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2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0052
Michael Schoenherr, Mathieu Grelaud, Ami Hirano
The Side View Assist is the World’s first rider assistance system for two-wheelers. This is a Blind Spot Warning system, which uses four ultrasonic sensors to monitor the surrounding of the rider. Whenever there is a vehicle (i.e. a car, truck, or another motorbike) in the rider’s blind spot, the technology warns the rider with an optical signal close to the mirror. This will allow the rider to avoid a collision when changing lanes. In the current vehicle application, Side View Assist is active at speeds ranging from 25 to 80 kilometers per hour and supports riders whenever the difference in relative speed to other road users is small. The system helps to improve safety especially in cities, where heavy traffic makes it necessary to change lanes more often. Originally such systems have been developed for cars and different system solutions for cars have been in serial production for several years. The challenge was to adapt these systems so they would work for two-wheelers as well.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2226
Mohammad Alzorgan, Joshua Carroll, Essam Al-Masalmeh, Abdel Raouf Turki Mayyas
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is an essential aspect of the automotive technology in this era of technological revolution, where the goal is to make vehicles more convenient, safe, and energy efficient. Taking advantage of more degrees of freedom available within vehicle “energy management” allows more margin to maximize efficiency in the propulsion systems. It is envisioned by this research that future fuel economy regulations will consider the potential benefits of emerging connectivity and automation technologies of vehicle’s fuel consumption. The application focuses on reducing the energy consumption in vehicles by acquiring information about the road grade. Road elevation are obtained by use of Geographic Information System (GIS) maps in order to optimize the controller. The optimization is then reflected on the powertrain of the vehicle. The approach uses a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm that allows the energy management strategy to leverage road grade.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8012
Daniel E. Williams, Amine Nhila, Kenneth Sherwin
Abstract A large percentage of commercial vehicles transport freight on our interstate highway system. These vehicles spend the vast majority of their duty cycle at high speed maintaining a lane. As steering is integrated into ADAS, objective performance measures of this most common mode of commercial vehicle operation will be required. Unfortunately in the past this predominant portion of the commercial vehicle duty cycle was overlooked in evaluating vehicle handling. This lanekeeping mode of operation is also an important, although less significant portion of the light vehicle duty cycle. Historically on-center handling was compromised to achieve acceptable low speed efforts. With the advent of advanced active steering systems, this compromise can be relaxed. Objective measures of lanekeeping are developed and performance of various advanced steering systems is quantified in this important operating mode.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8105
Shengguang Xiong, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Mengying Yang, Yongbing Xu, Bo Huang
Abstract Path planning system, which is one of driver assistance systems, can calculate the driving paths and estimate the driving time through the road information provided by information source. Traditional path planning systems calculate the driving paths through Dijsktra's algorithm or A* algorithm but only consider the road information from electronic maps. It is not safe enough for operating vehicles because of the insufficient information of vehicle performance as well as the driver's willingness. This study is based on the Dijsktra's algorithm, which comprehensively considered vehicular active safety constraints such as road information, vehicle performance and the driver's willingness to optimize the Dijsktra's algorithm. Then the path planning system can calculate the optimal driving paths that would satisfy the safety requirement of the vehicle. This study used LabVIEW as a visual host computer and MATLAB to calculate dynamic property of the vehicle.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8013
Marius Feilhauer, Juergen Haering, Sean Wyatt
Abstract The way to autonomous driving is closely connected to the capability of verifying and validating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), as it is one of the main challenges to achieve secure, reliable and thereby socially accepted self-driving cars. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) based testing methods offer the great advantage of validating components and systems in an early stage of the development cycle, and they are established in automotive industry. When validating ADAS using HiL test benches, engineers face different barriers and conceptual difficulties: How to pipe simulated signals into multiple sensors including radar, ultrasonic, video, or lidar? How to combine classical physical simulations, e.g. vehicle dynamics, with sophisticated three-dimensional, GPU-based environmental simulations? In this article, we present current approaches of how to master these challenges and provide guidance by showing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8104
Ryo Yamaguchi, Hiromichi Nozaki
Abstract In this study, we report on the development of a steering assistance control system that feeds back information on the outside environment collected by laser sensors to the vehicle driver. The system consists of an emergency avoidance assistance control program that performs obstacle detection and avoidance, as well as a cornering assistance control program that operates by detecting the white lines painted on roadways. Driving simulator experiments were conducted in order to confirm the effectiveness of these functions, as well as to improve understanding of the synergistic effects of the steering assistance and chassis control functions: camber angle control and derivative steering assistance (DSA) control.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1895
Xin Bi, Zheng Ma, Wei Wang, Jinsong Du
Abstract A 24GHz multi-function assist system has been developed for advanced automotive radar, which includes different applications in Blind Spot Detection (BSD), Lane Change Assist (LCA), Doors Open Warning (DOW) and Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA). The multi-function radar is based on the micro-strip antenna, which has a reasonable design on main-lobe and side-lobes. According the antenna, the radar can operate in mid-range mode with a high gain and a narrow beam width, whilst performing well in short-range and wide-angle mode.
