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2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2198
Zhihong Li, Guoxiu Li, Lan Wang, Hongmeng Li, Jie Wang, Haizhou Guo, Shuangyi He
The electromagnetic valve driving mechanism is the significant equipment, which plays a vital role in the unit pump injection system; therefore, the performance of the electromagnetic valve directly influences the function of the control system. Based on the operation conditions of the unit pump injection system, a steady electromagnetic valve model was modified to study the influence factors of electromagnetic force and the best combination to get the maximum electromagnetic force. The validation model was verified by experiment. The effects of some crucial parameters upon the electromagnetic force were investigated in the present paper, (including working airspace, magnetic pole’s cross-sectional area, coil position, coil turn, the armature thickness). The result shows that the electromagnetic force of the solenoid valve enhanced with the increasing driving current and reduced with the decreasing of working condition.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1953
Manfei Bai, Lu Xiong, Zhiqiang Fu, Renxie Zhang
Abstract: In this paper, a speed tracking controller is designed for the All-terrain vehicles. The method of feedforward with state variable feedback based on conditional integrators is adopted by the proposed control algorithm. The feedforward is designed considering the influence of the road slope on the longitudinal dynamics, which makes the All-terrain vehicles satisfy the acceleration demand of the upper controller when it tracks the desired speed on the road with slope varying greatly. The road slope is estimated based on a combined kinematic and dynamic model. This method solves the problem that road slope estimation require an accurate vehicle dynamic model and are susceptible to acceleration sensor bias. Based on the vehicle dynamic model and the nonlinear tire model, the method of conditional integration is used in the state variable feedback, which considers the saturation constraint of the actuator with the intention of preventing the divergent integral operation.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1954
Peng Hang, Xinbo Chen, Fengmei Luo
Path tracking is the rudimentary capability and primary task for autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs). In this paper, a novel four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-drive (4WID) electric vehicle (EV) is proposed which is equipped with steer-by-wire (SBW) system. Compared with conventional front-wheel-steering (FWS) vehicles, 4WIS and 4WID EV has superior maneuverability, handing stability and path-tracking capability thanks to more actuators. Therefore, it is more suitable for a desired AGV. For path-tracking controller design, the nonlinear vehicle model with 2 degrees of freedom (DoF) is built utilizing the nonlinear Dugoff tire model. The nonlinear dynamic model of SBW system is conducted as well considering the external disturbances.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1955
Yandong Ruan, Hui Chen, Jiancong Li
An integrated automatic driving system consists of perception, planning and control. As one of the key component of autonomous driving system, the longitudinal planning module guides the vehicle to accelerate or decelerate automatically on the roads. A complete longitudinal planning module is supposed to consider the flexibility to various scenarios and multi-objective optimization including safety, comfort and economy. However, most of the current longitudinal planning methods can not meet all the requirements above. In order to satisfy the demands mentioned above, a new Potential Field (PF) based longitudinal planning method is presented in this paper. Firstly, a PF model is constructed to depict the potential risk of surrounding traffic entities, including obstacles and roads. The shape of each potential field is closely related to the property of the corresponding traffic entity.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1963
Yuande Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Rui He, Shun Yang, Shanshan Wang, Ning Bian
Adaptive cruise control (ACC), as one of the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), has become increasingly popular in improving both driving safety and comfort. It automatically adjusts vehicle speed to maintain a safe distance from the vehicle in front of it. Since the objectives of ACC can be multi-dimensional, and often conflict with each other, it is a challenging task in its control design. The research presented in this paper takes ACC control design as a constrained optimization problem with multiple objectives. A hierarchical framework on ACC control is introduced, aimed to achieve optimal performance on driving safety and comfort, speed and/or distance tracking, and fuel economy whenever possible. Under the hierarchical framework, the upper layer is based on a model predictive control (MPC) method employed to deal with the multiple control objectives, while the lower layer is for actuator control for vehicle longitudinal dynamics.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1966
Min Ke, Bing Zhu, Jian Zhao, Weiwen Deng
Aimed to keep a balance between positioning accuracy and running cost, this paper proposed an integrated positioning method based on GPS and UWB for the commercial applications of intelligent vehicle’s navigation and position system. When the vehicle is traveling in a wide area and the received GPS signal is good, the positioning results of Dead-Reckoning system are corrected by the low frequency positioning parameters output by GPS. During the correcting process, in order to realize the better fusion of measuring data, a simplified federal Kalman filter was designed by using indirect method. But when the vehicle is traveling in someplace making GPS signal failure such as city tunnel, the positioning results from UWB independent technology are adopt to replace the GPS signal for vehicle integrated positioning.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1969
Yuanxin Zhong, Sijia Wang, Shichao Xie, Zhong Cao, Kun Jiang, Diange Yang
Real-time reconstruction of 3D environment attributed with semantic information is significant for a variety of applications, such as obstacle detection, traffic scene comprehension and autonomous navigation. The current approaches to achieve it are mainly using stereo vision, Structure from Motion (SfM) or mobile LiDAR sensor. Each of these approaches has its own limitation, the stereo vision has high computational cost, the SfM needs accurate calibration between a sequences of images, and the onboard LiDAR sensor can only provide sparse points without color information. This paper describes a novel method for traffic scene semantic segmentation by combining sparse LiDAR point cloud (e.g. from Velodyne scans), with monocular color image. The key novelty of the method is the semantic coupling of stereoscopic point cloud with color lattice from camera image labelled through a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN).
