Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 777
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8012
Daniel E. Williams, Amine Nhila, Kenneth Sherwin
A large percentage of commercial vehicles transport freight on our interstate highway system. These vehicles spend the vast majority of their duty cycle at high speed maintaining a lane. As steering is integrated into ADAS, objective performance measures of this most common mode of commercial vehicle operation will be required. Unfortunately in the past this predominant portion of the commercial vehicle duty cycle was overlooked in evaluating vehicle handling. This lanekeeping mode of operation is also an important, although less significant portion of the light vehicle duty cycle. Historically on-center handling was compromised to achieve acceptable low speed efforts. With the advent of advanced active steering systems, this compromise can be relaxed. Objective measures of lanekeeping are developed and performance of various advanced steering systems is quantified in this important operating mode.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8013
Marius Feilhauer, Juergen Haering PhD, Sean Wyatt
The way to autonomous driving is closely connected to the possibility of verifying and validating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), as it is one of the main challenges to achieve secure, reliable and therewith socially accepted self-driving cars. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) based testing methods offer the great advantage of validating components and systems in an early stage of the development cycle and it is an established process in automotive industry. When validating ADAS using HiL test benches, there are different barriers and conceptual difficulties engineers have to face: How to pipe simulated signals into multiple sensors including Radar, Ultrasonic, Video or Lidar? How to combine classical physical simulations, e.g. vehicle dynamics, with sophisticated three-dimensional, GPU-based environmental simulations? In this article, we present current approaches of how to master these challenges and provide guidance by showing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1895
Xin Bi, Zheng Ma, Wei Wang, Jinsong Du
Abstract—A 24GHz multi-function short range radar has been developed for advanced driver assistant system, which includes different modes in Blind Spot Detection (BSD), Lane Change Assist (LCA), Doors Open Warning (DOW) and Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA). The multi-function radar is based on the micro-strip antenna, which has a reasonable design on main-lobe and side-lobes. According the antenna, the radar can operate in long-range mode with a high gain and a narrow beam width, whilst performing well in short-range and wide-angle mode. The accuracy and the efficiency of the detection range and angle is compared and validated with single function automotive radar in the test cases. Finally, the applications of a target, for instance, a truck have been simulated and analyzed.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1905
Gaoming Fang, Hui Chen
Electric Power Steering (EPS) is the actuator of some lateral-dynamic-related Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). A driving simulator with an EPS will be much helpful for the ADAS development. However, if a real EPS is used in the driving simulator, it is quite difficult to realize the road reaction force accurately and responsively. To overcome the weakness above, a virtual EPS platform is established in this paper. The virtual EPS platform contains two parts: one is the vehicle and EPS model, the other is the steering force feedback actuator (SFFA) of the Steer-by-Wire (SBW) system. The SFFA is the interface between the driver and the EPS/vehicle model. The reactive torque of the SFFA is obtained based on the models, which should be equivalent to the torque that the driver feels when operating a real EPS. Meanwhile, the input of the EPS model is the steering angle of the SFFA.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1907
Yaxin Li, Ying Wang, Weiwen Deng, Xin Li, Zhenyi liu, Lijun Jiang
LiDAR sensors have played more and more important role on Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (ICV) and Advanced Driver Assistantance Systems (ADAS)However, development and testing of LiDAR sensors under real driving environment for ADAS applications are greatly limited by various factors, and often are impossible due to safety concerns. This paper proposed a novel functional LiDAR model under virtual driving environment to support development of LiDAR-based ADAS applications under early stage. Unlike traditional approaches on LiDAR sensor modeling, the proposed method includes both geometrical modeling approach and physical modeling approach. While geometric model mainly produces ideal scanning results based on computer graphics, the physical model further brings physical influences on top of the geometric model. The range detection is derived and optimized based on its physical detection and measurement mechanism.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1892
Jiao Guo, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Shiqian Qi, Xin Li
The conventional radar modeling methods for automotive applications were either function-based or physics-based. The former approach was mainly abstracted as a solution of the intersection between geometric representations of radar beam and targets, while the latter one took radar detection mechanism into consideration by means of “ray tracing”. Although they each has its unique advantages, they were often unrealistic or time-consuming to meet actual simulation requirements. This paper presents a combined geometric and physical modeling method on millimeter-wave radar systems with Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) under a 3D simulation environment. With the geometric approach, a link between the virtual radar and 3D environment is established. With the physical approach, on the other hand, the ideal target detection and measurement are contaminated with noise and clutters aimed to produce the signals as close to the real ones as possible.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1900
Yafei Wang, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Yoichi Hori
Vehicle lateral states such as lateral distance at a preview point and heading angle are indispensible for lane keeping control systems, and such states are normally estimated by fusing signals from an onboard vision system and inertial sensors. However, the sampling rates and delays are different between the two kinds of sensing devices. Most of the conventional methods simply neglect measurement delay and reduce the sampling rate of the estimator to adapt to the slow sensors/devices, but the estimation accuracy is deteriorated, especially considering the delay of visual signals may not be constant. Moreover, the performance of vehicle lateral control systems such as lane keeping cannot be satisfactory using the lateral states of low updating frequency. Therefore, in this paper, a multi-rate estimation algorithm based on Kalman filter is proposed to provide high frequency lateral states.
