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2015-06-03
Magazine
Executive Viewpoints Off-highway industry executives from companies such as BorgWarner, Perkins, Cummins, and Danfoss reflect upon challenges inside, and outside, the industry, and what technologies, innovations, and strategies will need to be implemented to thrive into the long-term future. 16th Annual Product Guide Top products from throughout the industry covering technologies such as Powertrain & Energy, Hydraulics, Electronics, and Testing & Simulation.
2015-04-14
Collection
Active Safety and Driver assistance systems are gaining importance as many passive safety systems have already been found to have yielded significant safety benefits that are possible from the deployment of those systems in the fleet. Similar success will much depend upon how fast these systems proliferate the entire passenger vehicle fleet. It will also depend on the deployment strategies used by the industry and the government as well as consumer acceptance and market demand for these systems. Additionally, opportunities exist to use the information gained from the various onboard sensors and vision systems in active safety systems for improving the effectiveness of today’s passive safety systems such as seat belts, airbags, and post-crash safety systems even further by the integration of active and passive safety systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna Raj Nair M K
Abstract Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the “sleep hormone” is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum have a higher effect on the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photobiology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by neurologists, endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photobiology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Abstract Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitor systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions and to improve visibility of surrounding environment to the driver. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of legally prescribed mirrors. A CMS must also take into consideration several factors in the designed system to satisfy an overall system magnification and system resolution. Some factors pertain to the camera, and display inside the cockpit, but some other are related to the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity, height, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that there exists a fundamental nonlinear equation for a given CMS encompassing factors that influence the performance of the system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0258
Venkatesh Kareti, Priti Ranadive, Vinay Vaidya
Abstract Various Advanced Driver Assists Systems (ADAS) are being used today to increase safety of drivers. These systems viz. Forward Collision Warning (FCW), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Pedestrian Detection (PD), are all based on inputs captured using a front mounted camera. It would be useful to combine all these applications together and process the same input for different application purpose. Additionally, multicore processors are now easily available and can be used for integrating multiple ADAS applications. This would lead to reduced cost and maintenance of ADAS systems with the same performance benefits. Since current ADAS applications are sequential and/or use single core processors there is a need to parallelize these applications so that multiple cores can be utilized optimally. In this paper, we discuss our experiments and results while attempting to integrate two such ADAS applications on a multicore embedded platform.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was μ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called “Target Zone”, defined by a Driver Rating of μ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0277
Seth Placke, John Thomas, Dajiang Suo
Abstract Automobiles are becoming ever more complex as advanced safety features are integrated into the vehicle platform. As the pace of integration and complexity of new features rises, it is becoming increasingly difficult for system engineers to assess the impact of new additions on vehicle safety and performance. In response to this challenge, a new approach for analyzing multiple control systems as an extension to the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) framework has been developed. The new approach meets the growing need of system engineers to analyze integrated control systems, that may or may not have been developed in a coordinated manner, and assess them for safety and performance. The new approach identifies unsafe combinations of control actions, from one or more control systems, that could lead to an accident. For example, independent controllers for Auto Hold, Engine Idle Stop, and Adaptive Cruise Control may interfere with each other in certain situations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1595
Kristoffer Lundahl, Chih Feng Lee, Erik Frisk, Lars Nielsen
Abstract Rollover has for long been a major safety concern for trucks, and will be even more so as automated driving is envisaged to becoming a key element of future mobility. A natural way to address rollover is to extend the capabilities of current active-safety systems with a system that intervenes by steering or braking actuation when there is a risk of rollover. Assessing and predicting the rollover is usually performed using rollover indices calculated either from lateral acceleration or lateral load transfer. Since these indices are evaluated based on different physical observations it is not obvious how they can be compared or how well they reflect rollover events in different situations. In this paper we investigate the implication of the above mentioned rollover indices in different critical maneuvers for a heavy 8×4 twin-steer truck.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1564
Joshua L. Every, Dennis A. Guenther, Gary J. Heydinger