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1967
Wei Liu, Huan Tian, Jun Hu, Shuai Cheng, Huai Yuan
Image segmentation is critical in autonomous driving field. It can reveal essential clues such as objects’ shape or boundary information. The information, moreover, can be leveraged as input information of other tasks: vehicle detection, for example, or vehicle trajectory prediction. SegNet, one deep learning based segmentation model proposed by Cambridge, has been a public baseline for scene perceptron tasks. It, however, suffers an accuracy deficiency in objects marginal area. Segmentation of the area can be seen as the most difficult one compared with others. To alleviate the problem, in this paper, we propose one edge enhanced deep learning based model. Specifically, we first introduced one simple, yet effective Artificial Interfering Mechanism (AIM) which feeds segmentation model manual extracted key features. We argue this mechanism possesses the ability to enhance essential features extraction and hence, ameliorate the model performance.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1971
Sihan CHEN, Libo Huang, Xin Bi, Jie Bai
For sensing system, the trustworthiness of the variant sensors is the crucial point when dealing with advanced driving assistant system application. In this paper, an approach to a hybrid camera-radar application of vehicle tracking is presented, able to meet the requirement of such demand. Most of the time, different types of commercial sensors available nowadays specialize in different situations, such as the ability of offering a wealth of detailed information about the scene for the camera or the powerful resistance to the severe weather for the millimeter-wave radar. Thus, the work here that combines the variant information provided by different sensors is indispensable and worthwhile.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1970
Guizhen Yu, Zhangyu Wang, Xinkai wu, yalong ma, yunpeng wang
In this paper, an efficient lane detection using deep feature extraction method is proposed to achieve real-time lane detection in diverse road environment. The method contains three main stages, 1)pre-processing, 2)deep lane feature extraction and 3)lane fitting. In pre-processing stage, the inverse perspective mapping (IPM) is used to obtain a bird's eye view of the road image, and then an edge image is generated using the canny operator. In deep lane feature extraction stage, an advanced lane extraction method is proposed. Firstly, line segment detector (LSD) is applied to achieve the fast line segment detection in the IPM image. After that, a proposed adaptive lane clustering algorithm is employed to gather the adjacent line segments generated by the LSD method. Finally, a proposed local gray value maximum cascaded spatial correlation filter (GMSF) algorithm is used to extract the target lane lines among the multiple lines.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1972
Sen Li, Xin Bi, Libo Huang, Bin Tan
As an important sensor for the environmental perception functions of the Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS), automotive radar is used for targets detection and parameters (range, velocity and angle)measurement . The procedure of constant false alarm rate (CFAR) plays an important role in adaptive targets detection in a noise or clutter environment. However,the traditional cell averaging ( CA-CFAR ) algorithm has a masking effect in the all multiple target situations and the ordered statistics (OS-CFAR) algorithm needs a large amount of computation. These one-dimension algorithms are not stable separately in the on-road environmental perception. Therefore, this paper focuses on the multiple target on-road environment, and the LFMCW radar simulation system is built to produce a series of rapid chirp signals, which can be used to measure the target parameters (distance, radial velocity, angle).
