Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 1138
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2221
Peixuan ZENG, Penghao ZHANG
Abstract:In low temperature condition, the increase of fuel viscosity, the decrease of flow-ability of lubricating oil and the decrease of storage battery performance cause the engine starting difficult. The current electrical heating method can improve the engine starting performance in low temperature condition, but it causes a negative influence on storage battery performance and exhaust emission. In this paper, a warming device uses solar energy to directly warm up the engine. The device transfers solar power into thermal energy and store it into heat reservoir and uses heat conductor to warm up the engine. By using solar power to save power, the lifespan of the engine is extended and exhaust emission is decreased. This paper find out the heat amount necessary for diesel engine through resource gathering and calculation, choose an appropriate device and design a corresponding solar warming system. Keywords: warming system, solar power, diesel engine
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2500
Bo Huang, Longjie Xiao
Head-up Display (HUD) system can avoid divers’ distraction on dashboard and effectively reduce collisions caused by emergency events, which is gradually being realized by researchers around the world. However, the current HUD only displays information like speed, fuel consumption, other information like acceleration and braking can’t be displayed yet. This research will uses the color and position change of the indicator symbol to remind drivers of braking information like braking time, braking severity, which can alert drivers to make braking operations timely and accurately. The system has the advantages of safe, intuition and real-time. The vehicle safety speed is calculated according to the road parameters like adhesion coefficient, slope and curvature as well as vehicle parameters like vehicle mass and centroid. And then the appropriate braking operations like braking time are obtained by combining the vehicle status like speed and steering.
2017-06-28
Journal Article
2017-01-9181
Zhongming Xu, Nengfa Tao, Minglei Du, Tao Liang, Xiaojun Xia
Abstract A coupled magnetic-thermal model is established to study the reason for the damage of the starter motor, which belongs to the idling start-stop system of a city bus. A finite element model of the real starter motor is built, and the internal magnetic flux density nephogram and magnetic line distribution chart of the motor are attained by simulation. Then a model in module Transient Thermal of ANSYS is established to calculate the stator and rotor loss, the winding loss and the mechanical loss. Three kinds of losses are coupled to the thermal field as heat sources in two different conditions. The thermal field and the components’ temperature distribution in the starting process are obtained, which are finally compared with the already-burned motor of the city bus in reality to predict the damage. The analysis method proposed is verified to be accurate and reliable through comparing the actual structure with the simulation results.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1931
Christian Ballarin, Martin Zeilinger
Due to the continuous increasing highway transport and the decreasing investments into infrastructure a better usage of the installed infrastructure is indispensable. Therefore the operation and interoperation of assistance and telematics systems become more and more necessary. Regarding these facts Highway Pilot was developed at Daimler Trucks. The Highway Pilot System moves the truck highly automated and independent from other road users within the allowed speed range and the required security distance. Daimler Trucks owns diverse permissions in Germany and the USA for testing these technologies on public roads. Next generation is the Highway Pilot Connect System that connects three highly automated driving trucks. The connection is established via Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication (V2V).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0753
Marcus Olof Lundgren, Zhenkan Wang, Alexios Matamis, Oivind Andersson, Mattias Richter, Martin Tuner, Marcus Alden, Andersson Arne
Abstract Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown potential in terms of high efficiency with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot. Despite these benefits, emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) are the main shortcomings of the concept. These are caused, among other things, by overlean zones near the injector tip and injector dribble. Previous diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) research has demonstrated post injections to be an effective strategy to mitigate these emissions. The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of post injections on CO and UHC emissions in a quiescent (non-swirling) combustion system. A blend of primary reference fuels, PRF87, having properties similar to US pump gasoline was used at PPC conditions in a heavy duty optical engine. The start of the main injection was maintained constant. Dwell and mass repartition between the main and post injections were varied to evaluate their effect.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0137
Akira Ando, Koichi Hamashima, Shinji Kato, Noriyuki Tomita, Takahiro Uejima
