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Viewing 91 to 120 of 16441
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0092
Vladimir Hahanov, Wajeb Gharibi, Eugenia Litvinova, Svitlana Chumachenko, Arthur Ziarmand, Irina Englesi, Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Anastasiia Khakhanova
Abstract The new cyber-technological culture of the transport control based on virtual road signs and streetlight signals on the screen of car is the future of Humanity. A cyber-physical system (CPS) Smart Cloud Traffic Control, which realizes the mentioned culture, is proposed; it is characterized by the presence of the digitized regulatory rules, vehicles, infrastructure components, and also accurate monitoring, active cloud streetlight-free cyber control of road users, traffic lights, automatic output of operational regulatory actions (virtual traffic signs and traffic signals) to monitor of each vehicle. The main components of the cyber-physical system are the following: infrastructure, road users and rules, which have digital representation in cyberspace to realize a route, based on digital monitoring and cloud mobile control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0090
Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Jaroslav Pekar, John Michelini, Junbo Jing, Steve Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Abstract Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0091
Songyao Zhou, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Renjie Zhou, Hao Liu
Abstract The mountainous roads are rugged and complex, so that the driver can not make accurate judgments on dangerous road conditions. In addition, most heavy vehicles have characteristics of large weight and high center of gravity. The two factors above have caused most of the car accidents in mountain areas. A research shows that 90% of car accidents can be avoided if drivers can respond within 2-3 seconds before the accidents happen. This paper proposes a speed warning scheme for heavy-duty vehicle over the horizon in mountainous area, which can give the drivers enough time to respond to the danger. In the early warning aspect, this system combines the front road information, the vehicle characteristics and real-time information obtained from the vehicle, calculates and forecasts the danger that may happen over the horizon ahead of time, and prompts the driver to control the vehicle speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0110
Hao Sun, Weiwen Deng, Chen Su, Jian Wu
Abstract The ability to recognize traffic vehicles’ lane change maneuver lays the foundation for predicting their long-term trajectories in real-time, which is a key component for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and autonomous automobiles. Learning-based approach is powerful and efficient, such approach has been used to solve maneuver recognition problems of the ego vehicles on conventional researches. However, since the parameters and driving states of the traffic vehicles are hardly observed by exteroceptive sensors, the performance of traditional methods cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, a novel approach using multi-class probability estimates and Bayesian inference model is proposed for traffic vehicle lane change maneuver recognition. The multi-class recognition problem is first decomposed into three binary problems under error correcting output codes (ECOC) framework.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0275
N. Obuli Karthikeyan, N. Prajitha, P. Sethu Madhavan
Abstract As technology gets upgraded every day, automotive manufacturers are paying more attention towards delivering a highly reliable product which performs its intended function throughout its useful life (without any failure). To develop a reliable product, accelerated combined stress testing should be conducted in addition to the conventional design validation protocol for the product. It brings out most of the potential failure modes of the product, so that necessary actions can be taken for the reliability improvement. This paper discusses about the field failure simulation and reliability estimation of automotive headlamp relays using accelerated combined stress testing. To analyze various field failure modes, performance and tear down analysis were carried out on the field failure samples. Field data (i.e. electrical, thermal and vibration signals) were acquired to evaluate normal use conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0398
Robert A. Smith, Allison Ward, Daniel Brintnall
Abstract Both pellet raw material and resulting extruded insulation samples were obtained from three grades of PVC used to produce automotive insulation and were examined for thermal stability on a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The Flynn Wall technique was used to obtain degradation activation energies by plotting ln(heating rate) vs 1/T and using a literature value of 7% weight loss as the point of performance failure. The Arrhenius relationship was used to predict multiple year lifetimes at 100°C from the multiple hour degradation times observed on the TGA at 200°C. The insulation specimens of two of the samples were found to be significantly less thermally stable than the pellets - indicating slight decomposition occurred during extrusion onto the cable core. All cable insulation samples predicted service lifetimes many times the expected auto life. A PVC insulation sample was examined for failure at various oven aging temperatures using ASTM D3032 mandrel wrap testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0190
Neelakandan Kandasamy, Steve Whelan