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1975
Wenhui Li, Wenlan Li, Jialun Liu, Yuhao Chen
Vehicle detection is a fundamental problem in the research of Intelligent Traffic System (ITS),specially in urban driving environment. Environment perception for intelligent vehicles depends on the on-board sensors, such as laser, radar and cameras. Laser or radars have shown good performance in measuring relative speed and distance in a highway driving environment. However the accuracy of these systems decreases in the urban traffic environment as more confusion occurs due to factors such as parked vehicles, guardrails, poles and motorcycles. Vision-based approach has the characteristics of wide field of view, relative low cost, good portability and multi-perceptual information. With the improvement of hardware performance (e.g., GPU, DSP) and the computer vision technology, vision-based driving environment perception in real-time can be guaranteed. Vision-based sensor for detecting vehicle can be divided into monocular and binocular system.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1982
Xiaoming Lan, Hui Chen, Xiaolin He, Jiachen Chen, Yosuke Nishimura, Kazuya Ando, Kei Kitahara
In recent years, the interaction between human driver and Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) has gradually aroused concern. As a result, the concept of personalized LKAS is being put forward. To achieve the concept, driver lane keeping characteristic (DLKC) indices which could distinguish different driver lane keeping behavior are essential for LKAS to be adaptive to personal DLKC. However, there are few researches on DLKC indices for personalized LKAS. Although there are many researches on modeling driver steering behavior, these researches are insufficient to extract DLKC indices. Firstly, most of researches are for double lane change behavior which is different from driver lane keeping. Secondly, few researches on lane keeping behavior only provided model structure and rarely discussed about modeling details, such as how to select model data, how to define driver desired center line and so on. In this paper, DLKC indices for personalized LKAS were deeply researched.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1978
Yuxiang Feng, Simon Pickering, Edward Chappell, Pejman iravani PhD, Chris Brace
The major contribution of this paper is to propose a low-cost accurate distance estimation approach. It is the first step of a research program aiming to model driving style variance. This paper proposes to fuse long range radar and monocular camera using Kalman filter, and can potentially be used in driver modelling, accident avoidance and autonomous driving. Based on MATLAB and Python, sensory data from a Continental radar and a monocular dashcam were fused using Kalman filter. Both sensors were mounted on a VW Sharan, performing repeated driving on a same route. The established system consists of three components, radar data processing, camera data processing and data fusion using Kalman filter. For radar data processing, raw radar measurements were directly collected from a data logger and analyzed using a Python program. Valid data were extracted and time stamped for further use. Meanwhile, a Nextbase monocular dashcam was used to record corresponding traffic scenarios.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1989
Yi Chen, Gaoxiang Lin, Ying He
Intelligent and Connected Vehicles ( ICV) is a new generation of vehicles equipped with advanced sensors,controllers and actuators,and integrated with modern communication and network technologies. It can realize intelligent information exchange and sharing between vehicle and X(X——pedestrian,vehicle,road,background, etc.), with the functionalities of environment sensing,intelligent decision-making and cooperative control.It is safer,cleaner and smarter,and finally can replace the human driver.ICV becomes hotspot all around the world and it is highly concerned by Chinese government. National projects(e.g.,“13th Five Year Plan”and “Made in China 2025”) have paid a lot attention to the development of ICV. China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has established a demonstration area of ICV in Shanghai,thus Shanghai became the first pilot city of intelligent vehicle and autonomous driving.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2010
Junfeng Yang, Michael Ward, Jahangir Akhtar‎
The INSIGHT project aims to develop driverless shuttles with advanced sensors and control systems for testing pedestrian areas with a focus on improving urban accessibility for disabled and visually-impaired people. The project activities require a safety case to provide guidance to identify and classify hazardous events, and avoid these risks by providing appropriate requirements and processes. The safety approach complying with requirements in ISO 26262 has been employed to generate series of hazardous events, safety goals and functional safety requirements in the vehicle level throughout the entire development lifecycle process. The technical focus of this study is on navigation system, human-machine interaction system and vehicle motion control system, e.g. steering, propulsion, suspension and brake. The malfunctioning behaviour of these system has been assessed, and their safety with layers of protection are produced based on the present method.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2011
Suyash Singh, Ankur Mathur, Sandeep Das, Purnendu Sinha, Vinay Singh
In the Smart Cities, main objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. The process said for utilization of available resources is the best fit for our concept. Our Concept is to convert and refurbish the old and scrap vehicles which will also increase their longevity and can be used in any smart city in India or abroad. The ultimate aim to provide this technology for the development of any new smart city in India is the utilization of available resources and reduction in the junk materials and environmental pollution. Refurbishing the old and scrap vehicles with replacement of IC engines doesn’t mean that they will be kept as a scrap and be thrown away, our idea is to utilize maximum of all the available resources. The IC engines taken out of these vehicles will be re-used appropriately.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1952
ChengJun Ma, Fang Li, Chenglin Liao, Lifang Wang