2016-09-14
Journal Article
2016-01-1892
Jiao Guo, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Shiqian Qi, Xin Li, Chenghao Wang, Jun Wang
Abstract The conventional radar modeling methods for automotive applications were either function-based or physics-based. The former approach was mainly abstracted as a solution of the intersection between geometric representations of radar beam and targets, while the latter one took radar detection mechanism into consideration by means of “ray tracing”. Although they each has its unique advantages, they were often unrealistic or time-consuming to meet actual simulation requirements. This paper presents a combined geometric and physical modeling method on millimeter-wave radar systems for Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) modulation format under a 3D simulation environment. With the geometric approach, a link between the virtual radar and 3D environment is established. With the physical approach, on the other hand, the ideal target detection and measurement are contaminated with noise and clutters aimed to produce the signals as close to the real ones as possible.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1900
Yafei Wang, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Yoichi Hori
Abstract Vehicle lateral states such as lateral distance at a preview point and heading angle are indispensable for lane keeping control systems, and such states are normally estimated by fusing signals from an onboard vision system and inertial sensors. However, the sampling rates and measurement delays are different between the two kinds of sensing devices. Most of the conventional methods simply neglect measurement delay and reduce sampling rate of the estimator to adapt to the slow sensors/devices. However, the estimation accuracy is deteriorated, especially considering the delay of visual signals may not be constant. In case of electric vehicles, the actuators for steering and traction are motors that have high control frequency. Therefore, the frequency of vehicle state feedback may not match the control frequency if the estimator is infrequently updated.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1907
Yaxin Li, Ying Wang, Weiwen Deng, Xin Li, Zhenyi liu, Lijun Jiang
Abstract LiDAR sensors have played more and more important role on Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (ICV) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) .However, the development and testing of LiDAR sensors under real driving environment for ADAS applications are greatly limited by various factors, and often are impossible due to safety concerns. This paper proposed a novel functional LiDAR model under virtual driving environment to support development of LiDAR-based ADAS applications under early stage. Unlike traditional approaches on LiDAR sensor modeling, the proposed method includes both geometrical modeling approach and physical modeling approach. While geometric model mainly produces ideal scanning results based on computer graphics, the physical model further brings physical influences on top of the geometric model. The range detection is derived and optimized based on its physical detection and measurement mechanism.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1905
Gaoming Fang, Hui Chen
Abstract Electric Power Steering (EPS) is the actuator of several lateral-dynamic-related Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). A driving simulator with EPS will be much helpful for the ADAS development. However, if a real EPS is used in the driving simulator, it is quite difficult to realize the road reaction force accurately and responsively. To overcome this weakness, a virtual EPS platform is established. The virtual EPS platform contains two parts: one is the vehicle and EPS model, the other is the force feedback actuator (FFA) of the Steer-by-Wire (SBW) system. The FFA is an interface between the driver and the EPS/vehicle model. The reactive torque of the FFA is obtained based on the models. Meanwhile, the input of the EPS model is the steering angle of the FFA. Comparing to a real EPS, the virtual EPS platform has a problem of instability because of the actuator lag of the FFA. Therefore, a damping control method is applied to make the system stable.