2016-06-03
Magazine
Executive viewpoints Industry leaders offer their insights on the state of the heavy-duty on- and off-highway industries in this annual series of opinion pieces. The executives share their views on the most pressing technologies and trends shaping their business and the industry moving forward. Annual Product Guide Top products from throughout the industry covering technologies such as Powertrain & Energy, Hydraulics, Electronics, and Testing & Simulation.
2016-05-05
Magazine
New dawn at Honda R&D President Yoshiyuki Matsumoto aims to invigorate Honda's technology and product-development organization with 'full soul.' Automated driving meets regulation: NHTSA and the next 50 years The challenges and opportunities on the road to 'zero deaths' demand a new level of federal automotive safety technical standards, and a new safety-defect reporting and recall system. NHTSA and the U.S. Congress must act boldly and quickly to make it happen. Autonomous driving meets regulation: Hands off, eyes off, brain off Euro NCAP'S president warns that without coherent policies, the growing availability of automated technologies may result in piecemeal technology development-and unintentional consequences. Designer yin meets engineer yang Efficient and effective vehicle development means even closer collaboration between the two former sparring partners.
2016-04-07
Magazine
Defying the disruptors and driving innovation Four top engineering executives discuss how their "traditional" companies are finding new technology opportunities and business growth amid the start-ups-and are even doing some disrupting themselves. Preparing for a 48-volt revival The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Additive manufacturing enhances GTDI pistons Selective Laser Melting may help manufacture future gasoline-engine pistons with enhanced heat-transfer properties and reduced weight.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1634
Atul Bansal, Anoop Jain, Prateek Srivastava, Anant Kumar Tiwary, Rishi Kumar Dear
A tire is one of the most important performance and safety components in a two wheeler. An incorrect tire pressure not only impacts overall performance of a vehicle but also safety and overall fuel economy. The main purpose for appropriate tire pressure is to uniformly distribute vehicle load across the tire contact patch thereby providing an optimal contact between tire and road, effective handling, passenger comfort, maximum tire life and overall vehicle safety. A Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) measures a range of air pressure and alerts for proper tire pressure maintenance. Currently fully fledged tire pressure sensing systems are used in passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The use of such system in a two wheeler is yet to be recognized as precondition instead of an added attribute.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1667
Long Chen, Shuwei Zhang, Mingyuan Bian, Yugong Luo, Keqiang Li
Abstract As a typical parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measure of the road friction potential is expensive for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. It aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0028
Ali Shahrokni, Peter Gergely, Jan Söderberg, Patrizio Pelliccione
Abstract In areas such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs (e.g. AUTOSAR) and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To address the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools, like spreadsheet tools, are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability, while rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited evolvability. As organizations become agile, the need for flexible data management increases. Since products become more complex and developed in larger and distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, and consistent data increases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0047
Umesh Patel, Sreenivasa Parnasala, Chamaraj Melinmath, KM Khalid, Chandrakantha Ursu
RACam [1] is an Active Safety product designed and manufactured at Delphi and is part of their ADAS portfolio. It combines two sensors - Electronically Scanned RADAR and Camera in a single package. RADAR and Vision fusion data is used to realize safety critical systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Lane Keep Assist (LKA), Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) and Automatic Headlight Control (AHL). Figure 1 RACam Front View. With an increase in Active Safety features in the automotive market there is also a corresponding increase in the complexity of the hardware which supports these safety features. Delphi’s hardware design for Active Safety has evolved over the years. In Delphi’s RACam product there are a number of critical components required in order to realize RADAR and Vision in a single package. RACam is also equipped with a fan and heater to improve the operating temperature range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0080
Hiroyuki Miyake
