Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Content:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 201
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Yanbin Yao
Drilling plays a significant process in the aircraft manufacturing. This paper develops a robot automatic drilling system for processing the titanium alloy, aluminum alloy and laminated composites component of aircraft. The accurate robot drilling system is comprised of ABB IRB6640-235 robot, drilling end-effector, end-effctor control system and vision system. Experimental results show that the system absolute location precision is within 0.3mm, and the drilling efficiency can be up to four holes per minute. The drilling efficiency and quality of the aircraft component can be increased immensely by the developed robot automatic drilling system.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
George Nicholas Bullen
Rapid advances in cloud-based computing, robotics and smart sensors, multi-modal modeling and simulation, and advanced production are transforming modern manufacturing. The shift toward smaller runs on custom-designed products favors agile and adaptable workplaces that can compete in the global economy. This paper and presentation will describe the advances in Digital Manufacturing that provides the backbone to tighten integration and interoperability of design methods interlinked with advanced manufacturing technologies and agile business practices. The digital tapestry that seamlessly connects computer design tools, modeling and simulation, intelligent machines and sensors, additive manufacturing, manufacturing methods, and post-delivery services to shorten the time and cost between idea generation and first successful product-in-hand will be illustrated.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Santiago Droll
In contemporary industries the demand for very accurate robots is continuously growing. Yet, robot vendors are limited in the achievable accuracy of their robots, as they have no means to provide a direct end-effector feedback. Therefore most approaches aim to evaluate an accurate model of the system, thus providing compensation factors to correct the paths. Models, however, are unable to represent the real physical system in a sufficient manner for path correction. The non-linearities in robotic systems are difficult to model and the dynamics are very fast. A better approach is therefore to use direct end-effector position and orientation feedback from an external sensor. The measured data can directly be compared to the nominal data from the path interpolator. Hence, they are not dependent on the kinematic robot model. The residual errors can be used to calculate correction values for the individual robot joints, thus providing a fast path correction algorithm. In this paper such a method is discussed, implemented and tested.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Kim Schwake, Robert Weidner, Frank Neuhaus, Jens Wulfsberg
The manuscript describes the development of a flexible, cost-effective production system based on standard industrial robots for major component assembly. This novel approach enables the aircraft manufactures to keep their production future-oriented and stay competitive. Currently the aircraft industry is confronted with new challenges due to changes of the aircraft market. Changed customer demands have a major impact especially on production planning. The conventional way within aircraft production which is characterized by isolated production lines with special machinery cannot encounter the resulting requirements of flexibility and reactivity. New aircraft production systems have to be lean and flexible to conquer future challenges. The approach of the present manuscript analyses the actual situation of the major component assembly using the example of fuselage assembly. It states identified requirements for a new assembly system and provides an overview of the procedure of conception.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yi-Hsin Chen, Xu Chen, Nan Xu, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract The residual stresses found in components are mainly due to thermal, mechanical and metallurgical changes of material. The manufacturing processes such as fabrication, assembly, welding, rolling, heat treatment, shot peening etc. generate residual stresses in material. The influence of residual stress can be beneficial or detrimental depending on nature and distribution of the residual stress in material. In general, the compressive residual stress can increase the fatigue life of material because it provides greater resistance for crack initiation and propagation. A significant number of improvements for residual stress measurement techniques have occurred in last few decades. The most popular technique of residual stress measurement is based on the principle of strain gage rosette and hole drilling (ASTM E837-01, destructive). Although this technique is effective for some applications, strain gages provide the localized or averaged data and cannot capture the peak or high resolution data when this technique is applied on high strain gradient areas.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Troy Gray, Daniel Orf, Greg Adams
The versatility of the accurate robot has been increased by coupling it with a mobile platform with vertical axis. The automation can be presented to fixed aircraft components such as wings, fuselage sections, flaps, or other aircraft assemblies requiring accurate drilling, inspection, and fastening. The platform accommodates a tool changer, ride along coupon stand, fastener feed system, and other systems critical for quality automated aircraft assembly. The accurate robot's flexibility is increased by a floor resynchronization system. The indexing system is replaced by an automated two-camera onboard vision system and miniature targets embedded in the factory floor, with accuracy comparable to cup and cone alternatives. The accurate robot can be deployed by casters, curvilinear rail, or air bearings.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Karl-Erik Neumann, Robert Reno