Abstract The range of Plug-In Electric Vehicles (EVs) is highly influenced by the electric power consumed by various sub systems, the major part of the power being used for vehicle climate control strategies in order to ensure an acceptable level of thermal comfort for the passengers. Driving range decreases with low temperatures in particular because cabin heating system requires significant amount of electric power. Range also decreases with high ambient temperatures because of the air conditioning system with electrically-driven compressor. Both thermal systems reduce EV driving range under real life operating cycles, which can be a barrier against market penetration. The structure of a vehicle is capable of absorbing a significant amount of heat when exposed to hot climate conditions. 50-70% of this heat penetrates through the glazing and raises both the internal cabin air temperature and the interior trim surface temperature.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0240
Yanli Zhao, Hao Zhou, Yimin Liu
Abstract Ride Hailing service and Dynamic Shuttle are two key smart mobility practices, which provide on-demand door-to-door ride-sharing service to customers through smart phone apps. On the other hand, some big companies spend millions of dollars annually in third party vendors to offer shuttle services to pick up and drop off employees at fixed locations and provide them daily commutes for employees to and from work. Efficient fixed routing algorithms and analytics are the key ingredients for operating efficiency behind these services. They can significantly reduce operating costs by shortening bus routes and reducing bus numbers, while maintaining the same quality of service. This study developed an off-line optimization routing method for employee shuttle services including regular work shifts and demand based shifts (e.g. overtime shifts) in some regions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0239
Seth Bryan, Maria Guido, David Ostrowski, N. Khalid Ahmed
Abstract It is desirable to find methods to increase electric vehicle (EV) driving range and reduce performance variability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). One strategy to improve EV range is to increase the charge power limit of the traction battery, which allows for more brake energy recovery. This paper applies Big Data technology to investigate how increasing the charge power limit could affect EV range in real world usage with respect to driving behavior. Big Data Drive (BDD) data collected from Ford employee vehicles in Michigan was analyzed to assess the impact of regenerative braking power on EV range. My Ford Mobile (MFM) data was also leveraged to find correlation to drivers nationwide based on brake score statistics. Estimated results show incremental improvements in EV range from increased charge power levels. Subsequently, this methodology and process could be applied to make future design decisions based on the dynamic nature of driving habits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0620
Chandrakant Parmar, Sethuramalingam Tyagarajan, Sashikant Tiwari, Ravindra Thonge, S Arun Paul
Abstract The engine compartment of passenger car application contains various source which radiates the produced heat and raises the temperature level of the compartment. The rise in compartment temperature increases the body temperature of individual component. The rise in body temperature of critical components can endanger the durability or functionality of the specific component or a system in which it operates. The aim of this paper is to strategize thermal protection of the rear mounted engine and its components of a vehicle having radiator and cooling fan mounted in front. An additional ventilation fan with speed sensor is fitted alongside rear mounted engine and a unique monitoring technique framed in the EMS ECU to protect critical components like HT cables, alternators, ECUs, wiring harness etc. from thermal damage. The EMS continuously monitors the engine speed, vehicle speed and the PWM signal of ventilation fan to ensure the intended operation of the ventilation fan.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0006
Harald Bucher, Clemens Reichmann, Juergen Becker
Abstract The increasing complexity of electric/electronic architectures (EEA) in the automotive domain raised the necessity of model-based development processes for the design of such heterogeneous systems, which combine different engineering principles with different viewpoints. High-level simulation is a great means to evaluate the EEA in the concept phase of the design, since it reduces costly real-world experiments. However, model-based EEA design and analysis as well as its simulation are often separate processes in the development lifecycle. In this paper, we present a novel approach that extends state-of-the-art model-based systems engineering principles of EEA by a behavior specification reusing library components. The specification is seamlessly integrated in the development process of a single source EEA model. Therewith, the starting point is the abstract logical function architecture of the EEA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0004
Norbert Wiechowski, Thomas Rambow, Rainer Busch, Alexander Kugler, Norman Hansen, Stefan Kowalewski
Abstract Modern vehicles become increasingly software intensive. Software development therefore is critical to the success of the manufacturer to develop state of the art technology. Standards like ISO 26262 recommend requirement-based verification and test cases that are derived from requirements analysis. Agile development uses continuous integration tests which rely on test automation and evaluation. All these drove the development of a new model-based software verification environment. Various aspects had to be taken into account: the test case specification needs to be easily comprehensible and flexible in order to allow testing of different functional variants. The test environment should support different use cases like open-loop or closed-loop testing and has to provide corresponding evaluation methods for continuously changing as well as for discrete signals.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0008
James Andrew Miloser