Abstract This paper explains a performance enhancement of the lane guidance function in car navigation systems. In order to achieve intuitive lane guidance, a function is considered that displays lane guidance on an image of the front scene that matches what drivers actually see outside the vehicle. Therefore, two developed items were lane accurate positioning based on image recognition and augmented reality visualization that renders lane guidance images overlaid on the scenery of the road ahead. The eye glance time to the navigation screen has been reduced in a comparison test with a conventional lane guidance method. It is confirmed that this lane guidance function is more intuitive than the conventional method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0097
Felix Gow, Lifeng Guan, Jooil Park, Jaekwon Kim
Abstract Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) has become a popular system due to regulation in many countries. TPMS consists of sensors that measure air pressure and temperature in the tires. Each sensor transmits tire information to TPMS central unit for display purpose via RF. Commercial trailers having bodies longer than 7 m require RF repeaters to increase the data transmission range. Located near to rear wheels, RF repeater receives sensor signal in the rear wheels and transmits the signal to TPMS central unit. In this paper, we discuss RF repeater which transmits at multiple frequencies in order to increase signal reception. On TPMS central unit, RF receiver is able to tune to receive frequencies used in sensors and RF repeater. Other method for improving reception is to transmit same payload multiple times at same frequency as that of sensor. In the paper, other important specifications are discussed as RF repeater design is concerned.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0110
Mohammad Huq, Douglas McConnell
Abstract Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) runs with a set of parameters that determine how the ACC performs. Some of these parameters are tunable to some degree through HMI and the rest are pre-determined. The proposed Behavior Trainable ACC (BTACC) is able to learn all these parameters from driving behavior of the driver. To develop BTACC adapted to the driver’s driving behavior, the ACC keeps collecting driving data such as set speed, acceleration, deceleration, headway settings, etc., of the vehicle over time and keeps updating the related parameters. After training is over, the driver is able to drive the vehicle in BTACC mode, when the vehicle would drive itself according to driving behavior of the driver, young or elderly, and thus, provide the drivers with a higher level of safety and comfort. BTACC can be embedded with an existing ACC module so that the drivers may choose either ACC or BTACC.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0109
Dariusz Cieslar, Krzysztof Kogut, Maciej Różewicz, Mateusz Orlowski
Abstract Enhanced perception algorithms are the key requirement for the introduction of more sophisticated active safety functionalities to urban areas. In order to realize the principles of test-driven development for such systems, either a set of representative and comprehensive test-drive logs needs to be available up front or a sufficiently universal simulation environment for virtual maneuvers should be employed. In this article a case study of developing a radar-based estimator for target heading is considered. This relatively standard problem serves as an illustrative example to assess the merits of an inherently simplified stimulus generated from virtual maneuvers and its limitation in comparison to real measurements. It is argued that a convenient modelling approach for a virtual scene simulation applied from an early development stage can further improve the quality and integrity of active safety projects, especially when they involve multiple sensor types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0112
Dariusz Borkowski, Rafal Tomasz Dlugosz, Michał Szulc, Pawel Skruch, Pawel Markiewicz, Dominik Sasin, Marta Kolasa, Tomasz Talaska
Abstract In the presented paper we deal with an important problem in active safety systems, which is the multi-rate processing of different signals. Automotive systems are usually very complex, involving multiple subsystems, in which typically it is very difficult to obtain equal sampling rates. In many cases, this problem is ignored, which means that the signals samples stored in different time moments are silently assumed to be to sampled in the same time. Looking from the point of view of signal processing, this incorrect assumption often causes large harmonic distortions artifacts of processed signals. These distortions, in turn, generate harmonics of different frequencies. As a result, if processed signals are used to calculate the trajectories of objects seen by systems associated with the vehicle, may differ from the real world trajectories. This may cause occurrence of false positives or no reaction of the vehicle in case of emergency situation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0111
Hiroaki Tanaka, Daisuke Takemori, Tomohiro Miyachi