The improvements in Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKM) coupled with new innovative technologies, allow for Advanced Automated Milling, Drilling and Fastening in the Aerospace industry. Providing economical alternatives to processes that currently utilize highly customized machine tools, sacrificing flexibility and dynamics, or complex robotic cells sacrificing system capabilities with the rigidity and accuracy limitations of serial robots. The latest in PKM technology eliminates the ball joints that were mandatory in all previous PKM machines, as well as the heavy platforms or structures supporting the actuators. This allows for the strength and rigidity common to machine tools, but with the flexibility and high dynamics associated with standard serial robots. The new use of Auto-Calibration and cross lasers allow for highly accurate positioning, adaptation to a material surface, edge, datum, hole, etc. or to reference the machine to the adjacent work zone. Specific advanced automated applications will demonstrate the applications of drilling, milling, orbital drilling and fastening.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Peter Mueller-Hummel, Prithvi Sripathy, Abdelatif Atarsia
Ever since the advent of fiber reinforced polymer materials in the field of Aerospace, Metal-FRP stacks started to gain importance due to their superior fatigue performance, phenomenal low weight and good specific strength. However the machining, specially drilling these multi stack materials has always proved to be a challenge for the field of manufacturing and assembly. Drilling holes in only metal with a drill (metal drill), the material removal is through a process of clear shearing since the tool is much harder and sharper than the base material. The tools hence wears at a much slower and gradual rate, also the malleable properties of the machined metal compensate to the reduced cutting capability of the worn out drill. These properties of the machined metal act like a ‘FAIL SAFE’ mechanism during the machining process assuring a trouble free fail safe environment during the drilling process. However, drilling FRP composites is altogether a different story. The very properties that make the FRP composite superior make it a challenge for machining.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Shuhei Segawa, Junich Tamura, Satoshi Suzuki, Hisao Oka, Kiichi Meguro, Yoshiji Satou
In the expansion of composite material application, it is one of the most important subjects in assembly of aircraft structure how drilling of composite/metal stack should be processed in an efficient way. This paper will show the result of development of a drill bit for CFRP/Aluminum-alloy stack by Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) and Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal (SEH). In order to improve workability and economic performance, the drill bit which enables drilling CFRP/Al-alloy stack: at 1 shot; from both directions; without air blow and coolant (just usual vacuuming); was required. A best mix drill bit which has smooth multi angles edge and pointed finishing edge was produced as a result of some trials. Developed drill bit achieved required performance and contributed to large cost reduction, labor hour saving, production speed increase and work environment improvement.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Joseph R. Malcomb
Previous Flex Track drilling systems move along two parallel tracks that conform to the contour of a work piece surface. Until recently, applications have been limited to relatively simple surfaces such as the cylindrical mid-body fuselage join of a commercial aircraft. Recent developments in the state of the art have introduced the 5-axis variant which is capable of precision drilling on complex contours. This paper presents solutions to two positioning challenges associated with this added functionality: the ability to align the spindle axis normal to an angled drilling surface while maintaining accuracy in tool-point position, the ability to maintain synced motion between dual drives on complex track profiles.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Peter Mueller-Hummel, Abdelatif Atarsia, Axel Wiemann
This article describes the physical background and the experience in the drilling of carbon fiber and aluminum-carbon fiber stacks. Low temperatures and intelligent chip removal technologies are the most important requirements for dry drilling or to avoid the MQL (minimum quantity lubrication). The drilling in one shot and in IT8 quality is mandatory. In case of machining metal, like aluminum or titanium, a lot of heat is generated by the tools and the cutting process. Machining of composites, the material and the tool should remain as cold as possible even by drilling without external or internal coolant. A new drill design is now developed, qualified and patented by MAPAL that allows the dry drilling of metals at very low temperatures also. We are now able to drill, all batches (composite / aluminum) without MMS. The high drilling feed and due to that, the shorter contact length between the tool and the material stack also gives us approximately twice the tool life. The new tool has already been qualified for drilling stacks in the wing box assembly, without MMS and a CPK value of 2.4.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Jeremy Jallageas, Mehdi Cherif, Jean-Yves K'nevez, Olivier Cahuc
To reduce the weight of aero structures, composite materials are combined with metallic parts. These multilayer materials are one-shot drilled during the assembly process. During drilling, interactions appear between the different layers creating new quality issues. To improve machining efficiency, the portable semi-automated drilling units commonly used for such operations need to be upgraded. For this purpose, vibration systems have been recently introduced into drilling units. This article first considers the effect of the reciprocating axial movement on the quality of the machined surface, then focuses on the effect of the oscillation parameters (frequency, magnitude) on the cutting process (cutting forces, thermal load, etc.). Experimental and numerical results are used to find the method that produces the optimal vibration setting. This method is then applied to the case of drilling composite-metallic stack. We conclude that specific vibration parameters need to be set up according to the type of material drilled (composite, metallic).