2016-06-03
Magazine
Executive viewpoints Industry leaders offer their insights on the state of the heavy-duty on- and off-highway industries in this annual series of opinion pieces. The executives share their views on the most pressing technologies and trends shaping their business and the industry moving forward. Annual Product Guide Top products from throughout the industry covering technologies such as Powertrain & Energy, Hydraulics, Electronics, and Testing & Simulation.
2016-05-05
Magazine
New dawn at Honda R&D President Yoshiyuki Matsumoto aims to invigorate Honda's technology and product-development organization with 'full soul.' Automated driving meets regulation: NHTSA and the next 50 years The challenges and opportunities on the road to 'zero deaths' demand a new level of federal automotive safety technical standards, and a new safety-defect reporting and recall system. NHTSA and the U.S. Congress must act boldly and quickly to make it happen. Autonomous driving meets regulation: Hands off, eyes off, brain off Euro NCAP'S president warns that without coherent policies, the growing availability of automated technologies may result in piecemeal technology development-and unintentional consequences. Designer yin meets engineer yang Efficient and effective vehicle development means even closer collaboration between the two former sparring partners.
2016-04-07
Magazine
Defying the disruptors and driving innovation Four top engineering executives discuss how their "traditional" companies are finding new technology opportunities and business growth amid the start-ups-and are even doing some disrupting themselves. Preparing for a 48-volt revival The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Additive manufacturing enhances GTDI pistons Selective Laser Melting may help manufacture future gasoline-engine pistons with enhanced heat-transfer properties and reduced weight.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1634
Atul Bansal, Anoop Jain, Prateek Srivastava, Anant Kumar Tiwary, Rishi Kumar Dear
A tire is one of the most important performance and safety components in a two wheeler. An incorrect tire pressure not only impacts overall performance of a vehicle but also safety and overall fuel economy. The main purpose for appropriate tire pressure is to uniformly distribute vehicle load across the tire contact patch thereby providing an optimal contact between tire and road, effective handling, passenger comfort, maximum tire life and overall vehicle safety. A Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) measures a range of air pressure and alerts for proper tire pressure maintenance. Currently fully fledged tire pressure sensing systems are used in passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The use of such system in a two wheeler is yet to be recognized as precondition instead of an added attribute.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1667
Long Chen, Shuwei Zhang, Mingyuan Bian, Yugong Luo, Keqiang Li
Abstract As a typical parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measure of the road friction potential is expensive for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. It aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1472
Dietmar Otte, Martin Urban, Heiko Johannsen
Abstract Estimating the potential benefit of advanced safety systems by simulation has become increasingly important during the last years. All over the world OEMs and suppliers carry out benefit estimations by simulations via computer models. Such simulations should, of course, be based on real world scenario such as the pre-crash phase of real world accidents. Several methodologies for building up accident scenarios have been developed in the past. This paper shows a new method for generating pre-crash scenarios directly from the reconstruction of the accident by using the software PC-Crash1. The new method was developed by the Medical University Hannover (MHH) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation Dresden (Fraunhofer IVI). It is based on transferring all information (participant-, vehicle-, environment- and motion-data) from the reconstruction file into a scenario-database.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1465
John Zolock, Carmine Senatore, Ryan Yee, Robert Larson, Brian Curry
Abstract As a result of the development of Event Data Recorders (EDR) and the recent FMVSS regulation 49 CFR 563, today’s automobiles provide a limited subset of electronic data measurements of a vehicle’s state before and during a crash. Prior to this data, the only information available about the vehicle movements before or during a collision had come from physical evidence (e.g. tire marks), witnesses, aftermarket camera systems on vehicles, and ground-based cameras that were monitoring vehicle traffic or used for security surveillance. Today’s vehicles equipped with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have vehicle-based sensors that measure information about the environment around a vehicle including other vehicles, pedestrians, and fixed wayside objects.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1458
Ryuta Ono, Wataru Ike, Yuki Fukaya
