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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1462
Seung Jun YANG
Euro-Ncap committee has been adopted overall impact star-grade system after 2009 and strengthening pedestrian protection cut-off score to obtain best impact-star grade until 2016. It is very difficult target to pass enhanced pedestrian cut-off score due to previous method. In this paper, I studied where is pedestrian weak area and why pedestrian injury is so high at that area based on our test result. I compared long-hood, 3 corner pop-up hood and pedestrian air-bag system. Finlly I suggest 3-corner rear-ward hood pop-up system is best method to meet our Impact new target in considering pedestrian protection ability, cost &weight.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1403
A host of new technologies, features and functions are continuously being added to vehicles to make the driving task and journey safe, pleasant, relaxing, enjoyable, and even exciting for the driver. An encompassing framework for research has been to understand and push further the need for ‘driver wellness’, the definition for which is still elusive. Suffice to say that ‘wellness’ is reflected in feeling good before, during and after the drive. Objective measures, primarily driver physiology, reflect wellness, but in an as yet not fully understood way. Murphey and Kochhar [1, 2] developed a Transportable Instrument Package (TIP) for in-vehicle on-the road driving data recording, and used machine learning and neural networks to explore the underlying relationships. In this paper we report on research that shows how in-vehicle, on-the-road driver physiological measures can be used to predict the driver’s intention to change lanes, even before such a lane-change is initiated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1401
Pawel Marek Skruch, Rafal Dlugosz, Krzysztof Kogut, Paweł Markiewicz, Dominik Sasin, Maciej Różewicz
Active Safety (AS) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be considered nowadays as a distributed embedded software system where independent microprocessor systems, called Electronic Control Units (ECUs), communicate together using different communication protocols. Typical AS or ADAS functionality is then realized by several ECUs communicating each other. AS and ADAS systems interact with other ECUs in a vehicle, usually, via communication networks and with vehicle’s surroundings via camera, radar, or laser sensors. Quality assurance and safety standards combined with increasing complexity and reliability demands related to vision sensing, radar sensing and data fusion, often together with a short time to market makes the development of such systems challenging. As the number of important for the system road scenarios grows, mathematical modelling and computer simulation become important engineering tasks to assure required quality and compliance to safety standards.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1408
Kristofer D. Kusano, Hampton C. Gabler
Intersection crashes are a frequent and dangerous crash mode in the U.S. Emerging Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) aim to assist the driver to mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-vehicle crashes at intersections. In support of the design and evaluation of such intersection assistance systems, characterization of the road, environment, and drivers associated with intersection crashes is necessary. The objective of this study was to characterize intersection crashes using nationally representative crash databases that contained all severity, serious injury, and fatal crashes. This study utilized four national crash databases: the National Automotive Sampling System, General Estimates System (NASS/GES); the NASS Crashworthiness Data System (CDS); and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1406
Mikael Ljung Aust, Lotta Jakobsson, Magdalena Lindman, Erik Coelingh
This paper presents and discusses the continuous evolution of the developments in the area of collision avoidance systems. Collision avoidance systems have been on the market for a decade, and the development has been rapid. Starting with forward collision warning with brake support targeting vehicles moving in the same direction in front of the car, collision avoidance systems now cover pedestrians and cyclists in front of the car as well as vehicles standing still and even some situations of approaching vehicles in crossings. The development up to date, along with future challenges, are described and discussed according to challenge areas; e.g. detection, decision strategy and intervention strategy. Also, ways of assessing system effects are discussed. Numerous studies have been made predicting the effect of different systems, and the real world effects of these systems have been shown to be significant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1404
Arda Kurt, Güchan Özbilgin, Keith A. Redmill, Rini Sherony, Ümit Özgüner
In this paper, a series of design, development, and implementation details for testing and evaluation of Lane Departure Warning and Prevention systems are being discussed. The approach taken to generate a set of repeatable and relevant test scenarios and to formulate the test procedures to ensure the fidelity of the collected data includes initial statistical analysis of applicable statistics; growth and probabilistic pruning of a test matrix; simulation studies to support procedure design; and vehicle instrumentation for data collection. The success of this comprehensive approach strongly suggests that the steps illustrated in this paper can serve as guidelines towards a more general class of vehicular safety and advanced driver assistance systems evaluation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1405
Guanjun Zhang, Feng Yu, Zhigao OuYang, Huiqin Chen, Zhonghao Bai, Libo Cao
Abstract: The combination of passive and active vehicle safety technology can effectively improve vehicle safety. Most of them predict vehicle crashes using radar or video, but it can’t be applied extensively currently due to high cost. Another collision forecasting method is more economic which base on driver behavior and vehicle status, such as acceleration, angular velocity of the brake pedal and so on. But acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal will change with drive and vehicle change. In order to study the effect of different drives and vehicle types on braking acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal, six volunteers were asked to drive five vehicles for simulating the working conditions of emergency braking, normal braking, inching braking and passing barricades under different velocities. All the tests were conducted on asphalt road, and comprehensive experimental design was used to arrange test content.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1414
