Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 753
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9153
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen
Abstract The number of advanced driver assistance systems is constantly increasing. Many of the systems require visual attention, and a way to reduce risks associated with inattention could be to use multisensory signals. A driver's main attention is in front of the car, but inattention to surrounding areas beside and behind the car can be a risk. Therefore, there is a need for driver assistance systems capable of directing attention to the sides. In a simulator study, combined visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals for directional attention capture were designed for use in driver assistance systems, such as blind spot information, parking assistance, collision warnings, navigation, lane departure warning etc. An experiment was conducted in order to measure the effects of the use of different sensory modalities on directional attention (left/right) in driver assistance systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0148
Diljith Kunnamcherry Muthuvana
The main purpose of the V2X system is to enhance the safety and efficiency of the driver. Since the Automotive diaspora is now moving for a safe, connected and intelligent mobility. The V2X system allows communication over the air with other V2X traffic participants, the participants include the target vehicles or roadside units equipped with a V2X system and uses this information exchange to warn the driver about potential road hazards, thereby extending a vehicle’s field of vision. This will in turn enhance the safety and efficiency of the driver. One possible scenario could be that the V2X system receives information from a vehicle involved in an accident and then warns about this accident ahead via the HMI display. The V2X system also collects vehicle data and prepares it to generate messages send out to other V2X participants over the air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1658
Jie Huang, Lu Xiong, Songyun Xu, Zhuoping Yu
With the development of the electrification of the automobile, electronic hydraulic brake system is gradually applied. Many companies have introduced products related to integrated electronic hydraulic brake system(I-EHB)- a kind of the electronic hydraulic brake system. In this paper, an integrated electronic hydraulic brake system is introduced, which uses the motor to drive the reduction mechanism as a power source for braking. The reduction mechanism is composed of a turbine, a worm, a gear and a rack. A control method based on command feed-forward is proposed to improve the hydraulic pressure control of integrated electronic hydraulic brake system(I-EHB). Based on previous research, we simplify the system to first order system, and the theoretical design of the command feed-forward compensator is carried out.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0110
Mohammad Huq, Douglas McConnell
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) runs with a set of parameters that determine how the ACC performs. Some of these parameters are tunable to some degree through HMI and the rests are pre-determined. The proposed Behavior Trainable ACC (BTACC) is able to learn all or some of these parameters from driving behavior of the driver. To develop BTACC adapted to the driver’s driving behavior, the ACC keeps collecting driving data such as set speed, acceleration, deceleration, head way settings, etc., of the vehicle over time and keeps updating the related parameters. After training is over, the driver is able to drive the vehicle in BTACC mode, when the vehicle would drive itself according to driving behavior of the driver, young or elderly, and thus, provide the drivers with a higher level of safety and comfort. BTACC can be embedded with an existing ACC module so that the drivers may choose either ACC or BTACC.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0121
Ulrich Vögele, Christian Endisch
Predictive velocity control can be used to enable efficient driving regarding fuel efficiency and driving time. Commonly, velocity optimization algorithms only take static information, like road slope and curvature, into account and neglect dynamic information, like traffic lights and other traffic participants, although the information is available through sensors or could be made available by vehicle-to-vehicle or vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. Thus, static optimization algorithms do not provide optimal solutions in dynamic environments, caused by driver or assistance systems intervention. Because the incorporation of dynamic information increases the complexity of the problem to find an optimal control policy, its use in real-time applications is often prohibited. An algorithm is presented which allows a fast computation of all optimal speed profiles with regard to time and fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1667
Long Chen, Shuwei Zhang, Mingyuan Bian, Yugong Luo, Keqiang Li
As one characteristic parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measurement of the road friction potential is an expensive work for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper, which aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0114
Chris Schwarz, Timothy Brown, John Lee, John Gaspar, Julie Kang