With the increasing number of vehicles, the load of urban traffic system becomes more serious, and the Automatic Parking System (APS) plays an important role in alleviating the burden of drivers and improving vehicle safety. Therefore, it is essential to study high performance automatic Parking technology. The APS is consisted of environmental perception, path planning and path following.The path following controls the lateral movement of vehicle during the parking process, and requires the trajectory tracking error to be as small as possible. At present, some control algorithms are used including PID control, pure pursuit control, etc. However, these algorithms relying heavily on parameters and environment, have some problems under large curvature conditions, such as slow response and low precision. To solve this problem, a path following control method based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is proposed in this paper.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1981
Bing Zhu, Weinan Li, Ning Bian, Jian Zhao, Weiwen Deng
Driver individualities is crucial for the development of the Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS). Due to the mechanism that specific driving operation action of individual driver under typical conditions is convergent and differentiated, the driver individualities recognition method is constructed in this paper under typical conditions by using random forest model. A driver behavior data acquisition system was built using dSPACE real-time simulation platform. Based on that, the driving data of the tested driver were collected in real time under typical driving conditions. Then, we extract main driving data by principal component analysis method. The fuzzy processing is carried out on the main driving data, and the fuzzy matrix is constructed according to the intrinsic attribute of the driving data. The clustering relationship is determined by certain membership degree, and the driver's driving data is divided into multiple clusters.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2005
Zhihong Wu, Jian_ning Zhao, Yuan Zhu, Qingchen Li
Vehicle cybersecurity consists of internal security and external security. Special security hardware will play an important role in car’s internal and external security communication. TPM (Trusted Platform Module) can serve as the security cornerstone when vehicle connects with external entity or constructs a trusted computing environment. Based on functions such as the storage of certificate, key derivation and integrity testing, we research the principle of how to construct a trusted environment in a vehicle which has telematics module. HSM (Hardware Security Module) can help to realize the onboard cryptographic communication safely and quickly so as to protect data. For certain AURIX MCU consisting of HSM, the experiment result shows that cheaper 32-Bit HSM has AES-calculating speed is 25 times of 32-Bit main controller, so HSM is an effective choice to realize cybersecurity.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1951
Lingfei Wu, Hongshan ZHA, Caijing X, Qiaojun He
Local path planning for obstacle avoidance is one of the core topics of intelligent vehicle. A novel method based on dubins curve and tentacle algorithm is proposed in this article, with the consideration of obstacle avoidance and vehicle motion constraints. First, the preview distance of the vehicle is given according to the current speed, so that the preview point can be found with the information of global path. Then dubins curve is adopted to find a path with appropriate turning radius between the current position and preview point, satisfying the constraints of current direction and target direction, and considering handling and ride comfort of the vehicle. In order to avoid obstacle, tentacle algorithm is adopted. 20 tentacle points are given by moving the original preview point, and then 21 local paths can be got by using dubins curve. Cost function is used to find out the best option of the 21 paths.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1974
Tao Chen, Jie Bai, Fang Wang, Libo Huang
In the last years, several proposals about Continuous Waveform (CW)have been developed, which in order to fit the automotive radar application requirements under the multi-target conditions. The transmit signal with Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) technology was developed to analyze the target information in range domain and Doppler frequency domain simultaneously, but the MFSK waveform has lower estimation accuracy in phase measuring. A higher accuracy signal type is the chirp sequence waveform of monopulse radar, which is based on two dimensions independent frequency measuring. It can also get the range and velocity information, but might lead to ambiguities in Doppler domain. To avoid the Doppler ambiguity, a method is proposed in this paper, which using the modified chirp sequence waveform. The carrier frequencies of the modified chirp sequence are different, which causes the Doppler frequency offset.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1973
Yang Yin, Xin Bi, Libo Huang, Shitao Yan
Millimeter wave (MMW) automotive radar plays an important role in the advanced driving assistance system (ADAS), which detects vehicles, pedestrians and other ostacles. In the adaptive cruise control (ACC) and the automatic emergency brake (AEB) system, the target needs to be tracked. One of the automotive radar’s task is to get the direction information which includes the range, speed, azimuth and height of the target by high IF signal sampling rate. In order to solve the problem of high sampling rate for the MMW radar caused by the traditional Nyquist sampling theorem when the target is located, a new method based on the compressed sensing (CS) for the target location is proposed in this paper. This paper presents the linear frequency modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) model and simulates the sampling and reconstruction of the radar’s intermediate frequency (IF) signal via CS technique by using MATLAB.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2007
Fang Li, Lifang Wang, Yan Wu
