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Viewing 151 to 180 of 16441
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1241
Wei Zhang, Rajesh Malhan
Abstract Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has started to be applied in charging electrical vehicles (EV). EV models with built-in wireless charging capability is expected to be available from several major automakers in the next few years. Meanwhile, problems associated with the massive adoption of automobiles require new format of vehicles, especially the form with compact size and electric power. An inductively charged autonomous bicycle (iCab) is proposed, which has both the automotive driving and wireless charging features. It is designed to be compatible with an EV wireless charger. The wireless charging interoperability issue of the single transmitting coil capable to charge both the EV and iCab is studied in this paper. The receiving coil of a wireless charger is usually designed to match with single transmitting coil and to have a fixed power level output.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1209
Zhichao Luo, Xuezhe Wei
Abstract Nowadays, wireless power transfer (WPT) gradually prevails and many researchers have devoted themselves to it because it is a safe, convenient and reliable way for recharging electric vehicles comparing to the conventional plug-in contact-based methods. Square coils are commonly used in WPT systems. However, there is few theoretical analysis of self- and mutual inductance of square coils between two magnetic shielding materials. In this paper, in order to study the spatial magnetic field distribution, the analytical model of n-turn square planar spiral coils between two semi-infinite multilayer media is developed based on the Maxwell equations and the Dual Fourier transformation. And then, by means of surface integrals, the self- and mutual inductance can be carried out, with respect to the main parameters of the WPT systems such as the operating frequency, the geometry feature of the coupling coils and the properties of the multilayer media.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1248
Ming Su, Chingchi Chen, Krishna Prasad Bhat, Jun Kikuchi, Shrivatsal Sharma, Thomas Lei
Abstract Due to global trends and government regulations for CO2 emission reduction, the automotive industry is actively working toward vehicle electrification to improve fuel efficiency and minimize tail-pipe pollutions. Silicon IGBTs and power diodes used in today’s HEV inverter systems are mature and reliable components, but have their limitation on energy losses. SiC, on the other hand, has potential to offer additional boost of efficiency for the HEV drive system. In recent years, commercial SiC MOSFETs have improved significantly in performance. However, reliability concerns and high prices still limit their overall competitiveness against silicon. Ford Motor Company has partnered with semiconductor manufacturers to evaluate SiC products for automotive applications. In this study, 900V SiC MOSFET modules from Wolfspeed are tested and compared with an 800V silicon IGBT module of similar power handling capability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1638
Felix Gow, Lifeng Guan, Jooil Park
Abstract Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) sensor measures air pressure and temperature in the tire and transmits tire information as wireless messages to TPMS central unit which consists of Radio Frequency (RF) receiver. TPMS central unit needs to determine the exact sensor locations (e.g. Front Left, Front Right, Rear Left or Rear Right) in order to correctly identify the location of the tire with pressure out of the desired range. The identified tire with abnormal pressure is highlighted on dash board in the car. Thus, determination of the location of a particular tire made automatically by the TPMS system itself or tire localization is required. TPMS tire localization is implemented currently in several methods. A new method is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses at least two RF transceivers as repeaters. Each transceiver receives wireless messages (eg.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1640
Peng Liu, Liyun Fan, Wenbo Peng, Xiuzhen Ma, Enzhe Song
Abstract A novel high-speed electromagnetic actuator for electronic fuel injection system (EFIS) of diesel engine is proposed in this paper. By using a permanent magnet and an annular flange, the design of the novel actuator aims to overcome the inherent drawbacks of the conventional solenoid electromagnetic actuator, such as high power consumption and so on. A method of multi-objective optimization combined with response surface methodology and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is employed to obtain the optimal design of the novel actuator. First, combined with design of experiments and finite element analysis, the second order polynomial response surface models (SOPRSM) of electromagnetic forces are produced by the least square principle. Second, the complete multi-objective optimization mathematical model (MOMM) of the novel actuator based on SOPRSM is built, aiming to maximize the net electromagnetic force on the armature and minimize the drive current.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1442
