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2016-04-07
Magazine
Defying the disruptors and driving innovation Four top engineering executives discuss how their "traditional" companies are finding new technology opportunities and business growth amid the start-ups-and are even doing some disrupting themselves. Preparing for a 48-volt revival The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Additive manufacturing enhances GTDI pistons Selective Laser Melting may help manufacture future gasoline-engine pistons with enhanced heat-transfer properties and reduced weight.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9153
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen
Abstract The number of advanced driver assistance systems is constantly increasing. Many of the systems require visual attention, and a way to reduce risks associated with inattention could be to use multisensory signals. A driver's main attention is in front of the car, but inattention to surrounding areas beside and behind the car can be a risk. Therefore, there is a need for driver assistance systems capable of directing attention to the sides. In a simulator study, combined visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals for directional attention capture were designed for use in driver assistance systems, such as blind spot information, parking assistance, collision warnings, navigation, lane departure warning etc. An experiment was conducted in order to measure the effects of the use of different sensory modalities on directional attention (left/right) in driver assistance systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0163
Thomas Rothermel, Jürgen Pitz, Hans-Christian Reuss
Abstract This paper proposes a framework for semi-autonomous longitudinal guidance for electric vehicles. To lower the risk for pedestrian collisions in urban areas, a velocity trajectory which is given by the driver is optimized with respect to safety aspects with the help of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC). Safety aspects, such as speed limits and pedestrians on the roadway, are considered as velocity and spatial constraints within prediction horizon in NMPC formulation. A slack variable is introduced to enable overshooting of velocity constraints in situations with low risk potential to rise driver acceptance. By changing the weight of slack variable, the control authority can be shifted continuously from driver to automation. Within this work, a prototypical real-time implementation of the longitudinal guidance system is presented and the potential of the approach is demonstrated in human-in-the-loop test drives in the Stuttgart Driving Simulator.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1236
Jun Yeon PARK, Hojoong Lee
Abstract One of the ways to improve the fuel efficiency of the HEV (Hybrid and Electric Vehicles) is to optimize automotive electric system. In order to achieve this, the LDC (Low voltage DC-DC Converter) variable voltage was controlled. Using the ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) map, the charge-discharge behaviors of 12V lead-acid battery was predicted during driving so that, the battery could be charged efficiently. In this study, the feedback control system for 12V battery discharging was designed to compromise between the 12V battery SOC (State of Charge) and the driving conditions at different traffic points. In contrast to earlier approaches, this experimental result indicates that the LDC variable voltage control based on ADAS is able to reduce the LDC average output power by 17.1% therefore, increasing fuel efficiency and ensuring the durability of the 12V battery.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0028
Ali Shahrokni, Peter Gergely, Jan Söderberg, Patrizio Pelliccione
Abstract In areas such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs (e.g. AUTOSAR) and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To address the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools, like spreadsheet tools, are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability, while rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited evolvability. As organizations become agile, the need for flexible data management increases. Since products become more complex and developed in larger and distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, and consistent data increases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0047
Umesh Patel, Sreenivasa Parnasala, Chamaraj Melinmath, KM Khalid, Chandrakantha Ursu
RACam [1] is an Active Safety product designed and manufactured at Delphi and is part of their ADAS portfolio. It combines two sensors - Electronically Scanned RADAR and Camera in a single package. RADAR and Vision fusion data is used to realize safety critical systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Lane Keep Assist (LKA), Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) and Automatic Headlight Control (AHL). Figure 1 RACam Front View. With an increase in Active Safety features in the automotive market there is also a corresponding increase in the complexity of the hardware which supports these safety features. Delphi’s hardware design for Active Safety has evolved over the years. In Delphi’s RACam product there are a number of critical components required in order to realize RADAR and Vision in a single package. RACam is also equipped with a fan and heater to improve the operating temperature range.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0049
Jinwei Zhou, Roman Schmied, Alexander Sandalek, Helmut Kokal, Luigi del Re