Abstract Typically, when one thinks of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), systems such as Forward Collision Warning (FCW) and Collision Imminent Braking (CIB) come to mind. In these systems driver assistance is provided based on knowledge about the subject vehicle and surrounding objects. A new class of these systems is being implemented. These systems not only use information on the surrounding objects but also use information on the driver's response to an event, to determine if intervention is necessary. As a result of this trend, an advanced level of understanding of driver braking behavior is necessary. This paper presents an alternate method of analyzing driver braking behavior. This method uses a frequency content based approach to study driver braking and allows for the extraction of significantly more data from driver profiles than traditionally would have been done.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0213
Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Anusha Baskaran, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract In the research field of automotive systems, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are gaining paramount importance. As the significance for such systems increase, the challenges associated with it also increases. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors, or due to natural elements (haze, fog, rain etc.). Among these, natural challenges, especially haze, pose a major setback for technologies depending on vision sensors. It is a known fact that the presence of haze in the atmosphere degrades the driver's visibility as well as the information available with the vision based ADAS. To ensure reliability of ADAS in different climatic conditions, it is vital to get back the information of the scene degraded by haze prior to analyzing the images. In this paper, the proposed work addresses this challenge with a novel and faster image preprocessing technique that can enhances the quality of haze affected images both in terms of visibility and visual perception.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0215
Reena Kumari Behera, Smita Nair, Vinay Vaidya
Abstract This paper presents a simple yet novel approach to remove redundant data from outdoor scenes, thus finding significant application in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). A captured outdoor scene has two main parts, the ground region consisting of the road area along with other lane markings and the background region consisting of various structures, trees, sky etc. To extract the ground region, first the yellow and white road markings are segmented based on the HSI (Hue Saturation Intensity) color model and these regions are filled with the surrounding road color. Further the background region is segmented based on the Lab (Color-opponent) color model, which shows significant improvement as compared to other color spaces. To extract the background region such as the sky or ground region, it is assumed that the top and bottom most portions of the image does not consist of useful information.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya Deshpande, Krishnan Kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency region in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require number of sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time, which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and ignore the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in a scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The proposed method aims to model this behavior of human visual system in computer vision/image processing applications for eliminating non salient objects from an image. A region is said to be salient, if its appearance is unique. In our method, the saliency in still images is computed by local color contrast difference between the regions in Lab space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0216
Ping-Min Hsu, Ming Hung Li, Kuo-Ching Chang
Abstract This paper discusses noise filtering in an autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system with a sensor fusion between a millimeter wave (MMW) radar and a camera. Three kinds of noise, namely twice harmonic noise, ground noise, and specular reflection noise, are then filtered. The former is caused by the reflection of a radar wave between a target object and the MMW radar; therefore, one of the sensing distances would be twice as longer as one of others. An object featuring this characteristic is treated as the noise and filtered. Next, detecting a ground metal as the target object generates the second noise with a focus of car-like objects. That is, an object-with the sensing distance from the MMW radar being smaller than that from the camera by a threshold value-is taken as the ground metal noise and ignored. Moreover, the third noise happens when there is a radar wave reflection between an object and its surroundings.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0312
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) in combination with other active safety features like air bags etc. is gaining popularity. Vision based ADAS systems perform well under ideal lighting, illumination and environmental conditions. However, with change in illumination and other lighting related factors, the effectiveness of vision based ADAS systems tend to deteriorate. Under conditions of low light, it is therefore important to develop techniques that would offset the effects of low illumination and generate an image that appears as if it were taken under ideal lighting conditions. To accomplish this, we have developed a method, that uses local color statistics from the host image with low illumination, and enhance the same using an adaptive color transfer mechanism.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0309
Mayurika Chatterjee, Atchyuta Rao, Chaitanya Rajguru
Abstract Parking assist systems have become very common in current vehicles. The purpose of such a system is to assist the driver to park the vehicle without collision. The sensors serve as eyes of the driver during parking maneuver by sensing any obstacle in the path. The parking sensors, typically ultrasonic sensors, are mounted on front and rear of vehicle to assist the driver to park the vehicle. Thus, such a system can cover only the front and rear portion of the vehicle and is unable to cover the side portions of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method to monitor the perimeter of a vehicle while parking using minimum sensors placed at strategic locations. A local map of the parking area is generated using data from sensors which helps in identifying static obstacles. The map is constantly updated in real time during parking. The algorithm ascertains that the entire perimeter of the vehicle is protected from impending collisions in real time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0310