Dawei Luo, Jianbo Lu, Gang Guo
Abstract This paper proposes a low-cost but indirect method for occupancy detection and occupant counting purpose in current and future automotive systems. It can serve as either a way to determine the number of occupants riding inside a car or a way to complement the other devices in determining the occupancy. The proposed method is useful for various mobility applications including car rental, fleet management, taxi, car sharing, occupancy in autonomous vehicles, etc. It utilizes existing on-board motion sensor measurements, such as those used in the vehicle stability control function, together with door open and closed status. The vehicle’s motion signature in response to an occupant’s boarding and alighting is first extracted from the motion sensors that measure the responses of the vehicle body. Then the weights of the occupants are estimated by fitting the vehicle responses with a transient vehicle dynamics model.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0016
Don Zaremba, Emily Linehan, Carlos Ramirez Ramos
Abstract For over thirty years, the silicon power MOSFET’s role has expanded from a few key components in electronic engine control to a key component in nearly every automotive electronics system. New and emerging automotive applications such as 48 V micro hybrids and autonomous vehicle operation require improved power MOSFET performance. This paper reviews mature and state of the art power MOSFET technologies, from planar to shield gate trench, with emphasis on applicability to automotive electronic systems. The automotive application environment presents unique challenges for electronic systems and associated components such as potential for direct short to high capacity battery, high voltage battery transients, high ambient temperature, electromagnetic interference (EMI) limitations, and large delta temperature power cycling. Moreover, high reliability performance of semiconductor components is mandatory; sub 1 ppm overall failure rate is now a fundamental requirement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1250
Tomokazu Ishikawa, Kouhei Ikebuchi, Kenji Nakamura, Osamu Ichinokura, Naoki Kurimoto, Yoshiaki Nishijima
Abstract An electromagnetic and motion-coupled analysis is made for a Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) based on a Reluctance Network Analysis (RNA). A full-pitch-winding SRM is promising since it has a high torque density. Since the motor characteristics such as driving torque significantly depend on commutation pattern, an analysis coupled with motor motion and its drive circuit is requisite for the performance prediction. However, in the full-pitch-winding SRM, the relationship between the coil magnetomotive force and the core flux is complicated, and thus Finite Element Method (FEM) has been major method to predict the motor characteristics, which takes too much computational time for cycle calculations. An RNA treats the relationship of coil magnetomotive force and core flux as lumped parameter circuit, and thus enables fast computation with a macroscopic view of magnetic phenomena.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0025
Takayuki Kitamura, Naotsugu Shimizu, Yasuyuki Miyake
Abstract In the last decade, radar-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have improved safety of transportation. Today, the standardization of ADAS established by New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) is expected to expand its market globally. One of the key technologies of ADAS is the rear-side monitoring system such as Blind Spot Warning (BSW) and Closing Vehicle Warning (CVW). It is required to expand its detection range so that it can monitor not only nearside targets for BSW, but farther targets for CVW. These applications can be achieved using two radar sensors installed at rear-side corner of the vehicle. However, the expanded detection range causes undesirable target detections and decreases target recognition performance. In this paper, a novel solution to improve the performance using DCMP(Directional-Constrained Minimization of Power)-based Beamspace technology using Two-frequency continuous wave (2FCW also known as FSK) is introduced.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0047
Jie Bai, Sihan CHEN, Hua Cui, Xin Bi, Libo Huang
Abstract The radar-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) like autonomous emergency braking (AEB) and forward collision warning (FCW) can reduce accidents, so as to make vehicles, drivers and pedestrians safer. For active safety, automotive millimeter-wave radar is an indispensable role in the automotive environmental sensing system since it can work effectively regardless of the bad weather while the camera fails. One crucial task of the automotive radar is to detect and distinguish some objects close to each other precisely with the increasingly complex of the road condition. Nowadays almost all the automotive radar products work in bidimensional area where just the range and azimuth can be measured. However, sometimes in their field of view it is not easy for them to differentiate some objects, like the car, the manhole covers and the guide board, when they align with each other in vertical direction.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0039