Jitendra Shah, Mohamed Benmimoun
In the framework of large scale project interactIVe co-funded by the European Commission Ford has developed an active safety system for the supported and autonomous avoidance of rear end collisions by intervention of braking and steering systems. This paper focuses on the assessment of threat perceived by drivers in collision avoidance situation. The decision making related to the initiation of the interventions by driver is crucial to understand how much threat is the driver can hold. The study has helped to understand how driver feels a threat arising from environment. It is a step towards autonomous driving where the system interventions have to be initiated as early as possible in order to avoid the collision and avoid unstable vehicle dynamics situations. In parallel the reaction has to be delayed long enough until it is likely that the driver will no longer intervene or respectively he is no longer able to intervene. For this reason an experiment is conducted with 26 subjects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1412
Xuan Zhou, Walter Niewoehner
The presentation and paper will explain a new algorithm-based approach to fasten future advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) with simultaneously increasing the reliability. In the past the TTC (time to collision) was used to calculate and forecast traffic situations leading to a collision with an obstacle moving in front of the own vehicle in the same direction or coming towards it. Situations with the trajectories of the involved parties not being in-line (e.g. crossing, lane changing manoeuvres), parties changing the direction of movement, or parties changing the speed are more complex to calculate. The new method developed bases on an algorithm using the data from the area under sensor surveillance (e.g. by radar) to calculate a so-called collision tube. The collision tube describes the relative trajectories of the own vehicle and those of other traffic participants or obstacles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina
Objective: Investigate statistical effects of repeated measures design in FCW (warning vs. no-warning ) evaluation Background: Repeated measures designs are often used in FCW testing despite concerns that 1st exposure creates expectancy effects which may dilute or bias outcomes Method: 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= no warning; B=FCW). They drove in a high-fidelity, motion-base simulator with a visual distraction task. After some 25 minutes of driving a simulated nighttime rural highway, a high-intensity forward collision threat arose during the distraction task. Response time was analyzed. Results: There was evidence of differential carryover and significant Period 1 vs. 2 effects which dilute the magnitude of difference between FCW and no warning relative to 1st exposure only. Also there was a trend toward slower response with no-warning after FCW exposure as first exposure than after no-warning as first exposure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna raj Nair m k
Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the "sleep hormone" is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum affect the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photo-biology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photo-biology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1598
Milad Jalaliyazdi, Amir Khajepour, Shih-Ken Chen, Bakhtiar Litkouhi
In this paper, the problem of stability control of an electric vehicle is addressed. To this aim, it is required that the vehicle follows a desired yaw rate at all driving/road conditions. The desired yaw rate is calculated based on steering angle, vehicle speed, vehicle geometric properties as well as road condition. The vehicle response is modified by torque vectoring on front and/or rear axles. This control problem is subject to several constraints. The electric motors can only deliver a certain amount of torque at a given rotational speed. In addition, the tire capacity also plays an important role in the stability control. It limits the amount of torque they can transfer without causing wheel over spinning. These constraints make Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach a suitable choice, because it can explicitly consider the constraints of the control problem, in particular the tire capacity, and help to prevent tire saturation, which is often the onset of vehicle instability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0218
Sreelakshmi C, Krishnan kutty
Facial expression, a significant way of nonverbal communication, effectively conveys humans’ mental state, emotions and intentions. Understanding of emotions through these expressions is a very easy task for human being. Human computer interface is a developing research field that enables humans’ to interact with computers through touch, voice, and gestures, but communication through expression is still a problem. There are a variety of fields such as biometric, surveillance, teleconferencing etc. in which expression detection system can be applied. In recent years, several different approaches have been proposed for emotion analysis through facial expression, but most of them will work only under definite environmental conditions. The proposed framework aims to detect expressions (by analyzing the facial features extracted) based on the Active Shape Model (ASM). It includes face detection; face modeling, feature extraction and classification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya deshpande, Krishnan kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency regions in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require many sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time; which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and neglect the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in the scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The studies on human psycho visual system hypothesize similar behavior in human perception. The proposed method aims to model the similar behavior in computer vision with the concept of visual saliency. Saliency in still images is computed by color, frequency and positional difference. A region is salient, if its color or pattern is unique. The color difference between the regions in Lab Space highlights the visual difference.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