Abstract Toyota Safety Sense is a safety system package developed to help drivers avoid accident types with a high frequency of occurrence. This paper deals with pre-collision system which forms the core of Toyota Safety Sense, especially Toyota Safety Sense P which uses a combined sensor configuration consisting of a monocular camera paired with millimeter wave radar, in order to achieve both high recognition performance and reliability. The use of a wide-angle monocular camera, millimeter wave radar integrated in the front grill emblem, and a collision determination algorithm for pedestrian targets enabled the development of a pre-collision system comprising detection capability of crossing pedestrians. Toyota has developed warning and pre-collision brake assist for driver to assist in avoiding a collision effectively; In addition, Pre-collision brake has achieved high level of performance for the drivers who cannot avoid a collision.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1425
Thomas McWilliams, Daniel Brown, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, Jonathan Dobres
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are an increasingly common feature of modern vehicles. The influence of such systems on driver behavior, particularly in regards to the effects of intermittent warning systems, is sparsely studied to date. This paper examines dynamic changes in physiological and operational behavior during lane departure warnings (LDW) in two commercial automotive systems utilizing on-road data. Alerts from the systems, one using auditory and the other haptic LDWs, were monitored during highway driving conditions. LDW events were monitored during periods of single-task driving and dual-task driving. Dual-task periods consisted of the driver interacting with the vehicle’s factory infotainment system or a smartphone to perform secondary visual-manual (e.g., radio tuning, contact dialing, etc.) or auditory-vocal (e.g. destination address entry, contact dialing, etc.) tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1450
Peter Vertal, Hermann Steffan
Abstract The objective of this work is to test the potential benefit of active pedestrian protection systems. The tests are based on real fatal accidents with passenger cars that were not equipped with active safety systems. Tests have been conducted in order to evaluate what the real benefit of the active safety system would be, and not to gain only a methodological prediction. The testing procedure was the first independent testing in the world which was based on real fatal pedestrian accidents. The aim of the tests is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Volvo pedestrian detection system. The in-depth accident database ZEDATU contains about 300 fatal pedestrian traffic accidents in urban areas. Eighteen cases of pedestrians hit by the front end of a passenger vehicle were extracted from this database. Cases covering an average traffic scenario have been reconstructed to obtain detailed model situations for testing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1453
I-Hsuan Lee, Bi-Cheng Luan
Abstract Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems is one of the functions of the Advanced Driver Assists System to avoid or mitigate vehicle frontal collisions. Most of the previous studies focus on two-car scenario where the host vehicle monitors the distances to the vehicles in front, and automatically applies emergency brake when a collision is imminent. The purpose of this paper is to develop an Advanced-AEB control system that mitigates collisions in a multi-car scenario by measuring the distances to the vehicles in front as well as those to the vehicles behind using the concept of impedance control. A simple gain-scheduling PI controller was designed for the host vehicle to track the reference inputs generated by the impedance control. The preliminary simulation results demonstrate that the proposed AEB is effective in mitigating the collisions in a 3-car following scenario.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1457
John M. Scanlon, Kerry Page, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract There are over 4,500 fatal intersection crashes each year in the United States. Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging active safety systems designed to detect an imminent intersection crash and either provide a warning or perform an automated evasive maneuver. The performance of an I-ADAS will depend on the ability of the onboard sensors to detect an imminent collision early enough for an I-ADAS to respond in a timely manner. One promising method for determining the earliest detection opportunity is through the reconstruction of real-world intersection crashes. After determining the earliest detection opportunity, the required sensor range, orientation, and field of view can then be determined through the simulation of these crashes as if the vehicles had been equipped with an I-ADAS.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1454
Libo Dong, Stanley Chien, Jiang-Yu Zheng, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (PAEB) for helping avoiding/mitigating pedestrian crashes has been equipped on some passenger vehicles. Since approximately 70% pedestrian crashes occur in dark conditions, one of the important components in the PAEB evaluation is the development of standard testing at night. The test facility should include representative low-illuminance environment to enable the examination of the sensing and control functions of different PAEB systems. The goal of this research is to characterize and model light source distributions and variations in the low-illuminance environment and determine possible ways to reconstruct such an environment for PAEB evaluation. This paper describes a general method to collect light sources and illuminance information by processing large amount of potential collision locations at night from naturalistic driving video data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1443