Abstract In respect to the present large refrigerator trucks, sub-engine type is the main product, but the basic structure does not change greatly since the introduction for around 50 years. A sub-engine type uses an industrial engine to drive the compressor, and the environmental correspondence such as the fuel consumption, the emission is late remarkably. In addition, most of trucks carry the truck equipment including the refrigerator which consumes fuel about 20% of whole vehicle. Focusing on this point, the following are the reports about the system development plan for fuel consumption reduction of the large size refrigerator truck. New concept is to utilize electrical power from HV system to power the electric-driven refrigerator. We have developed a fully electric-driven refrigerator system, which uses regenerated energy that is dedicated for our refrigerator system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0091
Songyao Zhou, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Renjie Zhou, Hao Liu
Abstract The mountainous roads are rugged and complex, so that the driver can not make accurate judgments on dangerous road conditions. In addition, most heavy vehicles have characteristics of large weight and high center of gravity. The two factors above have caused most of the car accidents in mountain areas. A research shows that 90% of car accidents can be avoided if drivers can respond within 2-3 seconds before the accidents happen. This paper proposes a speed warning scheme for heavy-duty vehicle over the horizon in mountainous area, which can give the drivers enough time to respond to the danger. In the early warning aspect, this system combines the front road information, the vehicle characteristics and real-time information obtained from the vehicle, calculates and forecasts the danger that may happen over the horizon ahead of time, and prompts the driver to control the vehicle speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1419
Smruti Panigrahi, Jianbo Lu, Sanghyun Hong
Abstract Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1439
John C. Steiner, Christopher Armstrong, Tyler Kress, Tom Walli, Ralph J. Gallagher, Justin Ngo, Andres Silva
Abstract The use of the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS) to assist with the management of large commercial fleets using telematics is becoming commonplace. Telematics generally refers to the use of wireless devices to transmit data in real time back to an organization. When tied to the GPS system telematics can be used to track fleet vehicle movements, and other parameters. GPS tracking can assist in developing more efficient and safe operations by refining and streamlining routing and operations. GPS based fleet telematics data is also useful for reducing unnecessary engine idle times and minimizing fuel consumption. Driver performance and policy adherence can be monitored, for example by transmitting data regarding seatbelt usage when there is vehicle movement. Despite the advantages for fleet management, there are limitations in the logged data for position and speed that may affect the utility of the system for analysis and reconstruction of traffic collisions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1437
William Bortles, Sean McDonough, Connor Smith, Michael Stogsdill
Abstract The data obtained from event data recorders found in airbag control modules, powertrain control modules and rollover sensors in passenger vehicles has been validated and used to reconstruct crashes for years. Recently, a third-party system has been introduced that allows crash investigators and reconstructionists to access, preserve and analyze data from infotainment and telematics systems found in passenger vehicles. The infotainment and telematics systems in select vehicles retain information and event data from cellular telephones and other devices connected to the vehicle, vehicle events and navigation data in the form of tracklogs. These tracklogs provide a time history of a vehicle’s geolocation that may be useful in investigating an incident involving an automobile or reconstructing a crash. This paper presents an introduction to the type of data that may be retained and the methods for performing data acquisitions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1503
Jared Johan Engelbrecht, Tony Russell Martin, Piyush M. Gulve, Nagarjun Chandrashekar, Amol Dwivedi, Peter Thomas Tkacik, Zachary Merrill
Abstract Most commercial heavy-duty truck trailers are equipped with either a two sensor, one modulator (2S1M) or four sensors, two modulator (4S2M) anti-lock braking system (ABS). Previous research has been performed comparing the performance of different ABS modules, in areas such as longitudinal and lateral stability, and stopping distance. This study focuses on relating ABS module type and wheel speed sensor placement to trailer wheel lock-up and subsequent impact to tire wear for tandem axle trailers with the Hendrickson air-ride suspension. Prior to tire wear inspection, functionality of the ABS system was testing using an ABS scan tool communicating with the SAE J1587 plug access port on the trailer. Observations were documented on trailers using the 2S1M system with the wheel speed sensor placed on either the front or rear axle of a tandem pair.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1208
Kristin R. Cooney
Abstract This paper will discuss a compliance demonstration methodology for UN38.3, an international regulation which includes a series of tests that, when successfully met, ensure that lithium metal and lithium ion batteries can be safely transported. Many battery safety regulations, such as FMVSS and ECE, include post-crash criteria that are clearly defined. UN38.3 is unique in that the severity of the tests drove changes to battery design and function. Another unique aspect of UN38.3 is that the regulatory language can lead to different interpretations on how to run the tests and apply pass/fail criteria; there is enough ambiguity that the tests could be run very differently yet all meet the actual wording of the regulation. A process was created detailing exactly how to run the tests to improve consistency among test engineers. As part of this exercise, several tools were created which assist in generating a test plan that complies with the UN38.3 regulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0624