This paper proposed a method to characterize a driver’s handling behavior through the measured and computed signals used for various vehicle electronic control systems. It uses the vehicle responses under the influence of both the driver and its electronic control systems. It characterizes the driving behavior into different categories based on the driver’s control action. The estimated driver behavior can be used to personalize vehicle control functions or warn the driver. The approach is validated by testing on various vehicles during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was µ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called "Target Zone", defined by a Driver Rating of µ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0311
Reecha Yadav, Vinay Vaidya, Krishnan kutty, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu
In view of the continuous efforts by the automotive fraternity, for achieving traffic safety, detecting pedestrians from image/video has become an extensively researched topic in recent times. The task of detecting pedestrians in the urban traffic scene is complicated by the considerations involving pedestrian figure size, articulation, fast dynamics, background clutter, etc. A number of methods using different sensor technologies have been proposed in the past for the problem of pedestrian detection. To limit the scope, this paper reviews the techniques involved in day-time detection of pedestrians, with emphasis on the methods making use of a monocular visible-spectrum sensor. The paper achieves its objective by discussing the basic framework involved in detecting a pedestrian, while elaborating the requisites and the existing methodologies for implementing each stage of the basic framework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0312
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan kutty
Advanced driver assistance systems have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrade the image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low light condition, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, an image enhancement algorithm is proposed that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0309
Mayurika Chatterjee, Atchyuta Rao, Chaitanya Rajguru
Parking assist systems have become very common in current vehicles. The purpose of such a system is to assist the driver to park the vehicle without collision. The sensors serve as eyes of the driver during parking maneuver by sensing any obstacle in the path. The parking sensors, typically ultrasonic sensors, are mounted on front and rear of vehicle to assist the driver to park the vehicle. Thus, such a system can cover only the front and rear portion of the vehicle and is unable to cover the side portions of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method to monitor the perimeter of a vehicle while parking using minimum sensors placed at strategic locations. A local map of the parking area is generated using data from sensors which helps in identifying static obstacles. The map is constantly updated in real time during parking. The algorithm ascertains that the entire perimeter of the vehicle is protected from impending collisions in real time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0310
Danymol R, Krishnan kutty
Camera sensors that are made of silicon photodiodes, used in ordinary digital cameras are sensitive to visible as well as NIR wavelength. However, since the human vision is sensitive only in the visible region, a hot mirror/infrared blocking filters are used in cameras. Certain complimentary attributes of NIR data are, therefore, lost in this process. RGB and NIR images are captured in entirely two different spectra/wavelength, thereby retaining different information. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate an NIR image from a given optical image. This was undertaken using the compressed sensing framework. The NIR data estimation is formulated as an image recovery problem in compressed sensing. The NIR data is considered as missing pixel information and its approximation is done during the image recovery phase. Thus for a given optical image, with NIR data being considered as missing information, the recovered NIR data gives the corresponding NIR image.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0315
Francesco Braghin, Andrea Fuso, Edoardo Sabbioni, Nicola De Val
The Linear Time Variant (LTV) Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a linear model predictive control based on linearization of the nonlinear vehicle model. The linearization is carried out around each vehicle state. The developed model is able to both steer and adjust the vehicle forward speed to avoid obstacles and follow a given path and speed profile. Once the optimal parameters are found, both in terms of trajectory following and real-time performances, the LTV-MPC is used for assessing the limit vehicle conditions as a function of the vehicle forward target speed, the obstacle shape and speed as well as the road conditions (both dry and wet road conditions were taken into account). It is shown that, to avoid collisions, given performances of the vehicle brakes and of the mounted sensors are required.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0316
Kazuto Yokoyama, Masahiro Iezawa, Yohei Akashi, Toshihide Satake, Yukiyasu Akemi, Satoru Inoue, Ryotaro Suzuki
Parking assist systems which relieve burden of drivers have been put into practice in the world. Mitsubishi Electric has also been developing several technologies to achieve the system. Peripheral environment around the car in a parking lot is detected with Mitsubishi Electric’s ultrasonic sensors, and an algorithm makes a map of the environment to determine whether or not the car can park at an available space. On the basis of the created map, a smooth and efficient path to drive and park the car is generated with an optimization technique. While the car is moving to the available space, the position and attitude of the vehicle is estimated from wheel speed sensors and yaw rate one. Steering is automatically controlled with a Mitsubishi Electric’s electric power steering system. In particular, this paper focuses on a speed control which can be applied to an automatic driving control including an automatic parking system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0313
