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2017-09-16
Journal Article
2017-01-9181
Zhongming Xu, Nengfa Tao, Minglei Du, Tao Liang, Xiaojun Xia
Abstract A coupled magnetic-thermal model is established to study the reason for the damage of the starter motor, which belongs to the idling start-stop system of a city bus. A finite element model of the real starter motor is built, and the internal magnetic flux density nephogram and magnetic line distribution chart of the motor are attained by simulation. Then a model in module Transient Thermal of ANSYS is established to calculate the stator and rotor loss, the winding loss and the mechanical loss. Three kinds of losses are coupled to the thermal field as heat sources in two different conditions. The thermal field and the components’ temperature distribution in the starting process are obtained, which are finally compared with the already-burned motor of the city bus in reality to predict the damage. The analysis method proposed is verified to be accurate and reliable through comparing the actual structure with the simulation results.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0045
Blane Scott, Christopher Willman, Ben Williams, Paul Ewart, Richard Stone, David Richardson
In-cylinder temperature measurements are vital for the validation of gasoline engine modelling and useful in their own right for explaining differences in engine performance. The underlying chemical reactions in combustion are highly sensitive to temperature and affect emissions of both NOx and particulate matter. The two techniques described here are complementary, and can be used for insights into the quality of mixture preparation and comparing the in-cylinder temperatures of port fuel injection (PFI) compared with gasoline direct injection (GDI), so as to explain the differences in volumetric efficiency. The influence of fuel composition on in-cylinder mixture temperatures can also be resolved. Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) provides point temperature measurements with a pressure dependent precision in the range 0.1 to 1.0%; as the pressure increases the precision improves. This allows resolution of temperature differences between PFI and GDI mixture preparation.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0046
Richard Stone, Ben Williams, Paul Ewart
The increased efficiency and specific output with Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines are well known, but so too are the higher levels of Particulate Matter emissions compared with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. To minimise Particulate Matter emissions, then it is necessary to understand and control the mixture preparation process, and important insights into GDI engine combustion can be obtained from optical access engines. Such data is crucial for validating models that predict flows, sprays and air fuel ratio distributions. Mie scattering can be used for semi-quantitative measurements of the fuel spray and this can be followed with Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) for determining the air fuel ratio and temperature distributions. With PLIF, very careful in-situ calibration is needed, and for temperature this can be provided by Laser Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy (LITGS).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0054
Francesco de Nola, Giovanni Giardiello, Alfredo Gimelli, Andrea Molteni, Massimiliano Muccillo, Roberto Picariello
In the last few years, the automotive industry had to face three main challenges: the compliance of more severe pollutant emission limits, better engine performance in terms of torque and drivability and the simultaneous demand for a significant reduction in fuel consumption as well. These conflicting goals have driven the evolution of automotive engines. In particular, the achievement of all these mandatory aims, together with the increasingly stringent requirements for carbon dioxide reduction, led to the development of highly complex engine architectures needed to perform advanced operating strategies. Thus, Variable Valve Actuation (VVA), Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI), turbocharging, powertrain hybridization and other solutions have gradually and widely equipped the modern internal combustion engines, enhancing the possibilities to achieve the required goals.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0051
Ferdinando Taglialatela, Mario Lavorgna, Silvana Di Iorio, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Real time estimation of particle size distribution has a great importance for advanced control strategies that can allow diesel engines to comply with future emission standards. Moreover, knowledge of real time particulate size distribution allows the optimization of the functioning of after-treatment systems. The aim of this paper is to present a Neural Network model able to provide real time information about the characteristics of particulate emissions from a Diesel engine. The model has as inputs some engine parameters such as engine speed, engine load, EGR ratio, etc., and, as output, the particle size distribution. Preliminary results indicated that the model shows, for every engine operating condition, a satisfactory capability of estimating the concentrations of particulate particles with prefixed diameters.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0050
