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Viewing 121 to 150 of 16536
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1734
Bo-Chiuan Chen, Guo-Shun Chuang
Abstract An accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) is necessary not only for optimal energy management but also for protecting the lithium-ion batteries (LIB) from being deeply discharged or overcharged. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) is established to simulate the dynamic behavior of LIB. Parameters of internal resistance, diffusion resistance and diffusion capacitance are identified using the recursive least square method. Because open circuit voltage (OCV) and SOC have an obviously nonlinear relationship, an extended Kalman filter is proposed to estimate the SOC based on the ECM model. Local linearization is employed to approximate the nonlinear SOC-OCV curve by a straight line with the slope and intersection around the operating point. Simulation results show that the estimation error of the proposed algorithm is less than 5% for the test patterns.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1728
Nitin Singh, Aayoush Sharma, Sameer Shah, Balakumar Gardampaali
Abstract In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road. This input is given to a Local Control Unit (LCU) which is integrated on every road. Several such LCUs are connected to a Main Control Unit (MCU) which is located at the nearest police station. A single MCU covers the area administered by that police station. Additional CCTV cameras are present to give graphical view of accident.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1727
Yumin Lin, Bo-Chiuan Chen, Hsien-Chi Tsai, Bi-Cheng Luan
Abstract A model-based sensor fault detection algorithm is proposed in this paper to detect and isolate the faulty sensor. Wheel speeds are validated using the wheel speed deviations before being employed to check the sensor measurements of the vehicle dynamics. Kinematic models are employed to estimate yaw rate, lateral acceleration, and steering wheel angle. A Kalman filter based on a point mass model is employed to estimate longitudinal speed and acceleration. The estimated vehicle dynamics and sensor measurements are used to calculate the residuals. Adaptive threshold values are employed to identify the abnormal increments of residuals. Recursive least square method is used to design the coefficients of the expressions for adaptive threshold values, such that the false alarms caused by model uncertainties can be prevented. Different combinations of estimations are employed to obtain 18 residuals.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1657
Jesse Edwards, Ameer Kashani
Abstract In the past few years, automotive electronic control units (ECUs) have been the focus of many studies regarding the ability to affect the deterministic operation of safety critical cyber-physical systems. Researchers have been able to successfully demonstrate flaws in security design that have considerable, dramatic impacts on the functional safety of a target vehicle. With the rapid increase in data connectivity within a modern automobile, the attack surface has been greatly broadened to allow adversaries remote access to vehicle control system software and networks. This has serious implications, as a vast number of vulnerability disclosures released by security researchers point directly to common programming bugs and software quality issues as the root cause of successful exploits which can compromise the vehicle as a whole. In this paper, we aim to bring to light the most prominent categories of bugs found during the software development life cycle of an automotive ECU.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1660
Huaxin Li, Di Ma, Brahim Medjahed, Qianyi Wang, Yu Seung Kim, Pramita Mitra
Abstract Nowadays, the automotive industry is experiencing the advent of unprecedented applications with connected devices, such as identifying safe users for insurance companies or assessing vehicle health. To enable such applications, driving behavior data are collected from vehicles and provided to third parties (e.g., insurance firms, car sharing businesses, healthcare providers). In the new wave of IoT (Internet of Things), driving statistics and users’ data generated from wearable devices can be exploited to better assess driving behaviors and construct driver models. We propose a framework for securely collecting data from multiple sources (e.g., vehicles and brought-in devices) and integrating them in the cloud to enable next-generation services with guaranteed user privacy protection.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1659
Mert D. Pesé, Karsten Schmidt, Harald Zweck
Abstract The automotive industry experiences a major change as vehicles are gradually becoming a part of the Internet. Security concepts based on the closed-world assumption cannot be deployed anymore due to a constantly changing adversary model. Automotive Ethernet as future in-vehicle network and a new E/E Architecture have different security requirements than Ethernet known from traditional IT and legacy systems. In order to achieve a high level of security, a new multi-layer approach in the vehicle which responds to special automotive requirements has to be introduced. One essential layer of this holistic security concept is to restrict non-authorized access by the deployment of embedded firewalls. This paper addresses the introduction of automotive firewalls into the next-generation domain architecture with a focus on partitioning of its features in hardware and software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1572
Wesley Kerstens
