Display:

Results

Viewing 241 to 270 of 16441
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1649
Jeffrey Yeung, Omar Makke, Perry MacNeille, Oleg Gusikhin
Abstract SmartDeviceLink (SDL) is open-source software that connects the vehicle’s infotainment system to mobile applications. SDL includes an open-source software development kit (SDK) that enables a smart-device to connect to the vehicle’s human-machine interface (HMI), read vehicle data, and control vehicle sub-systems such as the audio and climate systems. It is extensible, so other convenience subsystems or brought-in aftermarket modules can be added. Consequently, it provides a platform for cyber-physical systems that can integrate wearables, consumer sensors and cloud data into an intelligent vehicle control system. As an Open Innovation Platform, new features can be rapidly developed and deployed to the market, bypassing the longer vehicle development cycles. This facilitates a channel for rapid prototyping and innovation that is not constrained by the traditional process of automotive parts development, but is rather on the timeline of software development.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1634
Hui Sung Lee
Abstract When customers use a tailgate (or trunk), some systems such as power tailgate and smart tailgate have been introduced and implemented for improving convenience. However, they still have some problems in some use cases. Some people have to search for the outside button to open the tailgate, or they should take out the key and push a button. In some cases, they should move their leg or wait a few seconds which makes some people feel that it is a long time. In addition, they have to push the small button which is located on the inner trim in order to close the tailgate. This paper proposes a new tailgate control technology and systems based on acoustic patterns in order to solve some inconvenience. An acoustic user interaction (AUI) is a technology which responds to human’s rubbing and tapping on a specific part analyzing the acoustic patterns. The AUI has been recently spotlighted in the automotive industry as well as home appliances, mobile devices, musical instruments, etc.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1650
Jian Yang, Christian Poellabauer, Pramita Mitra
Abstract Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an energy-efficient radio communication technology that is rapidly gaining popularity for various Internet of Things (IoT) applications. While BLE was not designed specifically with vehicular communications in mind, its simple and quick connection establishment mechanisms make BLE a potential inter-vehicle communication technology, either replacing or complementing other vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) technologies (such as the yet to be deployed DSRC). In this paper we propose a framework for V2V communication using BLE and evaluate its performance under various configurations. BLE uses two major methods for data transmission: (1) undirected advertisements and scanning (unconnected mode) and (2) using the central and peripheral modes of the Generic Attribute Profile (GATT) connection (connected mode).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1662
Tom R. Markham, Alex Chernoguzov
Abstract The On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD-II) port began as a means of extracting diagnostic information and supporting the right to repair. Self-driving vehicles and cellular dongles plugged into the OBD-II port were not anticipated. Researchers have shown that the cellular modem on an OBD-II dongle may be hacked, allowing the attacker to tamper with the vehicle brakes. ADAS, self-driving features and other vehicle functions may be vulnerable as well. The industry must balance the interests of multiple stakeholders including Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) who are required to provide OBD function, repair shops which have a legitimate need to access the OBD functions, dongle providers and drivers. OEMs need the ability to protect drivers and manage liability by limiting how a device or software application may modify the operation of a vehicle.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1689
Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref, Andreas Vach, Markus Steffelbauer
Abstract (Summary) Remote diagnostic systems support diagnostic communication by having the capability of sending diagnostic request services to a vehicle and receiving diagnostic response services from a vehicle. These diagnostic services are specified in diagnostic protocols, such as SAE J1979, SAE J1939 or ISO 14229 (UDS). For the purpose of diagnostic communication, the tester needs access to the electronic control units as communication partners. Physically, the diagnostic tester gets access to the entire vehicle´s E/E system, which consists of connectors, wiring, the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN), the electronic control units, sensors, and actuators. Any connection of external test equipment and the E/E system of a vehicle poses a security vulnerability. The combination can be used for malicious intrusion and manipulation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1691
Aseim Elfrgani, C. J. Reddy