Francesco Braghin, Ugo Rosolia, Edoardo Sabbioni, Andrew Alleyne
This paper presents a nonlinear control approach to achieve good performances in vehicle path following and collision avoidance when the vehicle is driving under cruise highway conditions. Nonlinear model predictive control (NLMPC) is adopted to achieve online trajectory control based on a simplified vehicle model. GMRES/Continuation algorithm is used to solve the online optimization problem. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed controller is capable of tracking the desired path as well as avoiding the obstacles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0321
Pan Song, Changfu Zong, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Because all the actuators in a full drive-by-wire vehicle are using X-by-wire technology, autonomous driving will be realized just by introducing the exteroceptive sensors and by re-programming the electronic control unit (ECU). The control objective is to follow a desired path, while keeping the longitudinal velocity as close as possible to a given reference. Model predictive control (MPC) or receding horizon control (RHC) is effective in solving the combined motion control problem under the state and input constraints, which predicts the evolution of the plant model over a finite horizon based on a sequence of future inputs in order to optimize a performance index by using the preview information. This makes it an attractive method for use in the automated lane-keeping tasks.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0318
Sonu Thomas, Krishnan kutty
Dense depth estimation is a critical application in the field of robotics and machine vision where the depth perception is essential. Unlike traditional approaches which use expensive sensors such as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) devices or stereo camera setup, the proposed approach for depth estimation uses a single camera mounted on a rotating platform. This proposed setup is an effective replacement to usage of multiple cameras, which provide around view information required for some operations in the domain of autonomous vehicles and robots. Dense depth estimation of local scene is performed using the proposed setup. This is a novel, however challenging task because baseline distance between camera positions inversely affect common regions between images. The proposed work involves dense two view reconstruction and depth map merging to obtain a reliable large dense depth map.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0320
Dezhao Zhang, Shengbo Li, Qiang Yang, Li Liu
The reference path played a very important role in the parking schemes. In this paper, an arc tangent liked polynomial trajectory model is proposed, and an optimal trajectory is obtained for automatic parallel parking based on genetic algorithm, which ensures that the vehicle does not collide with obstacles or other vehicles during parking. The proposed algorithm has strong robustness because of that all the parameters of the vehicle and the parallel parking spaces are parameterized. Using the trajectory model with the vehicle and parking space parameters, a cost function with multi-constraints, were established for path planning. The start and end points of the planning trajectory are the actual starting point and the desired final parking point of the vehicle by choosing three parameters of the trajectory model appropriately. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0319
Reena Kumari Behera, Jiji Gangadharan, Krishnan kutty, Smita Nair, Vinay Vaidya
Pedestrian fatalities in road accidents are increasing exponentially. The insight shows a crucial need for coming up with a real time pedestrian detection system on vehicles. This paper presents a vision based pedestrian detection system. The methods available in literature are mostly classifier based that is applied at various image scales, which makes it inefficient for real time application. The presented algorithm is a novel method that accurately segments the pedestrian regions in real time. The fact that the pedestrians are always vertically aligned is taken into consideration. As a result, the edge image is scanned from bottom to top and left to right. Both the color and edge data is combined in order to form the segments. The segmentation is highly dependent on the edge map. Even a single pixel dis-connectivity would lead to incorrect segments. To improve this, a novel edge linking method is performed prior to segmentation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0657
Binglu Tu
This innovation is a Developed Anti-Lock Brake System (DABS for short) to automatically and precisely identify, correct and verify the peak-value slip ratio S0'' (i.e. braking force = adhesion force) when ε (namely the utilization ratio of adhesion coefficient, which is defined as the quotient of maximum braking strength divided by adhesion coefficient when ABS works) =1, and control S0'' to output continuously. It is a revision on the theory, method and algorithm of current ABS control that intermittently produces S0''. The objects are to eliminate the hidden unsafety of sideslip or ε<1 due to excessive or insufficient braking force, have more simplified structure and reduced costs than ABS, and improve the eligibility from ε≥0.75 to ε≥0.95.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1211
Zhuoping Yu, Caitao Jian, Lu Xiong, Songyun Xu
This paper is to research the dynamic response of active power source (APS) of electro hydraulic brake (EHB) system, which is a new design system. The dynamic response of APS could impact the effectiveness of brake system, the reason is that the slow-response of APS will cause the slow speed of building pressure and increasing the braking distance. So researching the dynamic response of active power source is very important for brake system. First of all, the part is about the components and working principle of EHB system and some parameters of active power source. EHB systemconsists of active power source (APS), pedal feel emulator (PFE), electro control unit (ECU) and hydraulic control unit (HCU). APS includes motor, master cylinder and retarding mechanism consisting of warm, gear and gear rack. Secondly, this paper proposes a restricted distribution control strategy——the control strategy of restricted distribution (CSRD).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0256
Changbo Fu, Paul (Tim) Freeman, John R. Wagner
Abstract: **Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s).
Viewing 1 to 30 of 695

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