Jiaxin Liu, Sicheng Qin, Yankun Jiang, Shumo He
Abstract In this work, a XD132 Road Roller from XCMG in China was employed as a research basis to study the heat exchange performance of the heat dissipation module under varied working conditions. The module in the XD132 consists of a cooling fan and three radiators. At first, the numerical investigation on the elementary units of radiators was performed to obtain Colburn j factor and Fanning friction f factor, which were used for the ε-NTU method to predict the radiator performance. The fan was numerically tested in a wind test tunnel to acquire the performance curve. The performance data from both investigations were transformed into the boundary conditions of the numerical vehicle model in a virtual tunnel. A field experiment was carried out to validate the simulation accuracy, and an entrance coefficient was proposed to discuss the performance regularity under four working conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0090
Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Jaroslav Pekar, John Michelini, Junbo Jing, Steve Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Abstract Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0404
Anatoliy Dubrovskiy, Sergei Aliukov, Sergei Dubrovskiy, Alexander Alyukov
Abstract Currently, a group of scientists consisting of six doctors of technical sciences, professors of South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk, Russia) has completed a cycle of scientific research for creation of adaptive suspensions of vehicles. We have developed design solutions of the suspensions. These solutions allow us to adjust the performance of the suspensions directly during movement of a vehicle, depending on road conditions - either in automatic mode or in manual mode. We have developed, researched, designed, manufactured, and tested experimentally the following main components of the adaptive suspensions of vehicles: 1) blocked adaptive dampers and 2) elastic elements with nonlinear characteristic and with improved performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1554
Ajith Jogi, Sujatha Chandramohan
Abstract Over the years, commercial vehicles, especially tractor-semitrailer combinations have become larger and longer. With the increasing demand for their accessibility in remote locations, these vehicles face the problem of off-tracking, which is the ensuing difference in path radii between the front and rear axles of a vehicle as it maneuvers a turn. Apart from steering the rear axle of the semitrailer, one of the feasible ways of mitigating off-tracking is to shift the fifth wheel coupling rearwards. However, this is limited by the distribution of the semitrailer’s load between the two axles of the tractor; any rearward shift of the fifth wheel coupling results in the reduction of the total static load on the tractor’s front axle and hence available traction. This may in turn lead to directional instability of the vehicle. In the present work, a new model of the fifth wheel coupling is proposed which the authors call Split fifth wheel coupling (SFWC).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0951
Paul Mentink, Xander Seykens, Daniel Escobar Valdivieso
Abstract To meet future emission targets, it becomes increasingly important to optimize the synergy between engine and aftertreatment system. By using an integrated control approach minimal fluid (fuel and DEF) consumption is targeted within the constraints of emission legislation during real-world operation. In such concept, the on-line availability of engine-out NOx emission is crucial. Here, the use of a Virtual NOx sensor can be of great added-value. Virtual sensing enables more direct and robust emission control allowing, for example, engine-out NOx determination during conditions in which the hardware sensor is not available, such as cold start conditions. Furthermore, with use of the virtual sensor, the engine control strategy can be directly based on NOx emission data, resulting in reduced response time and improved transient emission control. This paper presents the development and on-line implementation of a Virtual NOx sensor, using in-cylinder pressure as main input.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1046
Christian Binder, Fahed Abou Nada, Mattias Richter, Andreas Cronhjort, Daniel Norling
Abstract Diesel engine manufacturers strive towards further efficiency improvements. Thus, reducing in-cylinder heat losses is becoming increasingly important. Understanding how location, thermal insulation, and engine operating conditions affect the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls is fundamental for the future reduction of in-cylinder heat losses. This study investigates the effect of a 1mm-thick plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on a piston. Such a coated piston and a similar steel piston are compared to each other based on experimental data for the heat release, the heat transfer rate to the oil in the piston cooling gallery, the local instantaneous surface temperature, and the local instantaneous surface heat flux. The surface temperature was measured for different crank angle positions using phosphor thermometry.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0901
Alex Pink, Adam Ragatz, Lijuan Wang, Eric Wood, Jeffrey Gonder