Abstract A low profile high directivity antenna is designed to operate at 5.9 GHz for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communications to ensure connectivity in different propagation channels. Patch antennas are still an ongoing topic of interest due to their advantages: low profile, low cost, and ease of fabrication. One disadvantage of the patch antenna is low directivity which results in low range performance. In this paper, we introduce an efficient and novel way to improve the directivity of patch antenna using topology optimization and design of experiments (DoE). Numerical simulations are done using Method of Moments (MoM) technique in the commercially available tool, FEKO. We use global response surface method (GRSM) for double objectives topology optimization. Numerical results show a promising use of topology optimization and DoE techniques for the systematic design of high directivity of low profile single element patch antennas.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1688
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki
The usage of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor to control the air-fuel ratio (AFR) in gasoline engines allowed to significantly improve the efficiency of the combustion process and reduce tailpipe emissions. The diagnostics of this sensor is very important to ensure proper operation and indicate the need for service when the sensor fails to accurately determine the AFR upstream of the catalyst. California air resources board (CARB) has imposed several legislations around the operation of the UEGO sensor and particularly when specific faults would cause tailpipe emissions to exceed certain limits. In this paper, the possible sensor faults are reviewed, and a non-intrusive diagnostics monitor is proposed to detect, identify and estimate the magnitude of the fault present. This paper extends the approach in [4] where technical details are emphasized and algorithm improvements are discussed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1696
John F. Locke, Stephen Schmidt
Abstract This paper proposes a novel antenna design for automotive communication applications. The antenna design combines a resonant Alford loop with folded dipole elements to allow for efficiencies that are higher than electrically small loop antenna designs. The Alford loop provides the horizontal polarization and omnidirectional pattern coverage on the horizon which is desired for remote keyless entry and other narrowband automotive applications. With the use of folded dipole elements, the design allows for low profile mounting desired by automotive styling.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1693
John Huber, Ranjani Rangarajan, An Ji, Francois Charette, Scott Amman, Joshua Wheeler, Brigitte Richardson
Abstract This paper describes a method to validate in-vehicle speech recognition by combining synthetically mixed speech and noise samples with batch speech recognition. Vehicle cabin noises are prerecorded along with the impulse response from the driver's mouth location to the cabin microphone location. These signals are combined with a catalog of speech utterances to generate a noisy speech corpus. Several factors were examined to measure their relative importance on speech recognition robustness. These include road surface and vehicle speed, climate control blower noise, and driver's seat position. A summary of the main effects from these experiments are provided with the most significant factors coming from climate control noise. Additionally, a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) experiment was conducted highlighting the inverse relationship with speech recognition performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1692
Scott Amman, John Huber, Francois Charette, Brigitte richardson, Joshua Wheeler
Abstract This paper describes two case studies in which multiple microphone processing (beamforming) and microphone location were evaluated to determine their impact on improving embedded automatic speech recognition (ASR) in a vehicle hands-free environment. While each of these case studies was performed using slightly different evaluation set-ups, some specific and general conclusions can be drawn to help guide engineers in selecting the proper microphone location and configuration in a vehicle for the improvement of ASR. There were some outcomes that were common to both dual microphone solutions. When considering both solutions, neither was equally effective across all background noise sources. Both systems appear to be far more effective for noise conditions in which higher frequency energy is present, such as that due to high levels of wind noise and/or HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) blower noise.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1586
Narayanan Kidambi, Gregory M. Pietron, Mathew Boesch, Yuji Fujii, Kon-Well Wang
Abstract A variety of vehicle controls, from active safety systems to power management algorithms, can greatly benefit from accurate, reliable, and robust real-time estimates of vehicle mass and road grade. This paper develops a parallel mass and grade (PMG) estimation scheme and presents the results of a study investigating its accuracy and robustness in the presence of various noise factors. An estimate of road grade is calculated by comparing the acceleration as measured by an on-board longitudinal accelerometer with that obtained by differentiation of the undriven wheel speeds. Mass is independently estimated by means of a longitudinal dynamics model and a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm using the longitudinal accelerometer to isolate grade effects. To account for the influences of acceleration-induced vehicle pitching on PMG estimation accuracy, a correction factor is developed from controlled tests under a wide range of throttle levels.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0001
Ming Cheng, Bo Chen