Abstract The detection and diagnosis of sensor faults in real-time is necessary for satisfactory performance of vehicle Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) systems. This paper presents an observer designed to detect faults of a roll rate sensor that is robust to model uncertainties and disturbances. A reference vehicle roll angle estimate, independent of roll-rate sensor measurement, is formed from available ESC inertial sensor measurements. Residuals are generated by comparing the reference roll angle and roll rate, with the observer outputs. Stopping rules based on the current state of the vehicle and the magnitude of the residuals are then used to determine if a sensor fault is present. The system’s low order allows for efficient implementation in real-time on a fixed-point microprocessor. Modification of the roll rate sensor signal during in vehicle experiments shows the algorithm’s ability to detect faults.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1384
Richard Young
Abstract This proof-of-concept demonstrates a new method to predict the relative crash risk in naturalistic driving that is caused (or prevented) by the effects on attention of visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving in a track experiment. The method required five steps. (1) Estimate valid relative crash/near-crash risks of visual-manual secondary tasks measured during naturalistic driving. These data were taken from a prior SAE publication of unbiased estimates of the relative crash/near-crash risks of secondary tasks in the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. (2) Calculate the “physical demand” and “cognitive demand” scores for visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving on a track.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1381
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Shimul Bhuva
Abstract There is a strong business case for automotive companies to improve by understanding what consumers want, like and dislike. Various aspects of ergonomics such as reach, visibility, usability, feel are dependent on measuring consumer’s ability, opinions and satisfaction. Rating scales (such as adjective, continuous, logarithmic, etc.) are used to measure these complex attitudes. It is essential the correct rating scale and appropriate analysis methods are used to capture these attitudes. Previous psychology research has been conducted on the performance of different rating scales. This ratings scale research focused on scales and their reliability and validity for various applications. This paper will summarize past research, discuss the use of rating scales specific to vehicle ergonomics, and analyze the results of an automotive interface study that correlates the seven-point adjective rating scale to the system usability score (SUS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1382
Michelle L. Reyes, Cheryl A. Roe, Ashley B. McDonald, Julia E. Friberg, Daniel V. McGehee
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) show tremendous promise for increasing safety on our roadways. However, while these technologies are rapidly infiltrating the American passenger vehicle market, many consumers have little to no experience or knowledge of them prior to getting behind the wheel. The Technology Demonstration Study was conducted to evaluate how the ways in which drivers learn about ADAS affect their perceptions of the technologies. This paper investigates drivers’ knowledge of the purpose, function, and limitations of the advanced driver assistance technology of adaptive cruise control (ACC), along with ratings of perceived usefulness, apprehension, and effort required to learn to use ACC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1387
Jing Zhang
Abstract Existing automotive infotainment and telematics systems are increasingly feature-rich; they are simultaneously more densely packed with information and more complicated in terms of human-machine interactions. This complexity negatively impacts the situational awareness (SA) of the driver, and contributes to driver distraction. With the proliferation of tablets and smart phones, automotive mobile applications are growing in popularity; however, their content has been confined to a limited subset of vehicle information and control functions. Phone projection systems such as Apple CarPlay™ allow in-vehicle consumption of phone-based media but offer no improvement for the rest of connected vehicle features. The author proposes a content strategy to significantly reduce in-vehicle system complexity and elevate driver SA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1385
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Santosh Erupaka, Fnu Brinda
Abstract Measurement of usability with the System Usability Scale (SUS) is successfully applied to products in many industries. The benefit of any measurement scale, however, is limited by the repeatability of the associated testing process. For SUS, these factors can include sample size, study protocol, previous experience, and pre study exposure to the system being tested. Differences in user exposure can influence the usability assessment of interfaces which could affect the validity of SUS scores.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1372
Bo Wang, Smruti Panigrahi, Mayur Narsude, Amit Mohanty
Abstract Increasing number of vehicles are equipped with telematics devices and are able to transmit vehicle CAN bus information remotely. This paper examines the possibility of identifying individual drivers from their driving signatures embedded in these telematics data. The vehicle telematics data used in this study were collected from a small fleet of 30 Ford Fiesta vehicles driven by 30 volunteer drivers over 15 days of real-world driving in London, UK. The collected CAN signals included vehicle speed, accelerator pedal position, brake pedal pressure, steering wheel angle, gear position, and engine RPM. These signals were collected at approximately 5Hz frequency and transmitted to the cloud for offline driver identification modeling. A list of driving metrics was developed to quantify driver behaviors, such as mean brake pedal pressure and longitudinal jerk. Random Forest (RF) was used to predict driver IDs based on the developed driving metrics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1378