Distracted driving remains a serious risk to motorists in the US and worldwide. Over 3,000 people were killed in 2013 in the US because of distracted driving; and over 420,000 people were injured. A system that can accurately detect distracted driving would potentially be able to alert drivers, bringing their attention back to the primary driving task and potentially saving lives. This paper documents an effort to develop an algorithm that can detect visual distraction using vehicle-based sensor signals such as steering wheel inputs, lane position and the like. Additionally, the vehicle-based algorithm is compared with a version that includes driving-based signals in the form of head tracking data. The algorithms were developed using machine learning techniques and combine a Random Forest model for instantaneous detection with a Hidden Markov model for time series predictions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0116
Takayuki Tanaka, Shunsuke Nakajima, Takahiro Urabe, Hideyuki Tanaka
Mitsubishi Electric has been developing a lane keeping assist system (LKAS). This system consists of our products such as an electric power steering (EPS), a camera, and an electronic control unit (ECU) for ADAS. In this system, the camera detects a lane marker, the ECU estimate reference path and vehicle position, and it calculates reference steering wheel angle, and EPS controls a steering wheel angle based on reference steering wheel angle. In this paper, we explain calculation method of reference steering wheel angle for path tracking control. We derived a formula of reference steering wheel angle calculation that converge lateral position deviation in desired time by using lateral position deviation change rate control on forward gaze point as path tracking control algorithm. Because the formula is obtained from vehicle model, we can design controller depending on a vehicle type easily by using known vehicle spec.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0163
Thomas Rothermel, Jürgen Pitz, Hans-Christian Reuss
In the field of electric mobility, one of the key issues is to improve the safety for pedestrians in urban areas with help of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Due to cruising range restrictions, nowadays electric vehicles are mainly operated in urban areas where risk potential for pedestrian collision is increased. Furthermore low noise emissions, in comparison to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, lead to a reduced acoustic perception through pedestrians. The paper proposes a framework for semi-autonomous longitudinal guidance for electric vehicles. To lower the risk for pedestrian collisions in urban areas, a velocity reference trajectory which is given by the driver is optimized with respect to safety aspects by means of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC). The velocity reference trajectory is determined from accelerator pedal input.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0097
Felix Gow, Lifeng Guan, Jooil Park, Jaekwon Kim
TPMS has become a popular system due to regulation in many countries. TPMS consists of sensors that measure air pressure and temperature in the tires. Each sensor transmits sensor information to TPMS control unit for display purpose via RF. The commercial trailers having a long body (longer than 7 m) require a RF repeater to increase the data transmission range. Located near to rear wheels, RF repeater receives sensor signal in the rear wheels and transmits the signal to TPMS control unit. In this paper, we discuss RF repeater transmits at multiple frequencies in order to increase signal reception. On TPMS control unit, RF receiver is able to tune to receive frequencies used in sensor and RF repeater. Other method for improving reception is to transmit same payload multiple times at same frequency as that of sensor. In the paper, other important specifications are discussed as RF repeater design is concerned. A user’s case of RF repeater is implemented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0080
Hiroyuki Miyake
This paper explains a performance enhancement of the lane guidance function in car navigation systems.In order to achieve intuitive lane guidance, a function is considered that displays lane guidance on an image of the front scene that matches what drivers actually see outside the vehicle.Therefore, two developed items were lane accurate positioning based on image recognition and augmented reality visualization that renders lane guidance images overlaid on the scenery of the road ahead.The eye glance time to the navigation screen has been reduced in a comparison test with a conventional lane guidance method. It is confirmed that this lane guidance function is more intuitive than the conventional method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1653
Vehicle Longitudinal Control (VLC) algorithm is the basis function of automotive Cruise Control System. The main task of VLC is to achieve an acceleration tracking controller, whose performance requirements include fast response and high tracking accuracy. At present, to implement vehicle longitudinal control, at least three control methods, such as the classical PID controller, the method based on numerical look-up table and the controller based on vehicle longitudinal dynamics model, are used to implement vehicle longitudinal acceleration tracking control. However, the above methods are needed to be improved. The PID controller and the numerical look-up table based method need a large number of experiments to calibrate the parameters of controller. Moreover, the controller based on vehicle longitudinal dynamics model is not able to achieve accurate tracking control of target acceleration because of inevitable model error.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0112