Abstract This paper studies the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) design of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) for the research of HEV lithiumion battery aging. In this paper, an electrochemical model of a lithium-ion battery pack with the characteristics of battery aging is built and integrated into the vehicle model of Autonomie® software from Argonne National Laboratory. The vehicle model, together with the electrochemical battery model, is designed to run in a dSPACE real-time simulator while the powertrain power distribution is managed by a dSPACE MicroAutoBoxII hardware controller. The control interface is designed using dSPACE ControlDesk to monitor the real-time simulation results. The HiL simulation results with the performance of vehicle dynamics and the thermal aging of the battery are presented and analyzed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0002
Nate Rolfes
Abstract Driver assistance features are increasingly dependent upon system architectures that distribute and share responsibilities across various function-based ECUs to minimize cost and redundancy while maximizing engineering efficiency. Clear and accurate system requirements are critical to success, and a robust methodology for validating and testing requirements is essential. Distributed systems are highly sensitive to requirement ambiguity and inaccuracy as they are designed on the assumptions of predictable logical behavior of each functional component. Requirement ambiguity drives variance in implementations which results in system incompatibilities. Errors in requirements lead to faulty implementations that fail not just the component test but also hinder the testing of the entire system of components.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0009
Raymond Turin, John Mills, Jeremy Mangas, Eileen Davidson, William P. Milam, Thomas Erickson
Abstract This paper highlights and discusses the development and deployment of an enterprise-level tool infrastructure that fits into the production build environment of Ford Motor Company. A particular focus is on navigating bottlenecks and pitfalls that arise with the adoption of a model-based software development process. This includes provisions to support centralized data and architecture artifact management (including version control across the lifecycle of the software), support to integrate and manage legacy software artifacts, support to archive and bookshelf development milestones, and last but not least, built-in intelligence to spot potential sources of software defects early in the development stage.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0011
Kesav Kumar Sridharan, Swaminathan Viswanathan
Abstract Current generation automobiles are controlled by electronic modules for performing various functions. These electronic modules have numerous semiconductor devices mounted on printed circuit boards. Solders are generally used as thermal interface material between surface mount devices and printed circuit boards (PCB) for efficient heat transfer. In the manufacturing stage, voids are formed in solders during reflow process due to outgassing phenomenon. The presence of these voids in solder for power packages with exposed pads impedes heat flow and can increase the device temperature. Therefore it is imperative to understand the effect of solder voids on thermal characteristics of semiconductor devices. But the solder void pattern will vary drastically during mass manufacturing. Replicating the exact solder void pattern and doing detail simulation to predict the device temperature for each manufactured module is not practical.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0015
Wolfgang Granig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Hubert Zangl
Abstract Functional safe products conforming to the ISO 26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications wherein electronic takes more and more response for safety relevant operations. Consequently safety mechanisms are needed and implemented in order to reach defined functional safety targets. To prove their effectiveness diagnostic coverage provides a measurable quantity. A straight forward safety mechanism for sensor systems can be established by redundant signal paths measuring the same physical quantity and subsequently performing an independent output difference-check that decides if the data can be transmitted or an error message shall be sent. This paper focuses on the diagnostic coverage figure calculation of such data correlation-checks for linear sensors which are also shown in ISO 26262 part5:2011 ANNEX D2.10.2.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0014
Takashi Nomura, Kazuma Kawai
Abstract The EMI, electromagnetic interference, is tested for automobiles and components by the method defined in the international standard, CISPR 25. Regarding the automobile test, the EMI from the component installed in the automobile is measured by the antenna of an automobile. On the other hand on the component test, the EMI from the component is measured by a mono-pole antenna set forward of the component. However, components sometimes fail the automobile test even if its passed the component test due to the difference of the method. In this case, the component has to be designed again to pass the automobile test. Therefore, the prediction method of the automobile test result is required. In this paper, we tried to modify the standard component test configuration to predict the automobile test result for a fuel pump system in AM frequency band.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0073
Andreas Barthels, Christian Ress, Martin Wiecker, Manfred Müller