Abstract Vehicles continuously report real-time fuel consumption estimates over their data bus, known as the controller area network (CAN). However, the accuracy of these fueling estimates is uncertain to researchers who collect these data from any given vehicle. To assess the accuracy of these estimates, CAN-reported fuel consumption data are compared against fuel measurements from precise instrumentation. The data analyzed consisted of eight medium/heavy-duty vehicles and two medium-duty engines. Varying discrepancies between CAN fueling rates and the more accurate measurements emerged but without a vehicular trend-for some vehicles the CAN under-reported fuel consumption and for others the CAN over-reported fuel consumption. Furthermore, a qualitative real-time analysis revealed that the operating conditions under which these fueling discrepancies arose varied among vehicles.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2017-01-9750
Shawn Harrington, Joseph Teitelman, Erica Rummel, Brendan Morse, Peter Chen, Donald Eisentraut, Daniel McDonough
Abstract With the prevalence of satellite imagery in the analysis of collision events growing in the field of accident reconstruction, this research aims to quantify, refine, and compare the accuracies of measurements obtained utilizing conventional instruments to the measurements obtained using Google Earth Pro software. Researchers documented and obtained 1305 unique measurements from 68 locations in 25 states and provinces in the United States, Canada, and Australia using measuring wheels and tape measures. Measurements of relevant features at each location (crosswalks, curved roadways, off-road features, etc.) were documented and subdivided into three groups: On-Road, Off-Road, and Curved Path measurements. These measurements were compared to the measurements obtained of the same features from current and historical satellite imagery within Google Earth Pro.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0284
Anand Subramaniam, Ravindra Shah, Swapnil Ghugal, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Anand Deshpande
Abstract On-board diagnostics (OBD) is a term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. It is a system originally designed to reduce emissions by monitoring the performance of major emission related components. There are two kinds of on-board diagnostic systems: OBD-I and OBD-II. In India OBD I was implemented from April 2010 for BS IV vehicles. OBD II was implemented from April 2013 for BS IV vehicles. Apart from the comprehensive component monitors, OBD II system also has noncontinuous monitors like Catalyst monitoring, Lambda monitoring, and other after treatment system monitors. For OBD II verification and Validation, it is required to test all the sensors and actuators that are present in the engine, for all possible failures. From an emissions point of view there are lists of critical failures that are caused due to malfunction of sensors and actuators.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0159
Mauro Iurk Rocha, Ivna Oliveira da Cruz, Maria Clara Kremer Faller, Antônio Carlos Scardini Villela, Sergio Roberto Amaral, Frederico Braz Silva, Sillas Oliva Filho
Abstract Vehicles manufacturers, in search of cost reduction, fill the tanks of recently manufactured vehicles with the least volume of fuel necessary for future commercialization. The adoption of such practice, depending on the diesel fuel storage conditions, may lead to oxidation products formation in the fuel system and to problems during the first start of these vehicles. Some vehicles manufacturers, trying to minimize the occurrence of these problems, replace the diesel fuel in the vehicle tank with new fuel when vehicle storage time reaches 90 days. As a result of such occurrences, the opportunity for a first fill diesel fuel development, that presented better oxidation stability during storage, was identified.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0176
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Abstract Environmental concerns and limited fossil fuels reserves have fostered an increased interest in alternative propulsion systems. In this scenario, electric traction, with its inherent zero local emissions, high efficiency and improved operational performance (acceleration and hill climbing potential), emerges as a desired option for public transport systems. Transit buses, the prevailing transport system in cities, and, hence, strong contributors to traffic environmental impact on urban areas, can reduce considerably their environment burden with the use of electric traction. This means less local pollutants, specially particulate matter - PM and nitrogen oxides - NOx, currently the “Achilles heel” of diesel engines, as well as CO2 greenhouse emissions - GHG.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2159
Zheming Li, Yann Gallo, Ted Lind, Oivind Andersson, Marcus Alden, Mattias Richter
Abstract Soot emissions from diesel internal combustion engines are strictly regulated nowadays. Laser extinction measurement (LEM) and natural luminosity (NL) of sooty flames are commonly applied to study soot. LEM measures soot along the laser beam path and it can probe soot regardless of temperature. NL integrates the whole field of view and relies on soot temperature. In this work, a comparison of simultaneously recorded LEM and NL data has been performed in a heavy-duty optical engine. A 685 nm laser beam is used for LEM. The laser was modulated at 63 kHz, which facilitated subtraction of the background NL signal from the raw LEM data. By Beer-Lambert’s law, KL factor can be calculated and used as a metric to describe soot measurements. A compensation of transmitted laser intensity fluctuation and soot deposits on optical windows has been performed in this work.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8009
Michael Brown, Purser Sturgeon