Dariusz Borkowski, Rafal Tomasz Dlugosz, Michał Szulc, Pawel Skruch, Pawel Markiewicz, Dominik Sasin, Marta Kolasa, Tomasz Talaska
In the presented paper we deal with an important problem in active safety systems, which is the multi-rate processing of different signals. Automotive systems are usually very complex, involving multiple subsystems, in which typically it is very difficult to obtain equal sampling rates. In many cases, this problem is ignored, which means that the signals samples stored in different time moments are silently assumed to be to sampled in the same time. Looking from the point of view of signal processing, this incorrect assumption often causes large harmonic distortions artifacts of processed signals. These distortions in turn generate harmonics of different frequencies. As a result, the trajectories of objects seen by systems associated with the vehicle, may differ from the real world trajectories. This may cause occurence of false positives or no reaction of the vehicle in case of emergency situation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1424
Yi G. Glaser, Robert E. Llaneras, Daniel S. Glaser, Charles A. Green
Partially automated driving involves the relinquishment of longitudinal and/or latitudinal control to the vehicle. Partially automated systems, however, are not full automation and require driver oversight to avoid road hazards. Researchers have expressed concern that automation promotes extended eyes off road behaviors which may lead to a loss of road awareness, degrading a driver’s ability to detect hazards and make necessary overrides. A potential countermeasure to visual inattention is the orientation of the driver’s attention towards potential hazards. This method is based on the assumption that drivers are able to rapidly identify hazards once their attention is drawn to the area of interest regardless of preceding eyes off road behavior. This work tested this assumption by investigating if the time to detect a hazard is positively correlated with preceding off-road gaze duration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0028
Ali Shahrokni, Peter Gergely, Jan Söderberg, Patrizio Pelliccione
In novel areas, such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To keep up with the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for the engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools like spreadsheet tools are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability. At the other side of the spectrum, rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited ability to adapt to changes. As organizations become more agile, the need for flexible and agile data management increases; as products become more complex and developed in larger and more distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, consistent, and coherent data increases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1442
David Miller, Mishel Johns, Hillary Page Ive, Nikhil Gowda, David Sirkin, Srinath Sibi, Brian Mok, Sudipto Aich, Wendy Ju
Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated control and driver control, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a full-vehicle driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a book section on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in participants' accident avoidance ability following the different tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1454
Libo Dong, Stanley Chien, Jiang-Yu Zheng, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (PAEB) for avoiding/mitigating pedestrian crashes has been equipped on some passenger vehicles. One of the important components in the PAEB evaluation is the development of standard testing at night. The test facility should include representative low-illuminance environment to enable the examination of the sensing and control functions of different PAEB systems. The goal of this research is to characterize and model light source distributions and variations in the low-illuminance environment and determine possible ways to reconstruct such an environment for PAEB evaluation. Previously, the development of lighting system for PAEB Testing is based only on ANSI/IESNA RP-8-00, which define the average illuminance level and light uniformity of the lighting requirement in US roadway lighting design. This approach is intrinsic and cost effective, but lacks of real lighting characteristic in urban area.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0085
Patrick Shelly
More options in automotive hardware along with the arrival of powerful multicore SoC platforms have changed the playing field in designing automotive systems today. The flexibility of open Linux operating systems has also allowed vehicle systems designers to consider hosting multiple complex functions in a single ECU. This paper examines a "proof-of-concept" platform that has integrated a variety of consumer-demanded functions in a secure automotive-grade package. Platform capabilities include: a driver information module (DIM), vehicle infotainment, smartphone and tablet integration, advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) features, and an AUTOSAR-based communication capability that works with existing in-vehicle networks (CAN, FlexRay, Ethernet). This type of reference design allows shorter time-to-market performance with consumer-ready features to address immediate market demands.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1453