Gianna F. Gomez-Levi, Ksenia Kozak, Nanxin Wang, Jian Wan, Linas Mikulionis
Abstract Researchers report an estimated 35.7 million of vehicles with touchscreens will be sold in 2019 worldwide [1]. As the use of touchscreens grows in the automotive industry, there is a need to study how driver’s arm and hand moves to access the touchscreen as well as how the driver utilizes the hardware around the touchscreen. In order to aid drivers while using the touchscreen and to minimize distractions, the drivers’ hand must be able to freely move to perform a task on the touchscreen without the trim interfering with the task. At the same time some trim may be used to support the hand and fingers while accessing the touchscreen particularly during tasks that take a longer period of time to complete. A study was performed to understand the effect of the size and the angle of a shelf placed under a touchscreen. Motion capture (Mocap) data of the hand of subjects performing two different tasks on the touchscreen was collected in the Human Occupant Package Simulator (HOPS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1376
David H. Weir, Kevin Chao, R. Michael Van Auken
Abstract A class of driver attentional workload metrics has been developed for possible application to the measuring and monitoring of attentional workload and level of distraction in actual driving, as well as in the evaluation and comparison of in-vehicle human machine interface (HMI or DVI) devices. The metrics include driver/vehicle response and performance measures, driver control activity, and driver control models and parameters. They are the result of a multidisciplinary, experimental and analytical effort, applying control theory, manual control, and human factors principles and practices. Driving simulator and over-the-road experiments were used to develop, confirm, and demonstrate the use of the metrics in distracted driving situations. The visual-manual secondary tasks used in the study included navigation destination entry, radio tuning, critical tracking task, and a generic touch screen entry task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0573
Mohammed Jaasim Mubarak ali, Francisco Hernandez Perez, R Vallinayagam, S Vedharaj, Bengt Johansson, Hong Im
Abstract Full cycle simulations of KAUST optical diesel engine were conducted in order to provide insights into the details of fuel spray, mixing, and combustion characteristics at different start of injection (SOI) conditions. Although optical diagnostics provide valuable information, the high fidelity simulations with matched parametric conditions improve fundamental understanding of relevant physical and chemical processes by accessing additional observables such as the local mixture distribution, intermediate species concentrations, and detailed chemical reaction rates. Commercial software, CONVERGE™, was used as the main simulation tool, with the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model and the multi-zone (SAGE) combustion model to compute the chemical reaction terms. SOI is varied from late compression ignition (CI) to early partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0066
Shogo Nakao, Akihiko Hyodo, Masaki Itabashi, Tomio Sakashita, Shingo Obara, Tetsuya Uno, Yasuo Sugure, Yoshinobu Fukano, Mitsuo Sasaki, Yoshihiro Miyazaki
This paper presents the “Virtual Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (vFMEA)” system, which is a high-fidelity electrical-failure-simulation platform, and applies it to the software verification of an electric power steering (EPS) system. The vFMEA system enables engineers to dynamically inject a drift fault into a circuit model of the electronic control unit (ECU) of an EPS system, to analyze system-level failure effects, and to verify software-implemented safety mechanisms, which consequently reduces both cost and time of development. The vFMEA system can verify test cases that cannot be verified using an actual ECU and can improve test coverage as well. It consists of a cycle-accurate microcontroller model with mass-production software implemented in binary format, analog and digital circuit models, mechanical models, and a state-triggered fault-injection mechanism.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0067
Wei Han, Xinyu Zhang, Jialun Yin, Yutong Li, Deyi Li
Abstract Safety of buses is crucial because of the large proportion of the public transportation sector they constitute. To improve bus safety levels, especially to avoid driver error, which is a key factor in traffic accidents, we designed and implemented an intelligent bus called iBus. A robust system architecture is crucial to iBus. Thus, in this paper, a novel self-driving system architecture with improved robustness, such as to failure of hardware (including sensors and controllers), is proposed. Unlike other self-driving vehicles that operate either in manual driving mode or in self-driving mode, iBus offers a dual-control mode. More specifically, an online hot standby mechanism is incorporated to enhance the reliability of the control system, and a software monitor is implemented to ensure that all software modules function appropriately. The results of real-world road tests conducted to validate the feasibility of the overall system confirm that iBus is reliable and robust.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0070
Longxiang Guo, Sagar Manglani, Xuehao Li, Yunyi Jia