Toshiya Hirose, Yasufumi Ohtsuka, Masato Gokan
Abstract A vehicle-to-vehicle communication system (V2V) sends and receives vehicle information by wireless communication and assists safe driving. The present study investigated the activation timings of collision information support, collision caution support, and collision warning support provided by a V2V in an experiment using a driving simulator for four situations of (1) assistance in braking, (2) assistance in accelerating, (3) assistance in making a right turn, and (4) assistance in making a left turn at a blind intersection. The four situations are common scenarios of traffic accidents in Japan. Safety margins for collision information support and collision warning support were the time required for the driver to fully apply the brake pedal, while the safety margin for collision caution support was the time required for the driver to begin applying the brake pedal. The study investigated the effects of adding safety margins to standard activation timings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0072
Yang Zheng, Navid Shokouhi, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
Abstract With the embedded sensors – typically Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and GPS, the smartphone could be leveraged as a low-cost sensing platform for estimating vehicle dynamics. However, the orientation and relative movement of the smartphone inside the vehicle yields the main challenge for platform deployment. This study proposes a solution of converting the smartphone-referenced IMU readings into vehicle-referenced accelerations, which allows free-positioned smartphone for the in-vehicle dynamics sensing. The approach is consisted of (i) geometry coordinate transformation techniques, (ii) neural networks regression of IMU from GPS, and (iii) adaptive filtering processes. Experiment is conducted in three driving environments which cover high occurrence of vehicle dynamic movements in lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions. The processing effectiveness at five typical positions (three fixed and two flexible) are examined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1211
SoDuk Lee, Jeff Cherry, Michael Safoutin, Joseph McDonald
Abstract As part of the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 Light-duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of stop-start technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Stop-start technology is widespread in Europe due to high fuel prices and due to stringent EU CO2 emissions standards beginning in 2012. Stop-start has recently appeared as a standard equipment option on high-volume vehicles like the Chevrolet Malibu, Ford Fusion, Chrysler 200, Jeep Cherokee, and Ram 1500 truck. EPA has included stop-start technology in its assessment of CO2-reducing technologies available for compliance with the standards. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. The introduction of stop-start has stimulated development of 12-volt battery systems capable of providing the enhanced performance and cycle life durability that it requires.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1229
Ken Yamamoto, Nobuyasu Sadakata, Hidetoshi Okada, Yusuke Fujita
Abstract Electric oil pumps (EOP) for automobiles are used to lubricate and cool moving parts and supply oil pressure to components. Conventional EOPs consist of two separate units including a motor driver and a pump system comprised of a motor and a pump, which impedes layout flexibility for vehicles. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed an ECU (electronic control unit)-integrated oil pump in which a driver, a motor and a pump are incorporated as a single unit. In the course of the project, we focused on improving vibration resistance and developing a compact design. The first challenge was to improve vibration resistance because of the driver located in close proximity to the powertrain. Since the driver is installed on the motor unit via electrically welded bus bars, the joints of the driver and the bus bar become susceptible to vibration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1376
David H. Weir, Kevin Chao, R. Michael Van Auken
Abstract A class of driver attentional workload metrics has been developed for possible application to the measuring and monitoring of attentional workload and level of distraction in actual driving, as well as in the evaluation and comparison of in-vehicle human machine interface (HMI or DVI) devices. The metrics include driver/vehicle response and performance measures, driver control activity, and driver control models and parameters. They are the result of a multidisciplinary, experimental and analytical effort, applying control theory, manual control, and human factors principles and practices. Driving simulator and over-the-road experiments were used to develop, confirm, and demonstrate the use of the metrics in distracted driving situations. The visual-manual secondary tasks used in the study included navigation destination entry, radio tuning, critical tracking task, and a generic touch screen entry task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1361