Abstract While initial Connected Vehicle research in the United States was focusing almost exclusively on passenger vehicles, a program was envisioned that would enhance highway safety, mobility, and operational efficiencies through the application of the technology to commercial vehicles. This program was realized in 2009 by funding from the I-95 Corridor Coalition, led by the New York State Department of Transportation, and called the Commercial Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (CVII) program. The CVII program focuses on developing, testing and deploying Connected Vehicle technology for heavy vehicles. Since its inception, the CVII program has developed numerous Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure applications for trucks that leverage communication with roadside infrastructure and other light and heavy duty vehicles to meet the objectives of the program.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8012
Daniel E. Williams, Amine Nhila, Kenneth Sherwin
Abstract A large percentage of commercial vehicles transport freight on our interstate highway system. These vehicles spend the vast majority of their duty cycle at high speed maintaining a lane. As steering is integrated into ADAS, objective performance measures of this most common mode of commercial vehicle operation will be required. Unfortunately in the past this predominant portion of the commercial vehicle duty cycle was overlooked in evaluating vehicle handling. This lanekeeping mode of operation is also an important, although less significant portion of the light vehicle duty cycle. Historically on-center handling was compromised to achieve acceptable low speed efforts. With the advent of advanced active steering systems, this compromise can be relaxed. Objective measures of lanekeeping are developed and performance of various advanced steering systems is quantified in this important operating mode.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8033
Guoying Chen
Abstract According to the vehicle’s driving conditions, electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) systems can actively adjust the height of vehicle body, so that better ride comfort and handling stability will be achieved, which can’t be realized by traditional passive suspension. This paper presents a design and implementation of ECAS controller for vehicle. The controller is aimed at adjusting the static and dynamic height of the vehicle. To exactly track the height of the vehicle and satisfy the control demand of air suspension, a height sensor decoding circuit based on the inductance sensor is designed. Based on it, a new height control algorithm is adopted to achieve rapid and precise control of vehicle height. To verify the function of the designed controller and the proposed height control algorithm, an air spring loading test bench and an ECU-in-loop simulation test bench are respectively established.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8093
Ning Xu, Diming Lou, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
Abstract Recent years, electric vehicles (EVs) have been widely used as urban transit buses in China, but high costs and a dwindling driving distance caused mainly by relatively frequent usage rate have put the electric bus in a difficult position. Range-extended electric bus (REEbus) is taken as an ideal transitional powertrain configuration, but its efficiency is not so high. Besides, with less batteries to endure more frequently charging and discharging, the lifecycle of battery pack can also be shorten. Aiming at it, range-extended electric powertrains with diverse energy storage systems (ESSs) and proper auxiliary power unit (APU) control strategies are matched and compared to find most proper ESS configuration for REEbus through simulation, which is based on a 12 meter-long urban bus.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8096
Ilya A. Kulikov, Alexander Shorin, Sergey Bakhmutov, Alexey Terenchenko, Kirill Karpukhin
Abstract The paper proposes a method to analyze a trade-off between IC engine and electric battery sizes which is the essential issue of plugin hybrid and range extended electric vehicle design. This method implies a set of maps to be elaborated from batch simulations of hybrid vehicle running a driving cycle. Said maps establish relationships between ICE power, fuel consumption, electric energy consumption, and driving range of a vehicle. From these, one can choose a combination of ICE power and battery energy content meeting specific requirements for fuel economy and driving range. Mathematical model of the vehicle and the hybrid powertrain adopted for driving cycle simulations is described. Besides vehicle dynamics and drivetrain’s powerflows, it addresses battery’s current and voltage restrictions, which define performance of an electric drivetrain and have to be taken into account when selecting ICE power.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8086
En-Zhe Song, Jian-Gang Liu, Shun-Liang Ding, Yu-Yuan Wang, Chong Yao
Abstract Based on BP neural network theory, a BP-PID control algorithm with strong self-learning and self-adapting ability is designed for the diesel engine speed governor. Nonlinear continuous functions can be approached with high precision by using this algorithm. The parameters of speed loop controller can be calibrated in real time through the BPPID algorithm. In order to verify the advantages of BP-PID control algorithm in reducing overshoot, increasing diesel engine dynamic characteristics and resisting disturbance, simulation model is built and experiments are carried out under initial condition, steady condition and condition with sudden load change. We compare the simulation results and the experiment results, and find they match each other. The results indicate that the transient speed regulation of the diesel engine can meet the requirements of stage power station by using BP-PID control algorithm.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1138