Abstract Virtual testing of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) using a simulation environment provides great potential in reducing real world testing and therefore currently much effort is spent on the development of such tools. This work proposes a simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) framework, which helps to create a virtual test environment for ADAS based on real world test drive. The idea is to reproduce environmental conditions obtained on a test drive within a simulation environment. For this purpose, a production standard BMW 320d is equipped with a radar sensor to capture surrounding traffic objects and used as vehicle for test drives. Post processing of recorded GPS raw data from the navigation system using an open source map service and the radar data allows an exact reproduction of the driven road including other traffic participants.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0080
Hiroyuki Miyake
Abstract This paper explains a performance enhancement of the lane guidance function in car navigation systems. In order to achieve intuitive lane guidance, a function is considered that displays lane guidance on an image of the front scene that matches what drivers actually see outside the vehicle. Therefore, two developed items were lane accurate positioning based on image recognition and augmented reality visualization that renders lane guidance images overlaid on the scenery of the road ahead. The eye glance time to the navigation screen has been reduced in a comparison test with a conventional lane guidance method. It is confirmed that this lane guidance function is more intuitive than the conventional method.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0076
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Eman Magdy Moawad, Mohammed Diab, Mohamed ElHelw
Abstract New challenges and complexities are continuously increasing in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) development (e.g. active safety, driver assistant and autonomous vehicle systems). Therefore, the health management of ADAS’ components needs special improvements. Since software contribution in ADAS’ development is increasing significantly, remote diagnosis and maintenance for ADAS become more important. Furthermore, it is highly recommended to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) for the prognosis of ADAS’ safety critical components; e.g. (Ultrasonic, Cameras, Radar, LIDAR). This paper presents a remote diagnosis, maintenance and prognosis (RDMP) framework for ADAS, which can be used during development phase and mainly after production. An overview of RDMP framework’s elements is explained to demonstrate how/when this framework is connected to database servers and remote analysis servers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0097
Felix Gow, Lifeng Guan, Jooil Park, Jaekwon Kim
Abstract Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) has become a popular system due to regulation in many countries. TPMS consists of sensors that measure air pressure and temperature in the tires. Each sensor transmits tire information to TPMS central unit for display purpose via RF. Commercial trailers having bodies longer than 7 m require RF repeaters to increase the data transmission range. Located near to rear wheels, RF repeater receives sensor signal in the rear wheels and transmits the signal to TPMS central unit. In this paper, we discuss RF repeater which transmits at multiple frequencies in order to increase signal reception. On TPMS central unit, RF receiver is able to tune to receive frequencies used in sensors and RF repeater. Other method for improving reception is to transmit same payload multiple times at same frequency as that of sensor. In the paper, other important specifications are discussed as RF repeater design is concerned.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0092
Stijn Kerst, Barys Shyrokau, Edward Holweg
Abstract Active vehicle safety and driving assistance systems can be made more efficient, more robust and less complex if wheel load information would be available. Although this information could be determined via numerous different methods, due to various reasons, no commercially feasible approach has yet been introduced. In this paper the approach of bearing load estimation is topic of interest. Using the bearing for load measurement has considerable advantages making it commercially attractive as: i) it can be performed on a non-rotating part, ii) all wheel loads can be measured and iii) usually the bearing serves the entire lifetime of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel approach for the determination of wheel loading. This new approach, based on the strain variance on the surface of the bearing outer ring, is tested on a dedicated bearing test setup.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0114
Chris Schwarz, Timothy Brown, John Lee, John Gaspar, Julie Kang
Abstract Distracted driving remains a serious risk to motorists in the US and worldwide. Over 3,000 people were killed in 2013 in the US because of distracted driving; and over 420,000 people were injured. A system that can accurately detect distracted driving would potentially be able to alert drivers, bringing their attention back to the primary driving task and potentially saving lives. This paper documents an effort to develop an algorithm that can detect visual distraction using vehicle-based sensor signals such as steering wheel inputs and lane position. Additionally, the vehicle-based algorithm is compared with a version that includes driving-based signals in the form of head tracking data. The algorithms were developed using machine learning techniques and combine a Random Forest model for instantaneous detection with a Hidden Markov model for time series predictions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0115