Huan-Ping Chiu, Gerald Uhlenberg, Alex Wang, Jung Hsien Yen
Abstract In this study, we are presenting design considerations for the development of a LED (Light-Emitting Diode) bi-function headlight module to replace conventional HID (High-Intensity Discharge) projector modules for retrofitting or first installation purposes. The objective was to develop a projector-type module to outperform current 35 W HID light sources in both low beam and high beam, but with far less installation space. Essential features like multichip LED usage and the optical system design will be described in detail. Special care was taken for the heat management of the high-power LEDs, with optimization of the heat dissipation thermal path via printed circuit board, heatsink and active cooling by extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation work (CFD). The achieved projector lumen output of greater 1300 lm in low beam and 2000 lm in high beam enables a projector module of very compact size (<1,200 cm3) to easily replace HID modules.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1651
Douglas Thornburg, John Schmotzer, MJ Throop
Abstract Onboard, embedded cellular modems are enabling a range of new connectivity features in vehicles and rich, real-time data set transmissions from a vehicle’s internal network up to a cloud database are of particular interest. However, there is far too much information in a vehicle’s electrical state for every vehicle to upload all of its data in real-time. We are thus concerned with which data is uploaded and how that data is processed, structured, stored, and reported. Existing onboard data processing algorithms (e.g. for DTC detection) are hardcoded into critical vehicle firmware, limited in scope and cannot be reconfigured on the fly. Since many use cases for vehicle data analytics are still unknown, we require a system which is capable of efficiently processing and reporting vehicle deep data in real-time, such that data reporting can be switched on/off during normal vehicle operation, and that processing/reporting can be reconfigured remotely.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1199
Khalid Khan, Bin Zhou, Amir Rezaei
Abstract A high voltage battery is an essential part of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It is imperative to precisely estimate the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of battery in real time to maintain reliable vehicle operating conditions. This paper presents a method of estimating SOC and SOH through the incorporation of current integration, voltage translation, and Ah-throughput. SOC estimation utilizing current integration is inadequate due to the accumulation of errors over the period of usage. Thus voltage translation of SOC is applied to rectify current integration method which improves the accuracy of estimation. Voltage translation data is obtained by subjecting the battery to hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) test. The Battery State of Health was determined by semi-empirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method. Battery state of charge was employed as an input to estimate damages accumulated to battery aging through a real-time model.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1224
Ryota Kitamoto, Shinnosuke Sato, Hiromichi Nakamura, Atsushi Amano
Abstract A new fuel cell voltage control unit (FCVCU) has been developed for a new fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In order to simultaneously reduce the electric powertrain size and increase the driving motor power, the FCVCU is needed to boost the voltage supplied from the fuel cell (FC) stack to the driving motor. The FCVCU circuit configuration has four single-phase chopper circuits arranged in parallel to form a 4-phase interleaved circuit. The intelligent power module (IPM) is a full SiC IPM, the first known use to date in a mass production vehicle, and efficiency has been enhanced by making use of the effects of the increased frequency to reduce both the size of the unit and the loss from passive parts. In addition, a coupled inductor was used to reduce the inductor size. As a result, the inductor volume per unit power was reduced approximately 30% compared to the previous VCU inductor.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1189
Tsuyoshi Maruo, Masashi Toida, Tomohiro Ogawa, Yuji Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Imanishi, Nada Mitsuhiro, Yoshihiro Ikogi
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) since 1992. As part of a demonstration program, TMC launched the FCHV-adv in 2008, which established major technical improvements in key performance areas such as efficiency, driving range, durability, and operation in sub-zero conditions. However, to encourage commercialization and widespread adoption of FCVs, further improvements in performance were required. During sub-zero operating conditions, the FC system output power was lower than under normal operating conditions. The FC stack in the FCHV-adv needed to dry the electrolyte membrane to remove unneeded water from the stack. This increased the stack resistance and caused low output power. In December 2014, TMC launched the world’s first commercially available FCV named the Mirai, which greatly improved output power even after start-up in sub-zero conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1409