Abstract Establishing drivers’ trust in the automated driving system is critical to the success of automated vehicle. The focus of this paper is how to make drivers drive automated vehicles with confidence during braking events. In this study, 10 participants drove a test vehicle and experienced 24 different deceleration settings each. Prior to each drive, we indicated to each participant the expected brake starting and stopping position. During each drive, participants would first maintain a set speed, and then stop the vehicle when they see a signal to apply the brakes. After each drive, we asked the participants’ perceived safety about the deceleration setting he/she just experienced. The results revealed that ‘jerk’ have significant influence on drivers’ perceived safety.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0114
Chris Schwarz, Timothy Brown, John Lee, John Gaspar, Julie Kang
Abstract Distracted driving remains a serious risk to motorists in the US and worldwide. Over 3,000 people were killed in 2013 in the US because of distracted driving; and over 420,000 people were injured. A system that can accurately detect distracted driving would potentially be able to alert drivers, bringing their attention back to the primary driving task and potentially saving lives. This paper documents an effort to develop an algorithm that can detect visual distraction using vehicle-based sensor signals such as steering wheel inputs and lane position. Additionally, the vehicle-based algorithm is compared with a version that includes driving-based signals in the form of head tracking data. The algorithms were developed using machine learning techniques and combine a Random Forest model for instantaneous detection with a Hidden Markov model for time series predictions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0116
Takayuki Tanaka, Shunsuke Nakajima, Takahiro Urabe, Hideyuki Tanaka
Abstract Mitsubishi Electric has been developing a lane keeping assist system (LKAS). This system consists of our products such as an electric power steering (EPS), a camera, and an electronic control unit (ECU) for ADAS. In this system, the camera detects a lane marker, the ECU estimates reference path and vehicle position, and calculates reference steering wheel angle, and the EPS controls a steering wheel angle based on reference steering wheel angle. In this paper, we explain the calculation method of reference steering wheel angle for path tracking control. We derive a formula of reference steering wheel angle calculation that converges lateral position deviation in desired time by using lateral position deviation change rate control on forward gaze point as path tracking control algorithm. Since the formula is obtained from the vehicle model, we can easily design a controller depending on the vehicle type, by using known vehicle specifications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0115
Dev S. Kochhar, Hong Zhao, Paul Watta, Yi Murphey
Abstract Lane change events can be a source of traffic accidents; drivers can make improper lane changes for many reasons. In this paper we present a comprehensive study of a passive method of predicting lane changes based on three physiological signals: electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration signals, and galvanic skin response (GSR). Specifically, we discuss methods for feature selection, feature reduction, classification, and post processing techniques for reliable lane change prediction. Data were recorded for on-road driving for several drivers. Results show that the average accuracy of a single driver test was approx. 70%. It was greater than the accuracy for each cross-driver test. Also, prediction for younger drivers was better.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0108
Jihas Khan
Abstract Advanced driver assistance features like Advanced Emergency Brake Assist, Adaptive Cruise Control, Blind Spot Monitoring, Stop and Go, Pedestrian Detection, Obstacle Detection and Collision Detection are becoming mandatory in many countries. This is because of the promising results received in reducing 75% of fatalities related to road accidents. All these features use RADAR in detecting the range, speed and even direction of multiple targets using complex signal processing algorithm. Testing such ECUs is becoming too difficult considering the fact that the RADAR is integrated in the PCB of ECU. Hence the simulation of RADAR sensor for emulation of various real world scenarios is not a preferred solution for OEMs. Furthermore, Tier ones are not interested in a testing solution where the real RADAR sensor is bypassed. This paper discusses such issues which include the validation of the most modern Electronic Scanning RADARs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0117
Bi-Cheng Luan, I-Hsuan Lee, Han-Shue Tan, Kang Li, Ding Yuan, Fang-Chieh Chou