Anjan Rao Puttige, Robin Hamberg, Paul Linschoten, Goutham Reddy, Andreas Cronhjort, Ola Stenlaas
Improving turbocharger performance to increase engine efficiency has the potential to help meet current and upcoming exhaust legislation. One limiting factor is compressor surge, an air flow instability phenomenon capable of causing severe vibration and noise. To avoid surge, the turbocharger is operated with a safety margin (surge margin) which, as well as avoiding surge in steady state operation, unfortunately also lowers engine performance. This paper investigates the possibility of detecting compressor surge with a conventional engine knock sensor. It further recommends a surge detection algorithm based on their signals during transient engine operation. Three knock sensors were mounted on the turbocharger and placed along the axes of three dimensions of movement. The engine was operated in load steps starting from steady state. The steady state points of operation covered the vital parts of the engine speed and load range.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0003
Andreas Sidorow, Vincent Berger, Ghita Elouazzani
Gasoline Engines have typically a waste gate actuator to control the boost pressure. The electrification of the vehicle and combustion engine components leads to new challenges of application of electric actuators in engine components, like turbochargers, which are faced with relatively high ambient temperatures. Another challenge is a simulation and prediction of the mechanical load on the actuator and kinematic components at different application scenarios, which can help to find the optimal solution which fulfills the durability, controllability, etc. targets. This paper deals with a physical dynamic model of an electric waste-gate actuator and kinematic components. The modeling includes a thermal, electrical and mechanical parts of the turbocharger control system and is validated on test-bench and engine measurements including pulsation effects.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0153
Sergey Shcherbanev, Alexandre De Martino, Andrey Khomenko, Svetlana Starikovskaia, Srinivas Padala, Yuji Ikeda
Requirements for reducing consumption of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as reducing emissions force the scientific community to develop new ignition systems. One of possible solutions is an extension of the lean ignition limit of stable combustion. With the decrease of the stoichiometry of combustible mixture the minimal size of the ignition kernel (necessary for development of combustion) increases. Therefore, it is necessary to use some special techniques to extend the ignition kernel region. Pulsed microwave discharge allows the formation of the ignition kernels of larger diameters. Although the microwave discharge igniter (MDI) was already tested for initiation of combustion and demonstrated quite promising results, the parameters of plasma was not yet studied before. Present work demonstrates the results of the dynamics of spatial structure of the MDI plasma with nanosecond time resolution.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0140
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Duarte, Patricia Baptista, Pablo Mendoza Villafuerte, Luis Sousa
Due to the need to properly quantify vehicle emissions in real world operation, Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedures will be used for measuring gaseous emissions on new EURO 6 vehicles.at the RDE 1 & 2: Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427 of 10 March 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 as regards emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles. Updated regulations have been enhanced to define RDE tests boundaries and data analysis procedures, in order to provide an accurate way to obtain representative results. The boundary conditions defined for vehicle testing include external atmospheric temperature, which can range from 0ºC to around 30ºC, for moderate conditions and -7oC up to 35oC for extended conditions in RDE tests. As a result of this range of possible test ambient temperature, pollutant emissions and energy consumption can vary considerably.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0137
Zhen Zhang, Luigi del Re, Richard Fuerhapter
During transients, engines tend to produce substantially higher peak emissions which are the longer the more important as the steady state emissions are better controller. To this end, they must be measurable in an adequate time scale. While for most emissions there are commercially available sensors of sufficient speed and performance, the same is not true for soot, especially for production engines. Against this background, in the last years we have investigated together with a supplier of measurement systems the possible use of a 50Hz sensor based on LII and of the same size of a standard oxygen probe, and the results were very positive, showing that the sensor could recognize transient changes undetected by conventional measurement systems (like AVL Opacimenter or Microsoot) but confirmed e.g. by incylinder 2 color spectroscopy. The higher speed is also due to the position, as the sensor can be mounted above or below the turbine in a turbocharged CI engine.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0130