Abstract Vehicle to Vehicle Communication use case performance heavily relies on market penetration rate. The more vehicles support a use case, the better the customer experience. Enabling these use cases with acceptable quality on vehicles without built-in navigation systems, elaborate map matching and highly accurate sensors is challenging. This paper introduces a simulation framework to assess system performance in dependency of vehicle positioning accuracy for matching approach path traces in Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages (DENMs) in absence of navigation systems supporting map matching. DENMs are used for distributing information about hazards on the road network. A vehicle without navigation system and street map can only match its position trajectory with the trajectory carried in the DENM.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0019
Yang Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Rui He
Abstract Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0077
Scott E. Bogard, Shan Bao, David LeBlanc, Jun Li, Shaobo Qiu, Bin Liu
Abstract This paper provides an analysis of how communication performance between vehicles using Dedicated Short-range Communication (DSRC) devices varies by antenna mounting, vehicle relative positions and orientations, and between receiving devices. DSRC is a wireless technology developed especially for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. A frequency band near 5.9 GHz has been set aside in the US and other countries for exploring safety and other uses for road vehicles. DSRC devices installed onboard vehicles broadcast their location using global navigation space systems (GNSS), speed, heading, and other information. This can be used to study communication performance in many scenarios including: car-following situations, rear-end crash avoidance, oncoming traffic situations, left turn advisory, head-on crash avoidance and do-not-pass warnings.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0083
Yi Tian, Hangxin Liu, Tomonari Furukawa
Abstract This paper presents a novel infrastructural traffic monitoring approach that estimates traffic information by combining two sensing techniques. The traffic information can be obtained from the presented approach includes passing vehicle counts, corresponding speed estimation and vehicle classification based on size. This approach uses measurement from an array of Lidars and video frames from a camera and derives traffic information using two techniques. The first technique detects passing vehicles by using Lidars to constantly measure the distance from laser transmitter to the target road surface. When a vehicle or other objects pass by, the measurement of the distance to road surface reduces in each targeting spot, and triggers detection event. The second technique utilizes video frames from camera and performs background subtraction algorithm in each selected Region of Interest (ROI), which also triggers detection when vehicle travels through each ROI.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0673
Alessandro Cimarello, Carlo N. Grimaldi, Francesco Mariani, Michele Battistoni, Massimo Dal Re
Abstract Radio Frequency Corona ignition systems represent an interesting solution among innovative ignition strategies for their ability to stabilize the combustion and to extend the engine operating range. The corona discharge, generated by a strong electric field at a frequency of about 1 MHz, produces the ignition of the air-fuel mixture in multiple spots, characterized by a large volume when compared to a conventional spark, increasing the early flame growth speed. The transient plasma generated by the discharge, by means of thermal, kinetic and transport effects, allows a robust initialization of the combustion even in critical conditions, such as using diluted or lean mixtures. In this work the effects of Corona ignition have been analyzed on a single cylinder optical engine fueled with gasoline, comparing the results with those of a traditional single spark ignition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0755
Karthik Nithyanandan, Yongli Gao, Han Wu, Chia-Fon Lee, Fushui Liu, Junhao Yan
Abstract Dual-fuel combustion combining a premixed charge of compressed natural gas (CNG) and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce diesel fuel consumption and drastically reduce soot emissions. In this study, dual-fuel combustion using methane ignited with a pilot injection of No. 2 diesel fuel, was studied in a single cylinder diesel engine with optical access. Experiments were performed at a CNG substitution rate of 70% CNG (based on energy) over a wide range of equivalence ratios of the premixed charge, as well as different diesel injection strategies (single and double injection). A color high-speed camera was used in order to identify and distinguish between lean-premixed methane combustion and diffusion combustion in dual-fuel combustion. The effect of multiple diesel injections is also investigated optically as a means to enhance flame propagation towards the center of the combustion chamber.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0107
Arvind Jayaraman, Ashley Micks, Ethan Gross
Abstract Recreating traffic scenarios for testing autonomous driving in the real world requires significant time, resources and expense, and can present a safety risk if hazardous scenarios are tested. Using a 3D virtual environment to enable testing of many of these traffic scenarios on the desktop or cluster significantly reduces the amount of required road tests. In order to facilitate the development of perception and control algorithms for level 4 autonomy, a shared memory interface between MATLAB, Simulink, and Unreal Engine 4 can send information (such as vehicle control signals) back to the virtual environment. The shared memory interface conveys arbitrary numerical data, RGB image data, and point cloud data for the simulation of LiDAR sensors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0099
Jose E. Solomon, Francois Charette