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Abdelatif Atarsia
This technical paper deals with design and manufacture of axial and orbital cutters for drilling large diameters holes in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) / Titanium (TA6V) thick stack by means of an Automated Drilling Unit fixed on a drilling template. Creating tools that drill such stacked holes in a single operation is particularly difficult. The common strategies for tool designs designated to cutting composites stacked with metals as titanium include uncoated carbide, tools with a diamond coating applied by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). It is also question of what kind of drilling process should we use to achieve larger holes in minimum time. Therefore, axial drilling process with pilot, drill and ream steps find a competitor drilling process named orbital drilling which can achieve both operations in one step allowing then, burrless, free delamination, small and easy removable chips all with one tool being able to achieve different hole sizes. The present study compares the quality of drilled holes in term of both materials hole diameters, exit burr and cycle time which become a decision gate for the process choice.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Michael Assadi, Christopher Martin, Eliot Siegel, Dennis Mathis
Over 1,200 large diameter holes must be drilled into the side-of-body join on a Boeing commercial aircraft's fuselage. The material stack-ups are multiple layers of primarily titanium and CFRP. Due to assembly constraints, the holes must be drilled for one-up-assembly (no disassembly for deburr). In order to improve productivity, reduce manual drilling processes and improve first-time hole quality, Boeing set out to automate the drilling process in their Side-of-Body join cell. Implementing an automated solution into existing assembly lines was complicated by the location of the target area, which is over 15 feet (4 meters) above the factory floor. The Side-of-Body Drilling machines (Figure 1) are capable of locating, drilling, measuring and fastening holes with less than 14 seconds devoted to non-drilling operations. Drilling capabilities provided for holes up to ¾″ in diameter through stacks over 4.5″ thick in a titanium/CFRP environment. Using high precision servo control, each layer could be customized with specific drill parameters optimized to improve hole quality and decrease drill cycle time.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Marco Moehle
The demand of fulfilling continually increasing customer requirements forces suppliers to always improve their system solutions to be state of the art. The subject Project Management Approach explains the planning and realization of complete Integrated Assembly Lines for Aircraft structural parts and components. The paper will describe and focus on the main aspects of the state of the art technology in automated fastening, drilling and assembly processes to meet the required customer production and reporting criteria. Furthermore the paper will present existing production examples in support of the established project management process.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Roger C. Richardson
Tooling structures to make wing/wing, fuselage/fuselage, and wing/fuselage mates have long been rather massive tools. Not only are these tools large and expensive, but they often obstruct the very drilling and fastening work to be done in the mate tool. Furthermore, these legacy mate tools can only do one job - a mate tool cannot be used for a different airplane, or even a different part of the same airplane. A flexible, more versatile system will lower the cost of aircraft with a low quantity production run planned, and a more open design can reduce the cost of assembly on a high production aircraft. This paper will discuss the development and recent breakthroughs that allow the mating of any size aircraft sections with very high precision using only a set of specialized jacks that provide six degrees-of-freedom coupled with a non-contact measurement system. Data extracted directly from a CAD 3-D model is fed into a computer system that is then used with a closed-loop control system to align the aircraft sections and/or wings in water, butt, station, roll, pitch, and yaw.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
ZhaoCai DU, Yanbin YAO
A method of noncontact laser distance measurement is proposed for the digital drilling and riveting of complex surface. By means of measurement resulting from locating devices, the normal direction of measured region on curved surface is evaluated. The posture of end-effector fixed on the end of industrial robot is adjusted to feed along the evaluated normal direction. The datum plane for calibration is derived using the least square plane fitting method. The position and posture of locating devices are calibrated on the basis of the distances between locating devices and datum plane. The normal direction of measured area is derived from the distances measured by locating devices. A numerical example illustrates the correctness of the proposed method. The method can be used for positioning and attitude-adjusting for digital manufacturing and assembly.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Peter Mueller-Hummel, Christian Meiners