Markus Schratter, Susie Cantu, Thomas Schaller, Peter Wimmer, Daniel Watzenig
Abstract Highly Automated Driving (HAD) opens up new middle-term perspectives in mobility and is currently one of the main goals in the development of future vehicles. The focus is the implementation of automated driving functions for structured environments, such as on the motorway. To achieve this goal, vehicles are equipped with additional technology. This technology should not only be used for a limited number of use cases. It should also be used to improve Active Safety Systems during normal non-automated driving. In the first approach we investigate the usage of machine learning for an autonomous emergency braking system (AEB) for the active pedestrian protection safety. The idea is to use knowledge of accidents directly for the function design. Future vehicles could be able to record detailed information about an accident. If enough data from critical situations recorded by vehicles is available, it is conceivable to use it to learn the function design.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1441
Heungseok Chae, Kyong Chan Min, Kyongsu Yi
Abstract This paper describes design and evaluation of a driving mode decision and lane change control algorithm of automated vehicle in merge situations on highway intersection. For the development of a highly automated driving control algorithm in merge situation, driving mode change from lane keeping to lane change is necessary to merge appropriately. In a merge situation, the driving objective is slightly different to general driving situation. Unlike general situation, the lane change should be completed in a limited travel distance in a merge situation. Merge mode decision is determined based on surrounding vehicles states and remained distance of merge lane. In merge mode decision algorithm, merge availability and desired merge position are decided to change lane safely and quickly. Merge availability and desired merge position are based on the safety distance that considers relative velocity and relative position of subject and surrounding vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1481
Kyung-bok Lee, Sanghyuk Lee, Namyoung Kim, Bong Soo Kim, Tae soo Chi, Do young Kim
Abstract Conventional EPS (Electric Power Steering) systems are operated by one type of steering tuning map set by steering test drivers before being released to customers. That is, the steering efforts can't change in many different driving conditions such as road conditions (low mu, high mu and unpaved roads) or some specific driving conditions (sudden stopping, entering into EPS failure modes and full accelerating). Those conditions can't give drivers consistent steering efforts. This paper approached the new concept technology detecting those conditions by using vehicle and EPS sensors such as tire wheel speeds, vehicle speed, steering angle, steering torque, steering speed and so on. After detecting those conditions and judging what the best steering efforts for safe vehicle driving are, EPS systems automatically can be changed with the steering friction level and selection of steering optimized mapping on several conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1399
Bin Wu, Xichan Zhu, Jianping Shen, Xuejun Cang, Lin li
Abstract A driver steering model for emergency lane change based on the China naturalistic driving data is proposed in this paper. The steering characteristic of three phases is analyzed. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the steering behaviors in collision avoidance and lateral movement phases can be described, and the stabilization steering principle of yaw rate null is found. Based on the steering characteristic, the near and far aim point used in steering phases is analyzed. Using the near and far aim point correction model, a driver steering model for emergency lane change is established. The research results show that the driver emergency steering model proposed in this paper performs well when explaining realistic steering behavior, and this model can be used in developing the ADAS system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1402
SeHwan Kim, Junmin Wang, Dennis Guenther, Gary Heydinger, Joshua Every, M. Kamel Salaani, Frank Barickman
Abstract The rapid development of driver assistance systems, such as lane-departure warning (LDW) and lane-keeping support (LKS), along with widely publicized reports of automated vehicle testing, have created the expectation for an increasing amount of vehicle automation in the near future. As these systems are being phased in, the coexistence of automated vehicles and human-driven vehicles on roadways will be inevitable and necessary. In order to develop automated vehicles that integrate well with those that are operated in traditional ways, an appropriate understanding of human driver behavior in normal traffic situations would be beneficial. Unlike many research studies that have focused on collision-avoidance maneuvering, this paper analyzes the behavior of human drivers in response to cut-in vehicles moving at similar speeds. Both automated and human-driven vehicles are likely to encounter this scenario in daily highway driving.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1407