Abstract Autonomous driving technologies can provide better safety, comfort and efficiency for future transportation systems. Most research in this area has mainly been focused on developing sensing and control approaches to achieve various autonomous driving functions. Very little of this research, however, has studied how to efficiently handle sensing exceptions. A simple exception measured by any of the sensors may lead to failures in autonomous driving functions. The autonomous vehicles are then supposed to be sent back to manufacturers for repair, which takes both time and money. This paper introduces an efficient approach to make human drivers able to online teach autonomous vehicles to drive under sensing exceptions. A human-vehicle teaching-and-learning framework for autonomous driving is proposed and the human teaching and vehicle learning processes for handling sensing exceptions in autonomous vehicles are designed in detail.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0069
Venkatesh Raman, Mayur Narsude, Damodharan Padmanaban
Abstract This manuscript compares window-based data imputation approaches for data coming from connected vehicles during actual driving scenarios and obtained using on-board data acquisition devices. Three distinct window-based approaches were used for cleansing and imputing the missing values in different CAN-bus (Controller Area Network) signals. Lengths of windows used for data imputation for the three approaches were: 1) entire time-course for each vehicle ID, 2) day, and 3) trip (defined as duration between vehicle's ignition statuses ON to OFF). An algorithm for identification of ignition ON and OFF events is also presented, since this signal was not explicitly captured during the data acquisition phase. As a case study, these imputation techniques were applied to the data from a driver behavior classification experiment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0053
Wolfgang Granig, Friedrich Rasbornig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Mario Motz, Thomas Zettler, Michael Strasser, Alessandro Michelutti
Abstract Functional safe systems fulfilling the ISO 26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications where additional redundant and diverse functionality is needed for higher rated ASIL levels. This can result in a very complex and expensive system setup. Here we present a sensor product developed according ISO 26262. This sensor product comprises a two channel redundant and also diverse implemented magnetic field sensor concept with linear digital outputs on one monolithically integrated silicon substrate. This sensor is used for ASIL D applications like power-steering torque measurement, where the torque is transferred into a magnetic field signal in a certain magnetic setup, but can also be used in other demanding sensor applications concerning safety. This proposed and also implemented solution is beneficial because of implementation on a single chip in one single chip-package but anyway fulfilling ASIL D requirements on system level.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0056
Naveen Mohan, Martin Törngren, Sagar Behere
Abstract With the advent of ISO 26262 there is an increased emphasis on top-down design in the automotive industry. While the standard delivers a best practice framework and a reference safety lifecycle, it lacks detailed requirements for its various constituent phases. The lack of guidance becomes especially evident for the reuse of legacy components and subsystems, the most common scenario in the cost-sensitive automotive domain, leaving vehicle architects and safety engineers to rely on experience without methodological support for their decisions. This poses particular challenges in the industry which is currently undergoing many significant changes due to new features like connectivity, servitization, electrification and automation. In this paper we focus on automated driving where multiple subsystems, both new and legacy, need to coordinate to realize a safety-critical function.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0054
Daniel Kaestner, Antoine Miné, André Schmidt, Heinz Hille, Laurent Mauborgne, Stephan Wilhelm, Xavier Rival, Jérôme Feret, Patrick Cousot, Christian Ferdinand
Abstract Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. All contemporary safety standards require evidence that no data races and no critical run-time errors occur, such as invalid pointer accesses, buffer overflows, or arithmetic overflows. Such errors can cause software crashes, invalidate separation mechanisms in mixed-criticality software, and are a frequent cause of errors in concurrent and multi-core applications. The static analyzer Astrée has been extended to soundly and automatically analyze concurrent software. This novel extension employs a scalable abstraction which covers all possible thread interleavings, and reports all potential run-time errors, data races, deadlocks, and lock/unlock problems. When the analyzer does not report any alarm, the program is proven free from those classes of errors. Dedicated support for ARINC 653 and OSEK/AUTOSAR enables a fully automatic OS-aware analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0061
Sultan A.M Alkhteeb, Shigeru Oho, Yuki Nagashima, Seisuke Nishimura, Hiroyuki Shimizu
Abstract Lightning strikes on automobiles are usually rare, though they can be fatal to occupants and hazardous to electronic control systems. Vehicles’ metal bodies are normally considered to be an effective shield against lightning. Modern body designs, however, often have wide window openings, and plastic body parts have become popular. Lightning can enter the cabin of vehicles through their radio antennas. In the near future, automobiles may be integrated into the electric power grid, which will cause issues related to the smart grid and the vehicle-to-grid concept. Even today, electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are charged at home or in parking lots. Such automobiles are no longer isolated from the power grid and thus are subject to electric surges caused by lightning strikes on the power grid.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0060
Heiko Doerr, Thomas End, Lena Kaland