Industrial robot applications are going to reduce cost in capital investment and enhancing the capability. A new concept of drill technology is successfully running in composite trailing edge manufacturing for drilling 5/8\mi holes in Composite/Aluminum stacks in IT8 quality. This article characterizes the special features of drilling of CFRP/Titanium and Aluminum stacks. Simplified theoretic models will show how CFRP/Titanium stacks should be machined without scratches and burn marks contacting carbon. Low axial forces and smart chip removal technology are the main characteristics of the drilling tool technology, optimized to reach IT8 quality in one shot operation.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Sylvain Laporte, Côme De Castelbajac
Aircraft design has mainly changed in the past years, introducing new materials such as CFRP at a large scale. Even if this great change brought many advantages: weight, sustainability, reliability… it upset the way to produce basic parts and to assembly. A special difficulty lies in drilling multiple stacks made of different materials, i.e. metal (aluminum, titanium, stainless steel) + CFPR. Indeed, as the process has to drill through those stacks during a unique operation, cutting conditions and tool technologies are a compromise. As a consequence, tool life cycle, productivity and above all, hole quality are no longer optimum. Some materials, such as titanium requires low cutting speed and high feed rate whereas CFRP requires opposite trends. Moreover, heat generated by cutting metal (especially titanium) can damage CFRP when overheated metallic chips pass through. Finally, the compromise for cutting conditions and tool technology can generate long metallic chips that may congest drill flutes and entail hole damages or tool breakage.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
J B Mann, C J Saldana, Y Guo, H Yeung, W D Compton, S Chandrasekar
Deep-hole drilling is among the most critical precision machining processes for production of high-performance discrete components. The effects of drilling with superimposed, controlled low-frequency modulation - Modulation-Assisted Machining (MAM) - on the surface textures created in deep-hole drilling (ie, gun-drilling) are discussed. In MAM, the oscillation of the drill tool creates unique surface textures by altering the burnishing action typical in conventional drilling. The effects of modulation frequency and amplitude are investigated using a modulation device for single-flute gun-drilling on a computer-controlled lathe. The experimental results for the gun-drilling of titanium alloy with modulation are compared and contrasted with conventional gun-drilling. The chip morphology and surface textures are characterized over a range of modulation conditions, and a model for predicting the surface texture is presented. Implications for production gun-drilling are discussed.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Lutz Deitert
During mechanical assembly, individual parts are joined by different types of fasteners which are commonly to be installed into tightly tolerated holes. Drilling of widely used modern materials like CFRP and titanium leads to challenges in terms of tool and process development. A significant challenge is one step drilling in assemblies made from mixed material stacks. It results in deviating hole diameters making the additional reaming operation essential.”But also drilling of thick single material stacks imposes difficulties in terms of hole tolerance, chip extraction, heat accumulation and lubrication issues, leading to the necessity of drilling in several steps to achieve the required hole quality and integrity. During orbital drilling the drive spindle rotates eccentrically in addition to tool rotation and feed movement, leading to a circular path of the cutting tool. Orbital drilling can offer advantages compared with conventional drilling and reaming. The eccentricity can be set steplessly even during the drilling process which allows to drill different hole diameters with one tool, tapered holes, change diameter within the hole or to perform a finishing cut during the tool return stroke.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
John Barry, Zan Uffelman
Drilling of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) components in aircraft production presents many challenges. Factors including layup material, layup process, layup orientation, hole tolerance, surface finish, delamination limits, and inspection methods result in a wide range of process times. The purpose of the paper is to provide a framework to understanding the drilling process in CFRP and the resulting hole tolerance, surface finish and delamination. The paper will investigate drilled hole diameters from 3/16\mi (5 mm) up to 1\mi (25.4 mm) drilled thru CFRP/CFRP and CFRP/metallic stacks with automated drilling machines using single-sided clamping.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Krystian K. Wika, Adrian R.C. Sharman, David Goulbourne, Keith Ridgway
The main difficulties in machining composites and titanium are the excessive abrasive nature of the composite material and the poor thermal conductivity of titanium. When composites are combined with titanium in stacks, drilling them becomes even more difficult. Burrs and chips, which are produced when drilling the titanium, damage the composite layers and produce holes outside the required hole size accuracy. Although material stack-ups such as Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic/Titanium (CFRP/Ti) or CFRP/Al have been in industry for at least 20 years, more research is required regarding the influence of different drill geometry features on tool performance and hole quality while drilling these materials. The experiments reported in the literature have shown that drilling in CFRP/Ti stacks is a difficult task, as each of the materials requires a different approach, requiring extremely different types of drill geometry and cutting conditions. It is also suggested that titanium causes the biggest problems when machining CFRP/Ti stacks.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Peter Mueller-Hummel