Abstract Simulink is a very successful and popular method for modelling and auto-coding embedded automotive features, functions and algorithms. Due to its history of success, university feeder programs, and large third party tool support, it has, in some cases, been applied to areas of the software system where other methods, principles and strategies may provide better options for the software and systems engineers and architects. This paper provides approaches to determine when best to apply UML and when best to apply Simulink to a typical automotive feature. Object oriented software design patterns as well as general guidelines are provided to help in this effort. This paper's intent is not to suggest a replacement for Simulink but to provide the software architects and designers additional options when decomposing high level requirements into reusable software components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0007
Jose-Guillermo Saavedra, Asaad Makki, Raciel Cruz
Abstract The advancement in connectivity technology is driving a shift in business models in almost every field. Automakers need to adapt to a new business model in which the platform (automobile) and the mobility solutions (Devices and Services) are enabled by a strong dynamic connectivity. To succeed in this business model, it is imperative to deliver an unparalleled customer experience. Traditional customer experiences focused only in the platform (automobile) are no longer sufficient to address the mobility needs. The development of in-vehicle features should consider both the platform and the connectivity in a single development scope. This paradigm shift sets new challenges for the in-vehicle features designers. Designers have to speak not only the language of the experience but rather a language to address different levels of abstractions to ensure effective communication with all stakeholders and developers including those outside the organization.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0012
Zia Hossain, Shengling Deng, Jim Sellers, Gary Loechelt, Mo Grimaldi, Irene Wan, Emily Linehan, Alexander Young, Ali Salih
Abstract To meet the increasing demand for lower RDS(ON) MOSFETs in medium voltage automotive applications, the shielded gate trench MOSFET architecture is becoming increasingly popular in recent years for its ability to achieve both lower RDS(ON) and faster switching speed. The lower specific drain-to-source resistance (RDS(ON).Area) translates into smaller chip size and consequently cheaper die cost for the end customers. Furthermore, shielded gate trench architecture offers smaller gate-to-drain capacitance by utilizing the shielding effect from the shield-poly, leading to lower G-D charge (QGD), faster switching speed, and increased dv/dt immunity. A comprehensive portfolio of medium voltage shielded gate power MOSFET products in several voltage classes (40V, 60V, 80V, and 100V) in automotive and industrial markets is presented in this paper.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0018
Jeong Chan Kim, Kai Richter, Myung Hyun Koo, Matthias Hagner, Chung Hi Lee
Abstract Along with the efforts to cope with the increase of functions which require higher communication bandwidth in vehicle networks using CAN-FD and vehicle Ethernet protocols, we have to deal with the problems of both the increased busload and more stringent response time requirement issues based on the current CAN systems. The widely used CAN busload limit guideline in the early design stage of vehicle network development is primarily intended for further frame extensions. However, when we cannot avoid exceeding the current busload design limit, we need to analyze in more detail the maximum frame response times and message delays, and we need good estimation and measurement techniques. There exist two methods for estimating the response time at the design phase, a mathematical worst-case analysis that provides upper bounds, and a probability based distributed response time simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0017
Azeem Hafeez, Hafiz Malik, Omid Avatefipour, Prudhvi Raj Rongali, Shan Zehra
Abstract Technological advances in automotive industry have resulted in an increased number of Electronic Control Units (ECU)s. These ECUs are used for sensing and controlling actuators in the modern vehicles. Various network protocols have been proposed to achieve scalable and reliable communication amonglarge number ECUs in modern vehicles.Various network protocols have been proposed for invehicle communication,such as Controlled Area Network (CAN), Local Interconnected Network (LIN), Media Oriented System Transport (MOST), and FlexRay. This study compares latency and reliability of CAN-Bus and FlexRay communication protocols. The HSC12 microcontroller is used to implement these protocols, and for secure communication data is encrypted.Our experimental results indicate that the CAN-Bus communication protocol is a better option for hard real-time systems and FlexRay protocol is appropriate for deterministic data transmission, e.g., priority-less message communication.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0028
Xin Li, Weiwen Deng
Abstract This paper proposes a Real-Time Estimation of Radar Cross Section for ADAS Simulation, aimed to enable math-based virtual development and test of ADAS. The electromagnetic scattering mechanism is firstly analyzed with targets to be typical objects in traffic. Then a geometric model is developed, in which the object surfaces are divided into multiple scattering zones corresponding to different scattering mechanism. According to different surface curvature radius and scattering mechanism, the scattering zones are approximately equivalent to plane, cylinder, sphere and so on. Using the ARD model based on an improved physical optics and diffraction theory, RCS value of a zone is estimated. Then the RCS of the object surface is obtained by vector superposition of all zones. Some typical simulation comparisons are carried out, which proves the practicability of our method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0027