Helene G. Moorman, Andrea Niles, Caroline Crump, Audra Krake, Benjamin Lester, Laurene Milan, Christy Cloninger, David Cades, Douglas Young
Abstract Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems, along with other types of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), are becoming more common in passenger vehicles, with the general aim of improving driver safety through automation of various aspects of the driving task. Drivers have generally reported satisfaction with ADAS with the exception of LDW systems, which are often rated poorly or even deactivated by drivers. One potential contributor to this negative response may be an increase in the cognitive load associated with lane-keeping when LDW is in use. The present study sought to examine the relationship between LDW, lane-keeping behavior, and concurrent cognitive load, as measured by performance on a secondary task. Participants drove a vehicle equipped with LDW in a demarcated lane on a closed-course test track with and without the LDW system in use over multiple sessions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1555
Mirosław Jan Gidlewski, Krystof JANKOWSKI, Andrzej MUSZYŃSKI, Dariusz ŻARDECKI
Abstract Lane change automation appears to be a fundamental problem of vehicle automated control, especially when the vehicle is driven at high speed. Selected relevant parts of the recent research project are reported in this paper, including literature review, the developed models and control systems, as well as crucial simulation results. In the project, two original models describing the dynamics of the controlled motion of the vehicle were used, verified during the road tests and in the laboratory environment. The first model - fully developed (multi-body, 3D, nonlinear) - was used in simulations as a virtual plant to be controlled. The second model - a simplified reference model of the lateral dynamics of the vehicle (single-body, 2D, linearized) - formed the basis for theoretical analysis, including the synthesis of the algorithm for automatic control. That algorithm was based on the optimal control theory.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1581
Jianbo Lu, Hassen Hammoud, Todd Clark, Otto Hofmann, Mohsen Lakehal-ayat, Shweta Farmer, Jason Shomsky, Roland Schaefer
Abstract This paper presents two brake control functions which are initiated when there is an impact force applied to a host vehicle. The impact force is generated due to the host vehicle being collided with or by another vehicle or object. The first function - called the post-impact braking assist - initiates emergency brake assistance if the driver is braking during or right after the collision. The second function - called the post-impact braking - initiates autonomous braking up to the level of the anti-lock-brake system if the driver is not braking during or right after the collision. Both functions intend to enhance the current driver assistance features such as emergency brake assistance, electronic stability control, anti-brake-lock system, collision mitigation system, etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1622
Ronald Brombach, Anup Gadkari
Abstract The Body Control Module (BCM) is a very large integration site for vehicle features and functions (e.g., Locking, Alarms, interior lighting, exterior lighting, etc…). Every few years the demand to add more feature/functions and integrate more vehicle content increases. The expectation of the 2013 MY (model year) BCM, was to double the feature content and use it globally. The growth in 3 years of feature/function content was huge number that grew from 150 to over 300. This posed a major challenge to the software development team based on the methods and process that were deployed at the time. This paper cites the cultural and technology changes that were overcome when Ford Motor Company partnered with Tata Consultancy Services to help manage and define this new software engineering development methodology. The process of getting from a vague description of a new body module feature to a saleable product, presents several very challenging problems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0045
Guirong Zhuo, Cheng Wu, Fengbo Zhang
Abstract Vehicle active collision avoidance includes collision avoidance by braking and by steering. However, both of these two methods have their limitations. Therefore, it is significant to establish the feasible region of active collision avoidance to choose the optimal way to avoid traffic accidents. This paper focuses on the steering control of an autonomous vehicle to track the planned trajectory and to perform an emergency collision avoidance maneuver. Meanwhile, the collision avoidance effect of steering control is compared with that of braking control. The path tracking controller is designed by hierarchical control structure. The upper controller includes model predictive control allocation and speed controller, and the lower is designed by weighted least-squares control allocation for torque allocation. Besides, seven order polynomial is used for path planning.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 16441