Abstract The proposed technique is a tailored deep neural network (DNN) training approach which uses an iterative process to support the learning of DNNs by targeting their specific misclassification and missed detections. The process begins with a DNN that is trained on freely available annotated image data, which we will refer to as the Base model, where a subset of the categories for the classifier are related to the automotive theater. A small set of video capture files taken from drives with test vehicles are selected, (based on the diversity of scenes, frequency of vehicles, incidental lighting, etc.), and the Base model is used to detect/classify images within the video files. A software application developed specifically for this work then allows for the capture of frames from the video set where the DNN has made misclassifications. The corresponding annotation files for these images are subsequently corrected to eliminate mislabels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1187
Tatsuya Sugawara, Takuma Kanazawa, Naoki Imai, Yu Tachibana
Abstract This paper describes the motorized turbo compressor, which is a key technology for reducing the size of the fuel cell system for the Clarity Fuel Cell. The oxygen needed for fuel cell power generation is sent into the fuel cell by compressing the air from the atmosphere by a compressor. The conventionally used Lysholm compressor needed numerous sound absorbers, such as silencers and covers, to help achieve quietness when driving. Therefore, changing to a turbo compressor enhanced quietness and helped to eliminate or reduce the size of these auxiliary sound absorbers. Furthermore, a two-stage supercharging structure was used and the air pressure supplied to the fuel cell was increased to 1.7 times the previous air pressure. This increased the fuel cell power, which enabled to reduce the number of cells needed, and reduced the needed humidification amount which enabled to reduce the size of the humidifier. These enhancements helped to reduce the system size.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0527
Arya Yazdani, Jeffrey Naber, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Paul Dice, Chris Glugla, Stephen Cooper, Douglas McEwan, Garlan Huberts
An accurate estimation of cycle-by-cycle in-cylinder mass and the composition of the cylinder charge is required for spark-ignition engine transient control strategies to obtain required torque, Air-Fuel-Ratio (AFR) and meet engine pollution regulations. Mass Air Flow (MAF) and Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been utilized in different control strategies to achieve these targets; however, these sensors have response delay in transients. As an alternative to air flow metering, in-cylinder pressure sensors can be utilized to directly measure cylinder pressure, based on which, the amount of air charge can be estimated without the requirement to model the dynamics of the manifold.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0629
John Kuo, George Garfinkel
Abstract Thermal modeling of liquid-cooled vehicle traction battery assemblies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) usually involves large models to accurately resolve small cooling channel details, and intensive computation to simulate drive-cycle transient solutions. This paper proposes a segregated method to divide the system into three parts: the cells, the cold plate and the interface between them. Each of the three parts can be separated and thermally characterized and then combined to predict the overall system thermal behavior for both steady-state and transient operating conditions. The method largely simplifies battery thermal analysis to overcome the limitations of using large 3D CFD models especially for pack level dynamic drive cycle simulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0071
Vahid Taimouri, Michel Cordonnier, Kyoung Min Lee, Bryan Goodman
Abstract While operating a vehicle in either autonomous or occupant piloted mode, an array of sensors can be used to guide the vehicle including stereo cameras. The state-of-the-art distance map estimation algorithms, e.g. stereo matching, usually detect corresponding features in stereo images, and estimate disparities to compute the distance map in a scene. However, depending on the image size, content and quality, the feature extraction process can become inaccurate, unstable and slow. In contrast, we employ deep convolutional neural networks, and propose two architectures to estimate distance maps from stereo images. The first architecture is a simple and generic network that identifies which features to extract, and how to combine them in a multi-resolution framework.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0024
Yuto Imanishi, Naoyuki Tashiro, Yoichi Iihoshi, Takashi Okada
Abstract In recent years, improvement of in-use fuel economy is required with tightening of exhaust emission regulation. We assume that one of the most effective solutions is ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control), which can control a powertrain accurately more than a driver. We have been developing a fuel saving ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) application named “Sailing-ACC”. Sailing-ACC system uses sailing stop technology which stops engine fuel injection, and disengages a clutch coupling a transmission when a vehicle does not need acceleration torque. This system has a potential to greatly improve fuel efficiency. In this paper, we present a predictive powertrain state switching algorithm using external information (route information, preceding vehicle information). This algorithm calculates appropriate switching timing between a sailing stop mode and an acceleration mode to generate a “pulse-and-glide” pattern.
Viewing 241 to 270 of 16441