With the rapid development of vehicle intelligent and networking technology, the IT security of automotive systems becomes an important area of research. In addition to the basic vehicle control, intelligent advanced driver assistance systems, infotainment systems will all exchange data with in-vehicle network. Unfortunately, current communication network protocols, including Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, MOST, and LIN have no security services, such as authentication or encryption, etc. Therefore, the vehicle are unprotected against malicious attacks. Since CAN bus is actually the most widely used field bus for in-vehicle communications in current automobiles, the security aspects of CAN bus is focused on. Based on the analysis of the current research status of CAN bus network security, this paper summarizes the CAN bus potential security vulnerabilities and the attack means.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1977
Xin Bi, Bin Tan, Zhijun Xu, Libo Huang
The sensing technology of vehicle is the primary problem for advanced driver assistant system(ADAS) and autonomous driving functions. The fusion of millimeter wave radar and camera is an important trend to enhance the environmental perception performance. Converting the multiple target parameters (such as distance, velocity, angle, etc.) detected by radar sensor into the corresponding image coordinates is the key of fusion algorithm processing, as well as a difficulty. This paper presents a method in order to detect and classify the on-road obstacles, like cars or not cars (other obstacles),faster and more accurately.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2107
Thorsten Kiehl, Jan Philip Speichert, Ethan Higgins, Ralf God
For an “end-to-end passenger experience that is secure, seamless and efficient” the International Air Transport Association (IATA) proposes Near Field Communication (NFC) and a single token concept to be enablers for future digital travel. NFC is a wireless technology commonly utilized in Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) and contactless smart cards. It is characterized by the following two attributes: a tangible user interface and secured short range communication. While manufacturers are currently adapting PED settings to enable NFC in the flight mode, the integration and use of this technology in aircraft cabins still remains a challenge. There are no explicit qualification guidelines for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing in an aircraft environment available and there is a lack of a detailed characterization of NFC equipped PEDs.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2018
Won Il Jung, Larry Lowe, Luis Rabelo, Gene Lee, Ojeong Kwon
Operator training using a real weapon in a real-world environment is risky, expensive, time-consuming, and restricted to the given environment. The simulator, or a virtual simulation, is usually employed to solve these limitations. As the operator is trained to maximize weapon effectiveness, the effectiveness-focused training can be completed. However, the training was completed in limited scenarios without guidelines to optimize the weapon effectiveness for an individual operator, thus the training will not be effective with a bias. For overcoming this problem, we suggest a methodology on guiding effectiveness-focused training of the weapon operator using big data and Virtual and Constructive (VC) simulations. Big data, which includes structured, unstructured, and semi-structured types, are generated by VC simulations under a variety of scenarios.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2020
Michael Croegaert
Modern military aircraft platforms are using more and more power which results in an ever increasing power density (SWaP). This in turn, generates more heat that has to be dissipated from the instrument panel and cockpit of the aircraft. Complicating this further is that the use of structural composites which are not efficient conductors of heat and the mission requirements of small heat signatures. Therefore alternative means of extracting the heat from the avionics systems must be used. Liquid cooled systems have the advantage over air cooled systems of a much higher heat transfer rate and the fact that the heat can be transported a significant distance from the source. Liquid cooled avionics have their own challenges as well. The architecture of the components (cold plates, etc) used for extracting the heat from the electronics component must be optimized to perform consistently and reliably while maintaining the smallest footprint possible in the already crowded instrument panel.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2028
Steven Nolan, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt, Catherine Jones
Turbo-electric distributed propulsion (TeDP) for aircraft allows for the complete redesign of the airframe so that greater overall fuel and emissions benefits can be achieved. Whilst conventional electrical power systems may be used for smaller aircraft, much larger aircraft are likely to require the use of superconducting electrical power systems to enable the required whole system power density and efficiency levels to be achieved. The TeDP concept requires an effective electrical fault management and protection system. However, the fault response of a superconducting TeDP power system and its components has not been well studied to date, limiting the effective capture of associated protection requirements. For example, with superconducting systems it is the possible that a hotspot is formed on one of the components, such as a cable. This can result in one subsection, rather than all, of a cable quenching.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2030
Benjamin Cheong, Patrick Wheeler, Pericle Zanchetta, Michael Galea
In effort to reduce environmental impact of the aerospace industry, More Electric Aircraft (MEA) concepts with electrical systems for fuel pumping, wing ice protection, environmental control systems and aircraft actuation are becoming more and more widely researched. The replacement of hydraulic actuators by motor drives for flight control surfaces is particularly attractive for maintainability, reduction in operating costs and to eliminate the hydraulic fluid. High power density of aerospace motor drives is a key factor in the successful realization of these concepts. An integrated system design approach offer optimization opportunities for further improvements in power density however the challenge lies in its multi-disciplinary modelling and the handling of numerous optimization variables or constraints that are discrete and non-linear in nature. A 4-level modelling paradigm has been proposed by multiple authors to represent a motor drive.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16501