACC”. Sailing ACC system uses sailing stop technology which stops the engine fuel injection and disengage clutch when the car do not need acceleration torque. This system has a potential to greatly improve fuel efficiency. In this paper, we present a predictive powertrain state switching algorithm using external information (route information, preceding vehicle information). This algorithm calculates appropriate switching timing to sailing stop mode and acceleration mode to avoid braking loss. To design switching algorithm, we clarify the characteristics of driving technique called “pulse and glide”.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0031
Mohamed Benmimoun
In the last years various advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been introduced in the market. More highly advanced functions up to automated driving functions are currently under research. By means of these functions partly automated driving in specific situations is already or will be soon realized, e.g. traffic jam assist. Besides the technical challenges to develop such automated driving functions for complex situations, e.g. construction or intersection areas, new approaches for the evaluation of these functions under different driving conditions are necessary, in order to assess the benefits and identify potential weaknesses. Classical approaches for evaluation and market sign off will require an extensive testing, which results in high costs and time demands. Therefore the classical approaches are hardly feasible taking into account higher levels of support and automation. Today the final sign-off requires a high amount of real world tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0037
Xianyao Ping
The heavy-duty vehicles travel with complex driving conditions and long-distance transportation in the mountainous areas. The driver's hysteretic perception to the environment will affect the fuel economy of the vehicle. Unreasonable acceleration and deceleration on the slope will increase the fuel consumption. Improving the performance of the engine and transmission system has limited energy-saving space, and the most fuel-efficient driving assistant systems don't consider the road conditions. In the research, the low space dimensions of the economic driving optimization algorithm with the fast calculation speed is established to plan the accurate and real-time economic driving scheme based on the slope information. The optimization algorithm with less dependence on the experimental data of the fuel consumption characteristics has the good adaptability to most vehicles. For the first drive on the slope, the slope gradient and length are measured and stored.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0038
Corwin Stout, Milos Milacic, Fazal Syed, Ming Kuang
In recent years, we have witnessed increased discrepancy between fuel economy numbers reported in accordance with EPA testing procedures and real world fuel economy reported by drivers. The debates range from needs for new testing procedures to the fact that driver complaints create one-sided distribution; drivers that get better fuel economy do not complain about the fuel economy, but only the ones whose fuel economy falls short of expectations. In this paper, we demonstrate fuel economy improvements that can be obtained if the driver is properly sophisticated in the skill of driving. Implementation of SmartGauge with EcoGuide into the Ford C-MAX Hybrid in 2013 helped drivers improve their fuel economy on hybrid vehicles. Further development of this idea led to the EcoCoach that would be implemented into all future Ford vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0041
Shengguang Xiong
Automotive Front Lighting System (AFS) can receive the steering signal and the vehicle speed signal to automatically adjust the position of the headlamps light's body. AFS will provide drivers more information of the front road to protect drivers safe when driving at night. AFS works when there is a steering signal input. However, drivers often need the front road's information before they turn the steering wheel when vehicles are going to go round a sharp corner, AFS will not work in such a situation. In order to solve this problem, this paper studied how to foresight the front road and optimize the working time of AFS based on GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS (Geographic Information System). This paper built the model of the vehicle steering characteristics with the relationship between the headlamp steering lighting and the angle of the steering wheel based on the follow-up steering law of headlamps of AFS.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0042
Max Maurodias Santos
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are designed to improve driving safety and reduce driving stress in roads. These systems are applied to maintain safe distance from the car in front, alert driver to objects in their path, alert driver of an unintended departure from the lane or even automatic intervention. According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 94 percent of the immediate reason for the critical pre-crash and often the last failure in the causal chain of events leading up to the crash is assigned to the driver. ADAS testing and rating are a development trend in NHTSA’s New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), which increases the manufactures investment in such solutions. Camera based ADAS solutions for Lane Departure Warning (LDW) requires extensive use of mathematical operations in image processing. Edge detection methods are frequently used in such applications, however noise and outlier reduction are still challenging tasks.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0039
