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1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250006
DALE S COLE
Progress made in the development of electrical equipment to serve adequately the needs of motorcoach service is reviewed. Electrical loads on motorcoaches are comparatively high, including the usual head, tail and dash lamps, body-marking and destination lamps and buzzer systems. As more and more electrical energy is used, the source of supply and its control become relatively more important. Not only does the electric generating system have to meet the demands of battery charging, but it should be able to carry the connected load with no battery in the circuit. This means that not only is sufficient energy necessary, but the voltage must be regulated in such a manner that the battery can be charged without endangering the life of the lamps because of excessive voltage, and no flicker in the light from the lamps must be perceptible. All these results must be attained under conditions of variable load, variable speed and the changeable temperatures encountered in service.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240047
W C BROWN
General considerations that affect the attainment of adequate lighting are mentioned, it being stated that proper lighting of the interior of a motorbus is influenced by limitations peculiar to the service, such as vibration, scant headroom, a restricted energy supply and relatively large voltage-variations. Available types of bus-lighting equipment are analyzed as to their suitability, from six different standpoints that are stated. “Glare” is defined and means of obviating it are suggested, inclusive of a discussion of desirable types of finish for the interior with regard to reflecting surfaces. The severe vibration produced by many motorbuses demands head-lamps of more rugged construction than that used for the headlighting of private cars. Eight essentials for motorbus head-lamps are specified. A very large percentage of the glare and poor illumination of the motor vehicles on the roads results from improper adjustment or the lack of any means for adjustment of the head-lamps.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220003
THOMAS MIDGLEY, W K Gilkey
The paper is intended to familiarize automotive engineers with the general subject of spectroscopy, by pointing out the various methods that can be employed to determine the actual instantaneous pressures obtained in normal combustion, the temperature-time card of the internal-combustion engine and the progress of the chemical reactions involved in normal and abnormal combustion. The subject of spectroscopy is outlined and explained, illustrations are presented of different types of spectra, and spectroscopes and their principles are discussed. The remainder of the paper is devoted to an outline of what the spectroscope can reveal about the nature of combustion.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210001
H W Alden
The author brings to attention very emphatically the responsibility of the automotive industry for some things besides the actual building and selling of motor cars. The progress of civilization can be measured very largely by advances in means of communication. The transfer of messages by wire and wireless has made wonderful advances of a fundamental nature in recent years, but the transportation of commodities from place to place has not made such strides. The automotive industry has been concerned mostly with the actual development and production of the motor car and, as an industry, has stopped there without developing those allied activities which are vital to the long-time success of the business. The railroads afford a good example to follow in principle.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210037
L M WOOLSON
Abstract The general requirements for ideal carburetion are considered first, as an introduction to what the Packard fuelizer is and how it functions. Since it is difficult to secure uniform distribution with what is termed a wet mixture, this problem is discussed in general terms and it is stated that the fuelizer was evolved only after several different types of exhaust-heated manifold had been tested and found wanting. Detonation is treated at some length, four specific rules being stated that apply to the most desirable mixture temperatures to be maintained, and the source of the ignition spark for the fuelizer is discussed as an important element in the device. Further consideration includes comments upon the comparative merits of the hot-spot and the fuelizer, “hot-spot” being intended to mean any of the exhaust-heated manifold-designs in which the heat is more or less localized.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200062
A D T Libby
A discussion of the advantages of magneto ignition resolves itself into a comparison of magneto and battery-ignition systems, resembling early discussions of the relative merits of the direct and the alternating-current electric systems; both are in existence and fulfilling their respective parts. After stating that ignition is closely related to carburetion and generalizing on the subject of ignition, the author discusses the fundamentals of ignition systems at length, presenting numerous diagrams, and passes to somewhat detailed consideration of comparative spark values, using illustrations. Storage batteries and auxiliary devices receive due attention next and numerous characteristic curves of battery and magneto ignition are shown. Impulse couplings are advantageous in starting large truck and tractor engines, which generally use magnetos; these are described.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190069
J H HUNT