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Benjamin Lester, Jeffrey Dawson, Matthew Rizzo
Abstract We examined relative effectiveness of heads-up visual displays for lane departure warning (LDW) 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The LDW included yellow “advisory” visuals in the center screen when the driver started drifting toward the adjacent lane. The visuals turned into red “imminent” when the tires overlapped with the lane markers. The LDW was turned off if the driver activated the turn signal. The visuals could be easily segregated from the background scene, making them salient but not disruptive to the driver’s forward field of view. The visuals were placed adjacent to the left and right lane markers in the lower half of the center screen.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1447
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Chi-Chen Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract As part of active safety systems for reducing bicyclist fatalities and injuries, Bicyclist Pre-Collision System (BPCS), also known as Bicyclist Autonomous Emergency Braking System, is being studied currently by several vehicles manufactures. This paper describes the development of a surrogate bicyclist which includes a surrogate bicycle and a surrogate bicycle rider to support the development and evaluation of BPCS. The surrogate bicycle is designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of real bicyclists in the United States. The size of bicycle surrogate mimics the 26 inch adult bicycle, which is the most popular adult bicycle sold in the US. The radar cross section (RCS) of the surrogate bicycle is designed based on RCS measurement of the real adult sized bicycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1442
David Miller, Mishel Johns, Hillary Page Ive, Nikhil Gowda, David Sirkin, Srinath Sibi, Brian Mok, Sudipto Aich, Wendy Ju
Abstract Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated and manual driving, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a laboratory driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a story on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in people's driving performance following the different tasks. We also did not find significant differences in driving performance between the people in each age group who successfully completed the study; however, the rejection rate of the senior age group was over 30% because many of the people in this age group had difficulty hearing instructions, understanding tasks, or remembering what to do.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0028
Ali Shahrokni, Peter Gergely, Jan Söderberg, Patrizio Pelliccione
Abstract In areas such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs (e.g. AUTOSAR) and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To address the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools, like spreadsheet tools, are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability, while rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited evolvability. As organizations become agile, the need for flexible data management increases. Since products become more complex and developed in larger and distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, and consistent data increases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0047
Umesh Patel, Sreenivasa Parnasala, Chamaraj Melinmath, KM Khalid, Chandrakantha Ursu
RACam [1] is an Active Safety product designed and manufactured at Delphi and is part of their ADAS portfolio. It combines two sensors - Electronically Scanned RADAR and Camera in a single package. RADAR and Vision fusion data is used to realize safety critical systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Lane Keep Assist (LKA), Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) and Automatic Headlight Control (AHL). Figure 1 RACam Front View. With an increase in Active Safety features in the automotive market there is also a corresponding increase in the complexity of the hardware which supports these safety features. Delphi’s hardware design for Active Safety has evolved over the years. In Delphi’s RACam product there are a number of critical components required in order to realize RADAR and Vision in a single package. RACam is also equipped with a fan and heater to improve the operating temperature range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0085
Patrick Shelly
Abstract More options in automotive-qualified electronic components along with the arrival of powerful multicore SoC platforms have changed the playing field in designing automotive electronic systems today. The flexibility of open source Linux-based operating systems has also allowed vehicle systems designers to consider hosting multiple complex functions in a single electronic control unit (ECU). This paper examines a "proof-of-concept" platform that has integrated a variety of consumer-demanded convenience features along with safety functions in a secure automotive-grade package. Platform capabilities include: a driver information module (DIM), in-vehicle infotainment (IVI), smartphone and tablet integration, advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) features, and an AUTOSAR-based communication capability that works with existing in-vehicle networks (CAN, LIN, FlexRay, Ethernet, etc.).
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