Li Xu, Eric Tseng, Thomas Pilutti, Steven Schondorf
Abstract In the current Ford Pro-Trailer Backup Assist (TBA) system, trailer hitch angle is determined utilizing the reverse camera of the vehicle. In addition to being sensitive to environmental factors such as lighting conditions and occlusion, the vision-based approach is difficult to be applied to gooseneck or fifth wheel trailers. In this paper, a yaw rate based hitch angle observer is proposed as an alternative sensing solution for TBA. Based on the kinematic model of the vehicle-trailer, an instantaneous hitch angle is first derived by utilizing vehicle yaw rate, trailer yaw rate, vehicle velocity and vehicle/trailer parameters provided by the TBA system. Due to signal errors and parameter uncertainties, this instantaneous hitch angle may be noisy, especially at lower vehicle speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0035
Binyu Mei, Xuexun Guo, Gangfeng Tan, Yongbing Xu, Mengying Yang
Abstract Vehicle speed is an important factor to driving safety, which is directly related to the stability and braking performance of the vehicle. Besides, the precise measurement of the vehicle speed is the basis of some vehicle active safety systems. Even in the future intelligent transportation, high quality speed information will also play an important role. The commonly used vehicle speed measurement techniques are based on the wheel speed sensors, which are not accurate, especially when the wheels’ slip rate is not equal to zero. Focusing on these issues, image matching technology has been used to measure the vehicle speed in this paper. The image information of the road in the front of the vehicle is collected, and the pixel displacement of the vehicle is calculated by the matching system, thus accurately vehicle speed can be obtained. Compared with conventional speed measure technology, it has the advantages of wide measuring range, and high accuracy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0038
Corwin Stout, Milos Milacic, Fazal Syed, Ming Kuang
Abstract In recent years we have witnessed increased discrepancy between fuel economy numbers reported in accordance with EPA testing procedures and real world fuel economy reported by drivers. The debates range from needs for new testing procedures to the fact that driver complaints create one-sided distribution; drivers that get better fuel economy do not complain about the fuel economy, but only the ones whose fuel economy falls short of expectations. In this paper, we demonstrate fuel economy improvements that can be obtained if the driver is properly sophisticated in the skill of driving. Implementation of SmartGauge with EcoGuide into the Ford C-MAX Hybrid in 2013 helped drivers improve their fuel economy on hybrid vehicles. Further development of this idea led to the EcoCoach that would be implemented into all future Ford vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0030
Shunsuke Kogure, Takashi Kato, Shin Osuga
Abstract With the improved safety performance of vehicles, the number of accidents has been decreasing. However, accidents due to driver distraction still occur, which means that there is a high need to determine whether a driver is properly looking at the surroundings. Meanwhile, with the trend toward partial automatic driving of vehicles in recent years, it is also urgently required that the state of the driver be grasped. Even if automatic driving is not installed, it is desired that the state of the driver be grasped and an application for control be performed depending on the state of the driver. Under these circumstances, we have built an algorithm that determines of the direction a driver is looking, to make a basic determination of whether or not the driver is in a state suitable for safe driving of the vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0032
Wei Yang, Ling Zheng, Yinong Li, Yue Ren, Yusheng Li
Abstract This paper proposed a two-section trajectory planning algorithm. In this trajectory planning, sigmoid function is adopted to fit two tangent arcs to meet limited parking spaces by reducing the radius of turning. Then the transverse preview model is established and the path tracking errors including distance error and angle error are estimated. The weight coefficient is considered to distribute the impact factor of traverse distance error or traverse angle error in the total error. The fuzzy controller is designed to track the two-section trajectory in autonomous intelligent parking system. The fuzzy controller is developed due to its real-time and robustness in the parking process. Traverse errors and its first-order derivative are selected as input variables and the outer wheel steering angle is selected as the output variable in fuzzy controller. They are also divided into seven fuzzy sets. Finally, forty rules are decided to achieve effective trajectory tracking.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0043
Michael Smart, Satish Vaishnav, Steven Waslander
Abstract Robust lane marking detection remains a challenge, particularly in temperate climates where markings degrade rapidly due to winter conditions and snow removal efforts. In previous work, dynamic Bayesian networks with heuristic features were used with the feature distributions trained using semi-supervised expectation maximization, which greatly reduced sensitivity to initialization. This work has been extended in three important respects. First, the tracking formulation used in previous work has been corrected to prevent false positives in situations where only poor RANSAC hypotheses were generated. Second, the null hypothesis is reformulated to guarantee that detected hypotheses satisfy a minimum likelihood. Third, the computational requirements have been greatly reduced by computing an upper bound on the marginal likelihood of all part hypotheses upon generation and rejecting parts with an upper bound less likely than the null hypothesis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0046