Toshiya Hirose, Yasufumi OHTSUKA
1. Background Vehicle to vehicle communication system (V2V) can send and receive the vehicle information by wireless communication, and use as a safety driving assist for driver. In particular, it is investigated to clarify appropriate activation timing for assist levels of (a) collision information, (b) collision caution and (c) collision warning. This study focused on the activation timing of collision information, caution and warning with V2V. The experiment carried out with a driving simulator, and this study investigated an effective activation timing for three assist levels. 2. Experimental method The experimental scenario had four situations of (1) “Assist for braking”, (2) “Assist for accelerating”, (3) “Assist for right turn” and (4) “Assist for left turn” in blind intersection. These were set on the basis of data of traffic accidents in Japan. The activation timings of three levels were based on TTI (Time to Intersection) and TTC (Time to Collision).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0046
Mohamed Aladem, Samir Rawashdeh, Nathir Rawashdeh
To reliably implement driver-assist features and ultimately, self-driving cars, autonomous driving systems will likely rely on a variety of sensor types including GPS, RADAR, LASER range finders, and cameras. Cameras are an essential sensory component because they lend themselves to the task of identifying object types that a self-driving vehicle is likely to encounter such as pedestrians, cyclists, animals, other cars, or objects on the road. A stereo vision system adds the capability of tracking object locations and trajectories relative to the vehicle. This information can be essential for an autonomous driving control system that aims to avoid collisions and localize itself in the street scene. In this paper, we present a visual odometry algorithm based on a stereo-camera to perform localization relative to the surrounding environment for purposes navigation and hazard avoidance. Using a stereo-camera enhances the accuracy with respect to monocular visual odometry.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0051
Jean GODOT, Adil ALIF, Sébastien Saudrais, Bertrand BARBEDETTE, Cherif LAROUCI
The assessment of the safety and the reliability for embedded systems is mainly performed early in the design cycle, at system level. The objective is to detect the potential failures which could lead to an undesirable event. Given the increasing critical aspect of the functions executed by the software in automotive and aeronautics, it becomes necessary to perform safety analysis at lower level of the design cycle such as at implementation stage. But, software models at this stage are complex and heterogeneous so the analysis are often manually realized. As the software models are also very large (thousands of basic software components), the analysis is labor-intensive and error-prone so it is not obvious to obtain relevant results. Therefore, the analysis on software models at implementation stage is often neglected.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0056
Naveen Mohan, Martin Törngren, Sagar Behere
With the advent of the ISO 26262 there is an increased emphasis on top-down design in the automotive industry. While the standard delivers an ideal framework for safety design, it lacks detailed requirements for the various stages themselves. The lack of structure becomes evident in the reuse of legacy components and subsystems, a common scenario in the cost-sensitive automotive domain. This poses particular challenges in the context of automated driving where multiple subsystems both new and legacy need to coordinate to realize a function, leaving vehicle architects and safety designers to rely on experience for their decisions. This paper introduces a method to support consistent design of the Functional Safety Concept(FSC) as required by the ISO 26262. The method arises from and addresses need within the industry for systematic architectural analysis and rationale management and reuse of legacy subsystems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0053
Wolfgang Granig, Friedrich Rasbornig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Mario Motz, Thomas Zettler, Michael Strasser, Alessandro Michelutti
Authors: DI(FH) Wolfgang Granig, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Friedrich Rasbornig, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Dirk Hammerschmidt, Infineon Technologies Austria AG DI Mario Motz, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Abstract: Functional safe products fulfilling the ISO26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications where additional redundant and diverse functionality is needed for higher rated ASIL levels. This can result in a very complex and expensive system setup. Here we show a two channel redundant and also diverse implemented magnetic field sensor concept on one silicon die, which is used for ASIL D applications like power-steering torque measurement. This solution is beneficial because of implementation on a single chip in one chip-package but anyway fulfilling ASIL D requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0061