Abstract The release of the ISO 26262 in November 2011 was a major milestone for the safeguarding of safety-related systems that include one or more electrical and / or electronic (E/E) systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars. Although no specific requirements exist for a model-based software development process, ISO 26262 compiles general requirements and recommendations that need to be applied to model-based development. The second edition of the ISO 26262 has been distributed for review with a final publication scheduled for 2018. This revised edition not only integrates the experiences of the last few years but also extends the overall scope of safety-related systems. In order to determine the necessary adaptions for already existing software development processes, a detailed analysis of this revision is necessary. In this work, we focus on an analysis and the impact on model-based software development of safety-related systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0262
Taewon Kim, Xi Luo, Mustafa Al-Sadoon, Ming-Chia Lai, Marcis Jansons, Doohyun Kim, Jason Martz, Angela Violi, Eric Gingrich
Abstract Three jet fuel surrogates were compared against their target fuels in a compression ignited optical engine under a range of start-of-injection temperatures and densities. The jet fuel surrogates are representative of petroleum-based Jet-A POSF-4658, natural gas-derived S-8 POSF-4734 and coal-derived Sasol IPK POSF-5642, and were prepared from a palette of n-dodecane, n-decane, decalin, toluene, iso-octane and iso-cetane. Optical chemiluminescence and liquid penetration length measurements as well as cylinder pressure-based combustion analyses were applied to examine fuel behavior during the injection and combustion process. HCHO* emissions obtained from broadband UV imaging were used as a marker for low temperature reactivity, while 309 nm narrow band filtered imaging was applied to identify the occurrence of OH*, autoignition and high temperature reactivity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0137
Akira Ando, Koichi Hamashima, Shinji Kato, Noriyuki Tomita, Takahiro Uejima
Abstract In respect to the present large refrigerator trucks, sub-engine type is the main product, but the basic structure does not change greatly since the introduction for around 50 years. A sub-engine type uses an industrial engine to drive the compressor, and the environmental correspondence such as the fuel consumption, the emission is late remarkably. In addition, most of trucks carry the truck equipment including the refrigerator which consumes fuel about 20% of whole vehicle. Focusing on this point, the following are the reports about the system development plan for fuel consumption reduction of the large size refrigerator truck. New concept is to utilize electrical power from HV system to power the electric-driven refrigerator. We have developed a fully electric-driven refrigerator system, which uses regenerated energy that is dedicated for our refrigerator system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0114
Jorge De-J. Lozoya Santos, J. C. Tudon-Martinez
Abstract The project consists on the mechanical and electronic instrumentation of an existing vehicle (built at Universidad de Monterrey for the SAE Supermileage Competition) to be able to control its steering, braking and throttle systems “by wire”. Insight to the stages of turning the vehicle into an autonomous one is presented. This includes identification of the current mechanical properties, choosing adequate components and the use of a simulation to allow early work on the software involving cameras and motors to provide autonomy to the vehicle. Using software in the loop methodology mathematical models of the dynamics of the vehicle are run in Simulink and update the position and orientation of the 3D model of the vehicle in V-REP, a robot simulator.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0113
Vaclav Jirovsky
Abstract Today's vehicles are being more often equipped with systems, which are autonomously influencing the vehicle behavior. More systems of the kind and even fully autonomous vehicles in regular traffic are expected by OEMs in Europe around year 2025. Driving is highly multitasking activity and human errors emerge in situations, when he is unable to process and understand the essential amount of information. Future autonomous systems very often rely on some type of inter-vehicular communication. This shall provide the vehicle with higher amount of information, than driver uses in his decision making process. Therefore, currently used 1-D quantity TTC (time-to-collision) will become inadequate. Regardless the vehicle is driven by human or robot, it’s always necessary to know, whether and which reaction is necessary to perform. Adaptable autonomous vehicle systems will need to analyze the driver’s situation awareness level.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0117
Raja Sekhar Dheekonda, Sampad Panda, Md Nazmuzzaman khan, Mohammad Hasan, Sohel Anwar
Accuracy in detecting a moving object is critical to autonomous driving or advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). By including the object classification from multiple sensor detections, the model of the object or environment can be identified more accurately. The critical parameters involved in improving the accuracy are the size and the speed of the moving object. All sensor data are to be used in defining a composite object representation so that it could be used for the class information in the core object’s description. This composite data can then be used by a deep learning network for complete perception fusion in order to solve the detection and tracking of moving objects problem. Camera image data from subsequent frames along the time axis in conjunction with the speed and size of the object will further contribute in developing better recognition algorithms.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 16536