Mohamed Aladem, Samir Rawashdeh, Nathir Rawashdeh
Abstract To reliably implement driver-assist features and ultimately self-driving cars, autonomous driving systems will likely rely on a variety of sensor types including GPS, RADAR, LASER range finders, and cameras. Cameras are an essential sensory component because they lend themselves to the task of identifying object types that a self-driving vehicle is likely to encounter such as pedestrians, cyclists, animals, other cars, or objects on the road. In this paper, we present a feature-based visual odometry algorithm based on a stereo-camera to perform localization relative to the surrounding environment for purposes of navigation and hazard avoidance. Using a stereo-camera enhances the accuracy with respect to monocular visual odometry. The algorithm relies on tracking a local map consisting of sparse 3D map points. By tracking this map across frames, the algorithm makes use of the full history of detected features which reduces the drift in the estimated motion trajectory.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0040
Michael Hafner, Thomas Pilutti
Abstract We propose a steering controller for automated trailer backup, which can be used on tractor-trailer configurations including fifth wheel campers and gooseneck style trailers. The controller steers the trailer based on real-time driver issued trailer curvature commands. We give a stability proof for the hierarchical control system, and demonstrate robustness under a specific set of modeling errors. Simulation results are provided along with experimental data from a full-size pickup truck and 5th wheel trailer.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0536
William Goodwin, Claudio Mancuso, Nicolas Brown
This paper describes how distributive computing along with statistical subsystem simulation can be applied to produce near production ready embedded vehicle software and calibrations. Coupling distributive computing and statistical simulation was first employed over a decade ago at General Motors to design and analyze propulsion subsystem hardware. Recently this method of simulation has been enhanced extending its capabilities to both test embedded vehicle code as well as develop calibrations. A primary advantage of this simulation technique is its ability to generate data from a statistically significant population of subsystems. The result is the acquisition of an optimal data set enabling the development of a robust design now including both embedded code and calibrations. Additionally it has been shown that there are significant economic advantages in terms of time and cost associated with this type of development when compared to traditional method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0537
Murat Ates, Ronald D. Matthews, Matthew J. Hall
Abstract A quasi-dimensional model for a direct injection diesel engine was developed based on experiments at Sandia National Laboratory. The Sandia researchers obtained images describing diesel spray evolution, spray mixing, premixed combustion, mixing controlled combustion, soot formation, and NOx formation. Dec [1] combined all of the available images to develop a conceptual diesel combustion model to describe diesel combustion from the start of injection up to the quasi-steady form of the jet. The end of injection behavior was left undescribed in this conceptual model because no clear image was available due to the chaotic behavior of diesel combustion. A conceptual end-of-injection diesel combustion behavior model was developed to capture diesel combustion throughout its life span. The compression, expansion, and gas exchange stages are modeled via zero-dimensional single zone calculations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0534
Bojan S. Jander, Roland Baar
Abstract The knowledge of thermal behavior of combustion engines is extremely important e.g. to predict engine warm up or to calculate engine friction and finally to optimize fuel consumption. Typically, thermal engine behavior is modeled using look-up tables or semi-physical models to calculate the temperatures of structure, coolant and oil. Using look-up tables can result in inaccurate results due to interpolation and extrapolation; semi-physical modeling leads to high computation time. This work introduces a new kind of model to calculate thermal behavior of combustion engines using an artificial neural network (ANN) which is highly accurate and extremely fast. The neural network is a multi-layered feed-forward network; it is trained by data generated with a validated semi-physical model. Output data of the ANN-based model are calculated with nonlinear transformation of input data and weighting of these transformations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0738
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion is an advanced combustion technique, which has the potential to be operated by alternative fuels such as alcohols. PCCI combustion emits lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) and results thermal efficiency similar to conventional compression ignition (CI) engines. Due to extremely high heat release rate (HRR), PCCI combustion cannot be used at higher engine loads, which make it difficult to be employed in production grade engines. This study focused on development of an advanced combustion engine, which can operate in both combustion modes such as CI combustion as well as PCCI combustion mode. This Hybrid combustion system was controlled by an open engine control unit (ECU), which varied the fuel injection parameters for mode switching between CI and PCCI combustion modes.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 16441