Antonio Paolo Carlucci, Marco Benegiamo, Sergio Camporeale, Daniela Ingrosso
Nowadays, In-Cylinder Pressure Sensors (ICPS) have become a mainstream technology that promises to change the way the engine control is performed. Among all the possible applications, the prediction of raw (engine-out) NOx emissions would allow to eliminate the NOx sensor currently used to manage the after-treatment systems. In the current study, a semi-physical model already existing in literature for the prediction of engine-out nitric ox-ide emissions based on in-cylinder pressure measurement has been improved; in particular, the main focus has been to improve nitric oxide prediction accuracy when injection timing is varied. The main modification introduced in the model lies in taking into account the turbu-lence induced by fuel spray and enhanced by in-cylinder bulk motion.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0126
Christian Zöllner, Dieter Brueggemann
The removal of particulate matter (PM) from diesel exhaust is necessary to protect the environment and human health. To meet the strict emission standards for diesel engines an additional exhaust aftertreatment system is essential. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are established devices to remove emitted PM from diesel exhaust. But the deposition and the accumulation of soot in the DPF influences the filter back pressure and therefore the engine performance and the fuel consumption which is why a periodical regeneration through PM oxidation is necessary. The oxidation behavior should result in an effective regeneration mode that minimizes the fuel penalty and limits the temperature rise while maintaining a high regeneration efficiency. Excessive and fast regenerations have to be avoided as well as uncontrolled oxidations leading to damages of the filter and fuel penalty.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0109
Nic Van Vuuren, Lucio Postrioti, Gabriele Brizi, Federico Picchiotti
ABSTRACT: Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems are virtually indispensable to meet NOx emissions limits worldwide. These systems generate the NH3 reductant by injecting aqueous urea solution (AUS-32/AdBlue®/DEF) into the exhaust for the SCR NOx reduction reactions. Understanding the AUS-32 injector spray performance is critical to proper optimization of the SCR system. Specifically, better knowledge is required of urea sprays under operating conditions including those where fluid temperatures exceed the atmospheric fluid boiling point. Results were previously presented from imaging of an AUS-32 injector spray which showed substantial structural differences in the spray between room temperature fluid conditions, and conditions where the fluid temperature approached and exceeded 104º C and “flash boiling” of the fluid was initiated.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0069
Hyunwook Park, Jugon Shin, Choongsik Bae
Spray and combustion characteristics of diesel fuel were investigated in order to get a better understanding of the evaporation and combustion behavior under simulated cold-start conditions of a diesel engine. The experiment was conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber and the target ambient conditions were selected as the engine cranking. Mie scattering and shadowgraph techniques were conducted to visualize the liquid and vapor phase of the fuel under non-combustion condition (O2 concentration=0%). In-chamber pressure and direct flame visualization were acquired for spray combustion condition (O2 concentration=21%). The fuel was injected with an injection pressure of 30MPa, which is a typical value during cranking period. The liquid penetration of the fuel was increased at 573K of ambient temperature compared to that at 663K due to the poor evaporation characteristic and the increased fuel viscosity from the lower fuel temperature.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0068
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang, Giuseppe Conte, Gennaro Merlino
A real-time approach has been developed and assessed to control BMEP (brake mean effective pressure) and MFB50 (crank angle at which 50% of fuel mass has burnt) in a Euro 6 1.6L GM diesel engine. The approach is based on the use of feed-forward NNs (neural networks), which have been trained using virtual tests simulated by a previously developed low-throughput physical engine model. The latter is capable of predicting the heat release and the in-cylinder pressure, as well as the related metrics (MFB50, IMEP – indicated mean effective pressure) on the basis of an improved version of the accumulated fuel mass approach. BMEP is obtained from IMEP taking into account friction losses. The low-throughput physical model does not require high calibration effort and is also suitable for control-oriented applications. However, control tasks characterized by stricter demands in terms of computational time may require a modeling approach characterized by a further lower throughput.