R Danymol, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Camera sensors that are made of silicon photodiodes and used in ordinary digital cameras are sensitive to visible as well as Near-Infrared (NIR) wavelength. However, since the human vision is sensitive only in the visible region, a hot mirror/infrared blocking filter is used in cameras. Certain complimentary attributes of NIR data are, therefore, lost in this process of image acquisition. However, RGB and NIR images are captured entirely in two different spectra/wavelengths; thus they retain different information. Since NIR and RGB images compromise complimentary information, we believe that this can be exploited for extracting better features, localization of objects of interest and in multi-modal fusion. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate the NIR image from a given optical image. Using a normal optical camera and based on the compressed sensing framework, the NIR data estimation is formulated as an image recovery problem.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0311
Reecha Yadav, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty, Vinay Vaidya, Sunita Ugale
Abstract In view of the continuous efforts by the automotive fraternity, for achieving traffic safety, detecting pedestrians from image/video has become an extensively researched topic in recent times. The task of detecting pedestrians in the urban traffic scene is complicated by the considerations involving pedestrian figure size, articulation, fast dynamics, background clutter, etc. A number of methods using different sensor technologies have been proposed in the past for the problem of pedestrian detection. To limit the scope, this paper reviews the techniques involved in day-time detection of pedestrians, with emphasis on the methods making use of a monocular visible-spectrum sensor. The paper achieves its objective by discussing the basic framework involved in detecting a pedestrian, while elaborating the requisites and the existing methodologies for implementing each stage of the basic framework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0316
Kazuto Yokoyama, Masahiro Iezawa, Yohei Akashi, Toshihide Satake, Yukiyasu Akemi, Satoru Inoue, Ryotaro Suzuki
Abstract Parking assist systems which relieve burden of drivers have been put into practice in the world. Mitsubishi Electric has also been developing several technologies to realize the system, where our products such as sonar (ultrasonic sensor), electric power steering (EPS), a motor, and an inverter are used. In the parking assist system, peripheral environment of the vehicle in a parking lot is detected with our sonar sensors and determine whether or not there is a parking space available. Estimation of the position and the attitude of the vehicle is also carried out. On the basis of the detection and the estimation, a smooth and efficient path to drive and park the vehicle is generated with an optimization technique. In particular, this paper focuses on a drive control for electrified vehicles to track the reference trajectory at a desired speed given from the assist system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina, Michael Blommer, Reates Curry, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Dev Kochhar, Walter Talamonti
Abstract This paper investigates the effects on response time of a forward collision event in a repeated-measures design. Repeated-measures designs are often used in forward collision warning (FCW) testing despite concerns that the first exposure creates expectancy effects that may dilute or bias future outcomes. For this evaluation, 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= No Warning; B=FCW alert). They drove in a high-fidelity simulator with a visual distraction task. After driving 15 min in a nighttime rural highway environment, a forward collision threat arose during the distraction task (Period 1). A second drive was then run and the forward collision threat was repeated again after ∼10 min (Period 2). The response times from these consecutive events were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1411
Caroline Crump, David Cades, Robert Rauschenberger, Emily Hildebrand, Jeremy Schwark, Brandon Barakat, Douglas Young
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistive System (ADAS) technologies have been introduced as the automotive industry moves towards autonomous driving. One ADAS technology with the potential for substantial safety benefits is forward collision warning and mitigation (FCWM), which is designed to warn drivers of imminent front-end collisions, potentiate driver braking responses, and apply the vehicle's brakes autonomously. Although the proliferation of FCWM technologies can, in many ways, mitigate the necessity of a timely braking response by a driver in an emergency situation, how these systems affect a driver's overall ability to safely, efficiently, and comfortably operate a motor vehicle remains unclear. Exponent conducted a closed-course evaluation of drivers' reactions to an imminent forward collision event while driving an FCWM-equipped vehicle, either with or without a secondary task administered through a hands-free cell phone.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1410
Shotaro Odate, Kazuhiro Daido, Yosuke Mizutani
Abstract According to the North American National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), approximately one-half of all accidents during driving are of the secondary collision pattern in which the collision event involves the occurrence of secondary collision. Accidents involving impact to a stopped vehicle (chain-reaction collisions) have increased to approximately 3% of all accidents in North America, and although the rate of serious injury is low, cases have been reported of accidents in which cervical sprain occurs as an after-effect[1]. In order to mitigate these circumstances, research has been conducted on systems of automatic braking for collisions. These systems apply brakes automatically when a first collision has been detected in order to avoid or lessen a second collision. Research on automatic collision braking systems, however, has not examined the multiple collisions parked [1, 2].