Abstract This paper presents the design and implementation of a new steering control method for lane following control (LFC) using a camera. With the road information provided by the image sensor, the LFC system calculates the steering command based on the Target and Control (T&C) driver steering model. The T&C driver model employs a look-ahead control structure to capture the drivers’ core steering mechanism. Based on the models of the steering actuator and the vehicle dynamics, optimal control gains can be determined for any given look-ahead distance (normalized by the vehicle speed). With these simple gains, the vehicle can track very well along the center of the lane. This LFC system was first simulated under the Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) test using the CarSim simulation. The simulations show that the resultant lateral offsets are smaller than those from typical driver models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0118
Shinji Niwa, Mori Yuki, Tetsushi Noro, Shunsuke Shioya, Kazutaka Inoue
Abstract This paper presents detection technology for a driver monitoring system using JINS MEME, an eyewear-type wearable device. Serious accidents caused by human error such as dozing while driving or inattentive driving have been increasing recently in Japan. JINS MEME is expected to contribute to reducing the number of traffic deaths by constantly monitoring the driver with an ocular potential sensor. This paper also explains how a driver’s drowsiness level can be estimated from information on their blink rate, which can be calculated from the ocular potential.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0120
Libo Huang, Huanlei Chen, Zhuoping Yu, Jie Bai
Abstract Automotive radar is the most important component in the autonomous driving system, which detects the obstacles, vehicles and pedestrians around with acceptable cost. The target tracking is one of the key functions in the automotive radar which estimates the position and speed of the targets having regarding to the measurement inaccuracy and interferences. Modern automotive radar requires a multi-target tracking algorithm, as in the radar field of view hundreds of targets can present. In practice, the automotive radar faces very complicated and fast-changing road conditions, for example tunnels and curved roads. The targets’ unpredictable movements and the reflections of the electromagnetic wave from the tunnel walls and the roads will make the multi-target tracking a difficult task. Such situation may last several seconds so that the continuous tracks of the targets cannot be maintained and the tracks are dropped mistakenly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0122
Tatsuya Yoshikawa, Aoyagi Takahiko, Hiroshi Ishiguro
Abstract In a system with which acceleration and braking by the driver are automated, a gap against the system can be felt when the timing of acceleration or deceleration is different from that intended by the driver or the extent of acceleration or deceleration exceeds an acceptable limit. For an automated system, it is important to realize a control that provides comfort and a sense of security for the driver. This paper is related to the technology that secures the ride comfort felt by the driver (comfort and a sense of security) within an appropriate range and presents a discussion of the technological means to improve the ride comfort from a viewpoint particularly related to longitudinal direction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0121
Ulrich Vögele, Christian Endisch
Abstract Predictive velocity control can be used to enable efficient driving regarding fuel efficiency and driving time. Commonly, velocity optimization algorithms only take static information, like road slope and curvature, into account and neglect dynamic information, like traffic lights and other traffic participants, although the information is available through sensors or could be made available by vehicle-tovehicle or vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. Thus, static optimization algorithms do not provide optimal solutions in dynamic environments, caused by driver or assistance systems intervention. Because the incorporation of dynamic information increases the complexity of the problem to find an optimal control policy, its use in real-time applications is often prohibited. An algorithm is presented which allows a fast computation of all optimal speed profiles with regard to time and fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0123
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Mohamed ElHelw
Abstract The evaluation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS including driver assistance and active safety) has increasing interest from authorities, industry and academia. AsPeCSS active safety project concludes that good results in a laboratory test for active safety system design does not necessarily equate to an effective system in real traffic conditions. Moreover, many ADAS assessment projects and standards require physical testing on test tracks (dummy vehicles, pedestrian mannequins…), which are expensive and limit testing capabilities. This research presents a conceptual framework for on-board evaluation (OBE) of ADAS, which can be used as a cost effective evaluation in real-life traffic conditions. OBE shall monitor, record, analyze and report both internal behavior and external environment (external objects list and video stream) of ADAS under evaluation (ADASUE).
Viewing 1 to 30 of 777

Filter