This article characterises the special features of drilling of CFRP/Titanium and -Aluminium stacks. Simplified theoretic models will show how CFRP/Titanium stacks should be machined without scratches and burn marks contacting carbon. Low axial forces and smart chip removal technology are the main characteristics of the drilling tool technology, optimised to reach H8 quality in one shot operation.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Niklas Björlingson, Anders Nelson, Joakim Edberg
PFD 1500 is a positive feed drill developed to offer process enhancement possibilities and cost savings both when drilling blank aluminum and stacks with CFRP and titanium. The design concept is completely modular, which offers unique versatility in a drill motor which quickly can be configured to meet any application in its niche. Designed to meet today's torque requirements, PFD 1500 mitigates many of the quality problems normally experienced with the use of positive feed drills. In use on assembly lines, PFD 1500 has proven to be capable of drilling close tolerance holes of large diameters in significantly shorter time than earlier proven possible.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Kevin W. Myhill
A Pneumatic Adaptive drilling system has proven to be of significant benefit when looking to increase the production rate of drilling Titanium/CFRP stack materials that are increasingly present in new aircraft designs. The system also offers additional benefits in coolant control, cutter life and preventing drilling beyond a set cycle count while also minimizing air consumption. This paper reviews the history of “adaptive drilling”, the concept and theory when applied to a pneumatic positive feed drill, current applications and the potential future for the technology.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Jesse Peck, Kurt Massey
Growing use of composite materials in aircraft wing construction requires a new generation of drilling machines. Electroimpact developed the LTD machine to address the specific needs posed by large scale composite wing box assembly. The machine maximizes the efficacy of blind access to create a single sided assembly process. Innovative design greatly reduces machine weight and foundation requirements. Optimized processes and automation tools increase the drilling capacity. The mobile machine maximizes plant flexibility by carrying out work on both wing surfaces across multiple assembly jigs. Through thoughtful engineering and thoroughly developed processes the LTD presents a highly capable and cost efficient solution for composite wing box drilling automation.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Peter Ehinger
A drill/ream cycle is necessary to produce high quality, large diameter holes in carbon-titanium stacks. Manual tool changes and traditional automatic tool changers limit hole-to-hole cycle times and hole quality. An in-process tool changer, mounted directly on the machine head, replaces a cutting tool with a reaming tool while clamp-up is maintained on the aircraft panel. By reducing or eliminating operator intervention, machine-axis moves, and optical resynchronization, an in-process automatic tool changer shortens cycle time, improves hole quality, and increases positional accuracy of holes. Automating this process also reduces risk of harm to the operator and aircraft structure.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Surendra Datar
Recycle, Reuse, Repair is an established process for sustainability. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1] or by redesigning a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2]. This paper explores the possibility of reuse of HSS drills that are used for making long oil holes in automobile parts like crankcase (cylinder block), cylinder head, crankshaft, etc. Design/manufacture of such drills is peculiar by virtue of their size and length and are also known as thick web high helix drills. Making of oil holes entails use of drills that are 500 to 600 mm long depending on the size of the component. In most of the long oil hole drilling operations, a limited portion of the drill is useable. This is because there is a possibility of fouling of the holding elements with guiding element, or with the part being drilled and the chance of accidental damage to part or machine. These short length drills (for the original use) have full potential for reuse in areas where the reduced length can suit the application.
Technical Paper
2009-11-10
Thorsten Dillhöfer, Bill Bankston
Ever increasing process applications inspire us, as a supplier of aircraft, structural-assembly, and equipment, to design innovative and modular, manufacturing cells in compliance with modern specification. The result is the new highly flexible Multi Panel Assembly Cell (MPAC). This technical paper describes how benchmarks for flexible automated drilling and fastening are being achieved with the MPAC.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 201

Filter