Dev S. Kochhar, Hong Zhao, Paul Watta, Yi Murphey
Abstract Lane change events can be a source of traffic accidents; drivers can make improper lane changes for many reasons. In this paper we present a comprehensive study of a passive method of predicting lane changes based on three physiological signals: electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration signals, and galvanic skin response (GSR). Specifically, we discuss methods for feature selection, feature reduction, classification, and post processing techniques for reliable lane change prediction. Data were recorded for on-road driving for several drivers. Results show that the average accuracy of a single driver test was approx. 70%. It was greater than the accuracy for each cross-driver test. Also, prediction for younger drivers was better.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0112
Dariusz Borkowski, Rafal Tomasz Dlugosz, Michał Szulc, Pawel Skruch, Pawel Markiewicz, Dominik Sasin, Marta Kolasa, Tomasz Talaska
Abstract In the presented paper we deal with an important problem in active safety systems, which is the multi-rate processing of different signals. Automotive systems are usually very complex, involving multiple subsystems, in which typically it is very difficult to obtain equal sampling rates. In many cases, this problem is ignored, which means that the signals samples stored in different time moments are silently assumed to be to sampled in the same time. Looking from the point of view of signal processing, this incorrect assumption often causes large harmonic distortions artifacts of processed signals. These distortions, in turn, generate harmonics of different frequencies. As a result, if processed signals are used to calculate the trajectories of objects seen by systems associated with the vehicle, may differ from the real world trajectories. This may cause occurrence of false positives or no reaction of the vehicle in case of emergency situation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0110
Mohammad Huq, Douglas McConnell
Abstract Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) runs with a set of parameters that determine how the ACC performs. Some of these parameters are tunable to some degree through HMI and the rest are pre-determined. The proposed Behavior Trainable ACC (BTACC) is able to learn all these parameters from driving behavior of the driver. To develop BTACC adapted to the driver’s driving behavior, the ACC keeps collecting driving data such as set speed, acceleration, deceleration, headway settings, etc., of the vehicle over time and keeps updating the related parameters. After training is over, the driver is able to drive the vehicle in BTACC mode, when the vehicle would drive itself according to driving behavior of the driver, young or elderly, and thus, provide the drivers with a higher level of safety and comfort. BTACC can be embedded with an existing ACC module so that the drivers may choose either ACC or BTACC.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0111
Hiroaki Tanaka, Daisuke Takemori, Tomohiro Miyachi
Abstract Establishing drivers’ trust in the automated driving system is critical to the success of automated vehicle. The focus of this paper is how to make drivers drive automated vehicles with confidence during braking events. In this study, 10 participants drove a test vehicle and experienced 24 different deceleration settings each. Prior to each drive, we indicated to each participant the expected brake starting and stopping position. During each drive, participants would first maintain a set speed, and then stop the vehicle when they see a signal to apply the brakes. After each drive, we asked the participants’ perceived safety about the deceleration setting he/she just experienced. The results revealed that ‘jerk’ have significant influence on drivers’ perceived safety.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0108
Jihas Khan
Abstract Advanced driver assistance features like Advanced Emergency Brake Assist, Adaptive Cruise Control, Blind Spot Monitoring, Stop and Go, Pedestrian Detection, Obstacle Detection and Collision Detection are becoming mandatory in many countries. This is because of the promising results received in reducing 75% of fatalities related to road accidents. All these features use RADAR in detecting the range, speed and even direction of multiple targets using complex signal processing algorithm. Testing such ECUs is becoming too difficult considering the fact that the RADAR is integrated in the PCB of ECU. Hence the simulation of RADAR sensor for emulation of various real world scenarios is not a preferred solution for OEMs. Furthermore, Tier ones are not interested in a testing solution where the real RADAR sensor is bypassed. This paper discusses such issues which include the validation of the most modern Electronic Scanning RADARs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0109
Dariusz Cieslar, Krzysztof Kogut, Maciej Różewicz, Mateusz Orlowski
Abstract Enhanced perception algorithms are the key requirement for the introduction of more sophisticated active safety functionalities to urban areas. In order to realize the principles of test-driven development for such systems, either a set of representative and comprehensive test-drive logs needs to be available up front or a sufficiently universal simulation environment for virtual maneuvers should be employed. In this article a case study of developing a radar-based estimator for target heading is considered. This relatively standard problem serves as an illustrative example to assess the merits of an inherently simplified stimulus generated from virtual maneuvers and its limitation in comparison to real measurements. It is argued that a convenient modelling approach for a virtual scene simulation applied from an early development stage can further improve the quality and integrity of active safety projects, especially when they involve multiple sensor types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0122