Sultan A.M Alkhteeb, Shigeru Oho, Yuki Nagashima, Seisuke Nishimura, Hiroyuki Shimizu
Lightning strikes on automobiles are usually deemed rare, though they can be fatal to occupants and hazardous to electronic control systems. Vehicle's metal bodies are normally considered to be an effective shield against lightning. Modern body designs, however, have wide opening of windows, and plastic body parts are becoming popular. Lightning can run into the cabin of vehicles through radio antennas and hit the driver, as it happened in Japan last year. As the shark-fin antenna, which has wiring above the heads of occupants, becomes more popular, it may pose an increased risk of lightning attack to the passengers. In the near future, automobiles may be integrated into the electric power grid as people ponder about the smart grid and vehicle to grid (V2G) concepts. Even today electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are being charged at home or in parking lots.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0066
Shogo nakao, Akihiko Hyodo, Masaki ITABASHI, Tomio Sakashita, Shingo Obara, Mitsuo Sasaki, Tetsuya Uno, Yasuo Sugure, Yoshinobu Fukano, Yoshihiro Miyazaki
This paper presents a high-fidelity electrical-failure simulation environment of belt drive electric power steering (BEPS) system based on our proposed “Virtual Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (vFMEA)” method. The vFMEA system is able to dynamically inject an analog fault into a circuit model of electrical control unit (ECU) of BEPS system, and analyze system-level failure effects and verify software-implemented safety mechanisms, which consequently reduces both cost and time of development. It consists of a cycle-accurate microcontroller model with mass-production software components in binary format implemented, analog and digital circuit models, mechanical models, and a dynamic fault –injection mechanism. In this paper, the vFMEA method was applied to the verification of the safety mechanisms implemented on the ECU of BEPS system, and accuracy of the simulation was evaluated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0070
Longxiang Guo, Sagar Manglani, Xuehao Li, Yunyi Jia
Autonomous driving technologies can provide better safety, comfort and efficiency for future transportation. Most research in this area main focus on developing sensing and control approaches to achieve autonomous driving functions such as model based approaches and neural network based approaches. However, even if the autonomous driving functions are ideally achieved, the performance of the system is still subject to sensing exceptions. Few research has studied how to efficiently handle such sensing exceptions. In existing autonomous approaches, sensors, such as cameras, radars and lidars, usually need to be full calibrated or trained after mounted on the vehicles and before being used for autonomous driving. A simple unexpected on the sensors, e.g., mounting position or angle of a camera is changed, may lead the autonomous driving function to fail.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0239
Seth Bryan, Maria Guido, David Ostrowski, N Khalid Ahmed
While excluding component changes, it is desirable to find methods to increase electric vehicle (EV) driving range and reduce performance variability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. One strategy to improve EV range could be to increase the charge power limit of the traction battery, which allows for more brake energy recovery. This paper investigates how increasing the charge power limit could affect EV range in real world usage with respect to driving behavior. Big Data collected from Ford employee vehicles in Michigan was analyzed to assess the impact of regenerative braking power on EV range. My Ford Mobile data was used to find correlation to drivers nationwide based on brake score statistics. Estimated results show incremental improvements in EV range from increased charge power levels. Subsequently, this methodology and process could be applied to make future design decisions based on evolving driving habits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1379
Yilu Murphey, Dev S. Kochhar, Yongquan Xie, Benjamin Pollatz, Rahul Kulkarni, Yifu Liu, Paul Watta
Drivers often engage in secondary in-vehicle activity that is not related to vehicle control because they believe they can do so safely. Often, it may be to relieve the monotony of driving. Interest is growing to understand and measure a driver’s workload, and design vehicle functionality to accommodate a driver’s perceived, rather than actual, workload. An accurate and real-time variant measure of driver workload that is personalized to an individual driver could be useful in the design of vehicle functionality that can be invoked and brought to the foreground when necessary, or placed in the background when not necessary. In autonomous vehicles where a driver is present as part of the HMI (human-machine interface), this structure could be helpful to better understand the transition from automated to manual driving mode, and vice versa. In this study, the measurement of perceived workload, and its inherent ‘personalized’ connotation was investigated.
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