2017-08-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9000
Teresa Donateo, Antonio Ficarella
Abstract The design of a hybrid electric powertrain requires a complex optimization procedure because its performance will strongly depend on both the size of the components and the energy management strategy. The problem is particular critical in the aircraft field because of the strong constraints to be fulfilled (in particular in terms of weight and volume). The problem was addressed in the present investigation by linking an in-house simulation code for hybrid electric aircraft with a commercial many-objective optimization software. The design variables include the size of engine and electric motor, the specification of the battery (typology, nominal capacity, bus voltage), the cooling method of the motor and the battery management strategy. Several key performance indexes were suggested by the industrial partner. The four most important indexes were used as fitness functions: electric endurance, fuel consumption, take-off distance and powertrain volume.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1935
Praveen V V, P Baskara Sethupathi
Abstract Formula SAE is a prestigious engineering design competition, where student team design, fabricate and test their formula style race car, with the guidelines of the FSAE rulebook, according to which the car is designed, for example the engine must be a four-stroke, Otto-cycle piston engine with a displacement no greater than 710cc. According to FSAE 2017 Rule Book [1], ARTICLE 3, IC3.2 and IC3.3 state that the maximum sound level should not exceed 110 dBC at an average piston speed of 15:25 m/s (for the KTM 390 engine, which has 60 mm stroke length, the noise level will be measured at 7500 RPM) and 103 dBC at Idle RPM. So, the active muffler which works as a normal reflective muffler till the 7500 RPM range, after which an electronic controlled throttle mechanism is used to reduce the backpressure (since after 7500 RPM the noise level doesn't matter in FSAE) by using tach signal from the engine to control the throttle (two position).
2017-06-27
Article
JLR and virtual band Gorillaz are working together to recruit the next generation of electronics and software engineers with a code-breaking challenge found in the band’s app.
2017-06-27
Article
Recently NASA researchers were officially cleared to begin formal feasibility studies on advanced Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) concepts under NASA’s Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) project. The investigations, three in total, are expected to take between 24 and 30 months to complete.
2017-06-27
Article
Automotive suppliers and companies from other fields are jockeying to team up with the right group of partners to provide services for the growing "ecosystem" of connected vehicles and smart cities.
CURRENT
2017-06-27
Standard
AIR6027A
The information presented in this AIR is intended to provide designers of armed unmanned systems with guidelines that may be applied to ensure safe integration and operation of weapons on unmanned platforms. The guidelines have been developed from experiences gained in the design and operation of weapons on manned aircraft that have been accepted by relevant safety authorities in the USA and Europe and proven effective over many years. Whilst the guidelines have been developed from experience with aircraft operations, the concepts are considered equally applicable to non-aircraft systems, such as those used on the surface or undersea environments.
CURRENT
2017-06-27
Standard
AS4270A
This document establishes techniques for validating that a mission store complies with the interface requirements delineated in MIL-STD-1760.
CURRENT
2017-06-27
Standard
AS4764A
This document establishes techniques for validating that an aircraft station complies with the interface requirements delineated in MIL-STD-1760.
2017-06-27
WIP Standard
J139
To provide standard terminology and definitions with regard to ignition systems for spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
2017-06-26
Article
Automatic Emergency Braking, or AEB, uses radar to monitor a vehicle's closeness to the vehicle ahead.
CURRENT
2017-06-26
Standard
J2836/4_201706
This SAE Information Report J2836/4 establishes diagnostic use cases between plug-in electric vehicles and the EV Supply Equipment (EVSE). As Plug-In Vehicles (PEV) are deployed and include both Plug-In Hybrid Electric (PHEV) and Battery Electric (BEV) variations, failures of the charging session between the EVSE and PEV may include diagnostics particular to the vehicle variations. This document will describe the general information required for diagnostics and J2847/4 will include the detail messages to provide accurate information to the customer and/or service personnel to identify the source of the issue and assist in resolution. Existing vehicle diagnostics can also be added and included during this charging session regarding issues that have occurred or are imminent to the EVSE or PEV, to assist in resolution of these items.
2017-06-24
Article
Used for pedestrian safety testing, Diversified Technical Systems’ pedestrian headforms (which emulate a human head) embedded data acquisition solution are instrumented with a triaxial accelerometer and miniature SLICE NANO data recorder inside and then launched at a vehicle’s hood and windshield to test for potential injuries that may be sustained by pedestrians.
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