Tatsuya Yoshikawa, Aoyagi Takahiko, Hiroshi Ishiguro
Abstract In a system with which acceleration and braking by the driver are automated, a gap against the system can be felt when the timing of acceleration or deceleration is different from that intended by the driver or the extent of acceleration or deceleration exceeds an acceptable limit. For an automated system, it is important to realize a control that provides comfort and a sense of security for the driver. This paper is related to the technology that secures the ride comfort felt by the driver (comfort and a sense of security) within an appropriate range and presents a discussion of the technological means to improve the ride comfort from a viewpoint particularly related to longitudinal direction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0123
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Mohamed ElHelw
Abstract The evaluation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS including driver assistance and active safety) has increasing interest from authorities, industry and academia. AsPeCSS active safety project concludes that good results in a laboratory test for active safety system design does not necessarily equate to an effective system in real traffic conditions. Moreover, many ADAS assessment projects and standards require physical testing on test tracks (dummy vehicles, pedestrian mannequins…), which are expensive and limit testing capabilities. This research presents a conceptual framework for on-board evaluation (OBE) of ADAS, which can be used as a cost effective evaluation in real-life traffic conditions. OBE shall monitor, record, analyze and report both internal behavior and external environment (external objects list and video stream) of ADAS under evaluation (ADASUE).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0120
Libo Huang, Huanlei Chen, Zhuoping Yu, Jie Bai
Abstract Automotive radar is the most important component in the autonomous driving system, which detects the obstacles, vehicles and pedestrians around with acceptable cost. The target tracking is one of the key functions in the automotive radar which estimates the position and speed of the targets having regarding to the measurement inaccuracy and interferences. Modern automotive radar requires a multi-target tracking algorithm, as in the radar field of view hundreds of targets can present. In practice, the automotive radar faces very complicated and fast-changing road conditions, for example tunnels and curved roads. The targets’ unpredictable movements and the reflections of the electromagnetic wave from the tunnel walls and the roads will make the multi-target tracking a difficult task. Such situation may last several seconds so that the continuous tracks of the targets cannot be maintained and the tracks are dropped mistakenly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0121
Ulrich Vögele, Christian Endisch
Abstract Predictive velocity control can be used to enable efficient driving regarding fuel efficiency and driving time. Commonly, velocity optimization algorithms only take static information, like road slope and curvature, into account and neglect dynamic information, like traffic lights and other traffic participants, although the information is available through sensors or could be made available by vehicle-tovehicle or vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. Thus, static optimization algorithms do not provide optimal solutions in dynamic environments, caused by driver or assistance systems intervention. Because the incorporation of dynamic information increases the complexity of the problem to find an optimal control policy, its use in real-time applications is often prohibited. An algorithm is presented which allows a fast computation of all optimal speed profiles with regard to time and fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0118
Shinji Niwa, Mori Yuki, Tetsushi Noro, Shunsuke Shioya, Kazutaka Inoue
Abstract This paper presents detection technology for a driver monitoring system using JINS MEME, an eyewear-type wearable device. Serious accidents caused by human error such as dozing while driving or inattentive driving have been increasing recently in Japan. JINS MEME is expected to contribute to reducing the number of traffic deaths by constantly monitoring the driver with an ocular potential sensor. This paper also explains how a driver’s drowsiness level can be estimated from information on their blink rate, which can be calculated from the ocular potential.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0116
Takayuki Tanaka, Shunsuke Nakajima, Takahiro Urabe, Hideyuki Tanaka
Abstract Mitsubishi Electric has been developing a lane keeping assist system (LKAS). This system consists of our products such as an electric power steering (EPS), a camera, and an electronic control unit (ECU) for ADAS. In this system, the camera detects a lane marker, the ECU estimates reference path and vehicle position, and calculates reference steering wheel angle, and the EPS controls a steering wheel angle based on reference steering wheel angle. In this paper, we explain the calculation method of reference steering wheel angle for path tracking control. We derive a formula of reference steering wheel angle calculation that converges lateral position deviation in desired time by using lateral position deviation change rate control on forward gaze point as path tracking control algorithm. Since the formula is obtained from the vehicle model, we can easily design a controller depending on the vehicle type, by using known vehicle specifications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0117