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1408
Kristofer D. Kusano, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract Intersection crashes are a frequent and dangerous crash mode in the U.S. Emerging Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) aim to assist the driver to mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-vehicle crashes at intersections. In support of the design and evaluation of such intersection assistance systems, characterization of the road, environment, and drivers associated with intersection crashes is necessary. The objective of this study was to characterize intersection crashes using nationally representative crash databases that contained all severity, serious injury, and fatal crashes. This study utilized four national crash databases: the National Automotive Sampling System, General Estimates System (NASS/GES); the NASS Crashworthiness Data System (CDS); and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (EARS) and the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1403
Yi lu Murphey, Dev S. Kochhar, Paul Watta, Xipeng Wang, Tianyu Wang
Abstract Side swipe accidents occur primarily when drivers attempt an improper lane change, drift out of lane, or the vehicle loses lateral traction. Past studies of lane change detection have relied on vehicular data, such as steering angle, velocity, and acceleration. In this paper, we use three physiological signals from the driver to detect lane changes before the event actually occurs. These are the electrocardiogram (ECG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and respiration rate (RR) and were determined, in prior studies, to best reflect a driver's response to the driving environment. A novel system is proposed which uses a Granger causality test for feature selection and a neural network for classification. Test results showed that for 30 lane change events and 60 non lane change events in on-the-road driving, a true positive rate of 70% and a false positive rate of 10% was obtained.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1404
Arda Kurt, Güchan Özbilgin, Keith A. Redmill, Rini Sherony, Ümit Özgüner
Abstract In this paper, a series of design, development, and implementation details for testing and evaluation of Lane Departure Warning and Prevention systems are being discussed. The approach taken to generate a set of repeatable and relevant test scenarios and to formulate the test procedures to ensure the fidelity of the collected data includes initial statistical analysis of applicable statistics; growth and probabilistic pruning of a test matrix; simulation studies to support procedure design; and vehicle instrumentation for data collection. The success of this comprehensive approach strongly suggests that the steps illustrated in this paper can serve as guidelines towards a more general class of vehicular safety and advanced driver assistance systems evaluation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1401
Pawel Skruch, Rafal Dlugosz, Krzysztof Kogut, Pawel Markiewicz, Dominik Sasin, Maciej Różewicz
Abstract Active Safety (AS) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can nowadays be considered as distributed embedded software systems where independent microprocessor systems communicate together using different communication protocols. Typical AS or ADAS functionality is then realized by several microprocessors communicating with each other. AS and ADAS systems interact with other Electronic Control Units in a vehicle via communication networks and gather vehicle's surroundings via camera, radar or laser sensors. Quality assurance and safety standards combined with increasing complexity and reliability demands related to vision sensing, radar sensing and data fusion, often together with a short time to market, make the development of such systems challenging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, Victor Gallas Cervo, Aparna Mantha, John Smith
Abstract A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1464
Qiang Chen, Miao Lin, Bing Dai, Jiguang Chen
Abstract In China, nearly 25% of traffic fatalities are pedestrians. To avoid those fatalities in the future, rapid development of countermeasures within both passive and active safety is under way, one of which is autonomous braking to avoid pedestrian crashes. The objective of this work was to describe typical accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China. In-depth accident analysis was conducted to support development of test procedures for assessing Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems. Beyond that, this study also aims for estimating the mitigation of potential crash severity by AEB systems. The China In-depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database was searched from 2011 to 2014 for pedestrian accidents. A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1211
Zhuoping Yu, Caitao Jian, Songyun Xu, Lu Xiong
Abstract To research the dynamic response of active power source of electronic hydraulic brake system, the paper proposes a restricted distribution control strategy. Building control strategy model and active power source model to simulation with Matlab/Simulink and AMEsim, and bench test is conducted on different driving cycles, which proves that the dynamic response of active power source is fit and controllable by adjusting PID parameters.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0256
Changbo Fu, Paul (Tim) Freeman, John R. Wagner
Abstract Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0265
Martin Krammer, Philip Stirgwolt, Helmut Martin
Abstract The standard ISO 26262 stipulates a “top-down” approach based on the process “V” model, by conducting a hazard analysis and risk assessment to determine the safety goals, and subsequently derives the safety requirements down to the appropriate element level. The specification of safety goals is targeted towards identified hazardous events, whereas the classification of safety requirements does not always turn out non-ambiguous. While requirement formalization turns out to be advantageous, the translation from natural language to semi-formal requirements, especially in context of ISO 26262, poses a problem. In this publication, a new approach for the formalization of safety requirements is introduced, targeting the demands of safety standard ISO 26262. Its part 8, clause 6 (“Specification and management of safety requirements”) has no dedicated work product to accomplish this challenging task.
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