I-Hsuan Lee, Bi-Cheng Luan
Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems is one of the functions of the Advanced Driver Assists System to avoid or mitigate vehicle frontal collisions. Most of the previous studies focus on two-car scenario where the host vehicle monitors the distances to the vehicles in front, and automatically applies emergency brake when a collision is imminent. The purpose of this paper is to develop an Advanced-AEB control system that mitigates collisions in a multi-car scenario by computing the Time-to-Collision (TTC) to the vehicles in front as well as those to the vehicles behind using the concept of impedance control. A simple gain-scheduling PI controller was designed for the host vehicle to track the reference inputs generated by the impedance control. The preliminary simulation results demonstrate that the proposed AEB is effective in mitigating the collisions in a 3-car following scenario.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0122
Tatsuya Yoshikawa, Aoyagi Takahiko, Hiroshi Ishiguro
Automated acceleration and braking systems can accelerate and brake at times and to degrees exceeded or not expected by the driver, leaving the driver feeling as though he/she is not in complete control of the vehicle. It is important for automated control systems to make drivers feel both safe and comfortable. This paper looks at technologies for ensuring a proper range of driver comfort (ease of use and safety) in parking assist systems that automate accelerator and braking operations. It also includes observations on technological means for improving driver comfort from a travel perspective.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0131
Andre Kohn, Rolf Schneider, Antonio Vilela, Andre Roger, Udo Dannebaum
The trend towards even more sophisticated driver assistance systems and growing automation of driving sets new requirements for the robustness and availability of the involved automotive systems. In case of an error, today it is still sufficient that safety related systems just fail safe or silent to prevent safety related influence of the driving stability resulting in a functional deactivation. But the reliance on mechanical fallbacks and the human driver taking over control, being inevitable in such a scenario, are expected to get more and more insufficient along with a rising degree of driving automation. The intended and proposed advantage of highly or even fully automated driving is that driver as well as passengers can use the travel time to put more or less of their attention on other tasks instead of monitoring the car’s behavior.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0047
Umesh Patel, Sreenivasa Parnasala, Chamaraj Melinmath, KM Khalid, Chandrakantha Ursu
RACam is an Active Safety product designed and manufactured at Delphi and is part of their ADAS portfolio. It combines two sensors – Electronically Scanned RADAR and Camera in single box. RADAR and Vision fusion data is used to realize safety critical systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Lane Keep Assist (LKA), Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) and Automatic Headlight Control (AHL). With an increase in active safety features in the automotive market there is also a corresponding increase in the complexity of the hardware which supports these safety features. Delphi’s hardware design for active safety has evolved over the years. In Delphi’s RACam product there are a number of critical components required in order to realize Radar and Vision in a single package. RACam is also equipped with a fan and heater to increase the operating temperature range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0117
Bi-Cheng Luan, I-Hsuan Lee, Han-Shue Tan, Kang Li, Ding Yuan, Fang-Chieh Chou
This paper presents the design and implementation of a new steering control method for lane following control (LFC) using a camera. With the road information provided by the image sensor, the LFC system calculates the steering command based on the Target and Control (T&C) driver steering model. The T&C driver model employs a look-ahead control structure to capture the drivers' core steering mechanism. Combining the models of the steering actuator and the vehicle dynamics, optimal control gain can be determined for any look-ahead distance (normalized by the vehicle speed). Based on these simple gains, the vehicle can track very well along the center of the lane. This LFC system was first simulated under the Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) test using CarSim. The simulations show that the resultant lateral offsets are smaller than those from the typical driver model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0115
Dev S. Kochhar, Hong Zhao, Paul Watta, Yi Murphey