Bi-Cheng Luan, I-Hsuan Lee, Han-Shue Tan, Kang Li, Ding Yuan, Fang-Chieh Chou
Abstract This paper presents the design and implementation of a new steering control method for lane following control (LFC) using a camera. With the road information provided by the image sensor, the LFC system calculates the steering command based on the Target and Control (T&C) driver steering model. The T&C driver model employs a look-ahead control structure to capture the drivers’ core steering mechanism. Based on the models of the steering actuator and the vehicle dynamics, optimal control gains can be determined for any given look-ahead distance (normalized by the vehicle speed). With these simple gains, the vehicle can track very well along the center of the lane. This LFC system was first simulated under the Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) test using the CarSim simulation. The simulations show that the resultant lateral offsets are smaller than those from typical driver models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0153
Qingkun Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Bing Zhu
Abstract This paper reports an effort to improve plan of vehicle trajectory using an approach with rapidly-exploring random trees (RRT), which has been widely adopted in the prior art for complex and dynamic traffic environment. Design and implement of an integrated threat assessment is presented that evaluates threats of the trajectory. A node and trajectory evaluation index was introduced into the proposed RRT algorithm to connect an appropriate node and select the best trajectory. The contribution of this paper is on the threat assessment that takes into account not only obstacle avoidance but also stability. The simulation is conducted and the results show that the proposed method works as expected and is valid and effective.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0145
Madeleine Gibson, John Lee, Vindhya Venkatraman, Morgan Price, Jeffrey Lewis, Olivia Montgomery, Bilge Mutlu, Joshua Domeyer, James Foley
Abstract The rapid increase in the sophistication of vehicle automation demands development of evaluation protocols tuned to understanding driver-automation interaction. Driving simulators provide a safe and cost-efficient tool for studying driver-automation interaction, and this paper outlines general considerations for simulator-based evaluation protocols. Several challenges confront automation evaluation, including the limited utility of standard measures of driver performance (e.g., standard deviation of lane position), and the need to quantify underlying mental processes associated with situation awareness and trust. Implicitly or explicitly vehicle automation encourages drivers to disengage from driving and engage in other activities. Thus secondary tasks play an important role in both creating representative situations for automation use and misuse, as well as providing embedded measures of driver engagement.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0144
Morgan A. Price, Vindhya Venkatraman, Madeleine Gibson, John Lee, Bilge Mutlu
Abstract Increasingly sophisticated vehicle automation can perform steering and speed control, allowing the driver to disengage from driving. However, vehicle automation may not be capable of handling all roadway situations and driver intervention may be required in such situations. The typical approach is to indicate vehicle capability through displays and warnings, but control algorithms can also signal capability. Psychophysical methods can be used to link perceptual experiences to physical stimuli. In this situation, trust is an important perceptual experience related to automation capability that is revealed by the physical stimuli produced by different control algorithms. For instance, precisely centering the vehicle in the lane may indicate a highly capable system, whereas simply keeping the vehicle within lane boundaries may signal diminished capability.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0146
Yonghwan Jeong, Seonwook Kim, Kyongsu Yi, Sangyong Lee, ByeongRim Jo
Abstract This paper represents a parking lot occupancy detection and parking control algorithm for the autonomous valet parking system. The parking lot occupancy detection algorithm determine the occupancy of the parking space, using LiDAR sensors mounted at each side of front bumper. Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) method is used to cluster that information. After that, a global parking map, which includes all parking lots and access road, is constructed offline to figure out which cluster is located in a parking space. By doing this, searching for available parking lots has been finished. The proposed parking control algorithm consists of a reference path generation, a path tracking controller, and a parking process controller. At first, route points of the reference path are determined under the consideration of the minimum turning radius and minimum safety margin with near parking.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
Abstract This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
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