Manufacturers of carbureters and ignition devices are called upon to assist in overcoming troubles caused by the inclusion of too many heavy fractions in automobile fuels. So far as completely satisfactory running is concerned, the difficulty of the problem with straight petroleum distillates is caused by the heaviest fraction present in appreciable quantity. The problems are involved in the starting, carburetion, distribution and combustion. An engine is really started only when all its parts have the same temperatures as exist in normal running, and when it accelerates in a normal manner. Two available methods, (a) installing a two-fuel carbureter, using a very volatile fuel to start and warm-up the engine, and (b) heating the engine before cranking by a burner designed to use the heavier fuel, are described and discussed.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190064
D W DOUGLAS
The factors included in the commercial airplane problem are the practical use that can be made of airplanes, the volume of business that can be expected, the necessary changes from present military types to make an efficient commercial airplane and what the future holds for this new means of transportation. The requirements for passenger transportation, airmail and general express service, are first discussed in detail, consideration then being given to other possibilities such as aerial photography and map-making, the aerial transportation of mineral ores, sport and miscellaneous usage. Changes in the present equipment of engines and airplanes to make them suitable for commercial use are outlined, and special features of aerial navigation, landing fields and legal questions are mentioned.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190048
E H COLPITTS
In a rapid and illuminating sketch of the early work done in electricity and magnetism the subtle and close connection between pure research and so-called industrial research is shown. Building on the work of Faraday, Maxwell and Hertz, Marconi, in our day, had the confidence to do the practical thing. From the Hertz oscillating system he passed to grounded antennas at both sending and receiving stations. From the well-understood tuning of electrical circuits and the coherer of Professor Branly he secured increased efficiency and selectivity. Mr. Edison, following the early work of J. J. Thomson at Cambridge University, England, devised the first practical application of the electron apparatus, the Edison relay. The vacuum tube became in the radio field an amplifier, an oscillator and a modulator, the audion. In addition to these interesting developments are the Poulsen arc, the Alexanderson alternator and other alternators of German design.
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180022
J G ZIMMERMAN
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170007
ELMER A. SPERRY
The author calls attention to the unreliability of the magnetic compass when used for aerial navigation and to the possible development of the gyroscopic compass for this purpose. He then explains how the drift of an airplane in flight makes it difficult to follow with accuracy a given course devoid of landmarks, unless an accurate drift indicator using the principle of the stroboscope is available. The development of such an instrument is then described, as are also means for synchronizing it with the compass. The use of the automatic synchronized instrument in flight over land is outlined, and its application to flight over water is described in considerable detail. Rules for aerial navigation over water, observation as to movement of wave crest and determination of wind velocity and direction are considered in their relation to the use of the instrument.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170053
H. E. RICE
The author discusses in this paper a few of the problems involved in the design of ignition equipment. Some of these problems have been solved and some remain to be solved. The early history of the development of ignition apparatus is traced, reference being made to the vibrating coil type of ignition operated by dry cells or storage batteries, various types of magneto and dual-magneto systems, and combined generator and storage battery systems. The balance of the paper refers more particularly to batteries and ignition proper. The two types of battery ignition, open-circuit and closed-circuit, are described and the current characteristics of each are shown graphically by means of curves. Some of the problems encountered in the development of present battery systems are next considered and such topics as reduction of inertia in the contact-arm, overcoming harmonic vibration, advantages of one-piece cams and the function and design of the condenser are treated in detail.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170051
Burns Dick
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170050
J. A. WILLIAMS
This paper discusses the principles of battery ignition and then describes high-tension magneto ignition. A comparison between the two types of ignition is given, and the paper concludes by illustrating diagrammatically how and why a very hot spark causes the engine to produce more power and to economize on fuel consumption.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160005
ALEXANDER CHURCHWARD
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160006
FRANCIS R. HOYT
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160002
JOSEPH BIJUR
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160004
FRANK CONRAD
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150042
T. H. SCHOEPF
1914-01-01
Technical Paper
140004
W. H. CONANT
1914-01-01
Technical Paper
140034
ALBION D. LIBBY
1913-01-01
Technical Paper
130020
J. W. Fitzgerald
1913-01-01
Technical Paper
130015
C. C. MUNSON
1912-01-01
Technical Paper
120008
J. W. FITZGERALD
1912-01-01
Technical Paper
120033
C. F. Kettering
1912-01-01
Technical Paper
120036
LEONARD KEBLER
1911-01-01
Technical Paper
110019
A. J. DOTY
1911-01-01
Technical Paper
110020
R. C. Lanphier
Viewing 16501 to 16530 of 16536