Intended or unintended lane changes are documented occasions when an accident may occur. Drivers can make improper lane changes when they do not see surrounding traffic (the blind spot problem), or when they may be drowsy or distracted, or impaired by alcohol or drugs. In this paper we present a comprehensive study on predicting the driver’s intent to make a lane change based on continuous monitoring and evaluation of the driver’s physiological measures. The task of an intentional lane change involves several cortical and sub-cortical processes, which, in turn, are reflected in physiological measures. In our previous work we introduced a real-time data acquisition system for acquiring three types of driver physiological measures, namely, the Electrocardiogram (ECG), Respiration signal, and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). A statistical signal selection algorithm and a neural network trained to predict lane change was also introduced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0120
Libo Huang, Huanlei Chen, Zhuoping Yu, Jie Bai
Automotive radar is the most important component in the autonomous driving system, which detects the obstacles, vehicles and pedestrians around with acceptable cost. The target tracking is one of the key functions in the automotive radar which measures the position and velocity of the targets. Modern automotive radar requires a multi-target tracking algorithm, as in the radar field of view, hundreds of targets can present. In the vehicle field test, the automotive monopulse radar faces very complicated and fast-changing road conditions, which include tunnels and curved roads. The curved tunnel walls work like mirrors which reflect the electromagnetic waves coming out from the radar and reflected by the targets. The unreal targets, which are generated by the reflected electromagnetic waves by the walls instead of the direct waves, must be well identified by the radar peak detection. Multiple reflections by the parallel tunnel walls create many unreal targets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0118
Shinji Niwa, Mori Yuki, Tetsushi Noro, Shunsuke Shioya, Kazutaka Inoue
This paper presents a detecting technology for driver monitor system using the eyewear-type wearable device, JINS MEME. Serious accidents due to human errors such as dozing driving/inattentive driving, have been increacing recently in Japan. JINS MEME can expectedly contribute to reducing a number of traffic deaths by constantly watching drivers with its ocular potential sensor. This paper also shows that drivers’ drowsiness level can be estimated from information on blinking which is calculated form ocular potentials.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0123
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Mohamed ElHelw
The evaluation of Advanced Driver Assistance systems (ADAS including driver assistance and active safety) has increasing interest from authorities, industry and academia. AsPeCSS active safety project concludes that good results in a laboratory test for active safety system design does not necessarily equate to an effective system in real traffic conditions. Moreover, many ADAS assessment projects and standards require physical testing on test tracks (dummy vehicles, pedestrian mannequins …), which are expensive and limit testing capabilities. This research presents a conceptual framework for on-board evaluation (OBE) of ADAS, which can be used as cost effective evaluation in real-life traffic conditions. OBE shall monitor, record, analyze and report both internal behavior and external environment (external objects list and video stream) of ADAS under evaluation (ADASUE).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0146
Yonghwan Jeong, Seonwook Kim, Kyongsu Yi, Sangyong Lee, ByeongRim Jo
This paper represents the parking lot occupancy detection algorithm and the parking control algorithm for autonomous valet parking system. With the assumption that the global parking map exists, the occupancy of the parking space is measured using a two-dimensional Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) sensor mounted at each side of front bumper. The Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) method is used to cluster the point information from LIDAR. The global parking map includes all parking lots and access road. The proposed parking control algorithm consists of a desired path generation, a path tracking controller, and a parking process controller. At first, route points of the desired path are determined under the consideration of the minimum turning radius and minimum safety margin with near parking spaces. The desired path is generated by connecting straight lines and arcs between pre-determined route points.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0151
Ganesan Easwaran, Kulandaivelu Shanmugam, Rangaraj Sakthivel, Ramkumar Rajachandrasekaran
The EyeOnRoad System intends to predict the road anomalies accurately and alerts the vehicles. This system introduces a new technique to detect road anomalies (bumps, potholes, cracks, expansion joints, patches, etc) automatically, using sensor fusion technique. This system integrates the road anomaly information with the existing navigation system which forecasts the distance, type & extent of the anomaly along with the recommended speed. The driver is suggested with an alternate route to avoid the road anomalies. With the road anomaly information and traffic density, the accurate travel time can be estimated. This system obtains the live updates (using sensory data) automatically via Cloud- Internet of things. This concept is applicable for multiple platforms, which includes In-Car navigation system and Smartphone's. This system intends to fill the technology barriers in anomaly detection, which imports intelligence to the navigation system.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 753

Filter