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Viewing 1 to 30 of 218
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2517
Sean Holt, Rider Clauss
Electroimpact has developed a novel method for accurately drilling and countersinking holes on highly convex parts using a 6-axis robotic drilling system. Highly curved parts, such as the leading edge of an aircraft wing, present numerous challenges when attempting to drill normal to the part surface and produce tight tolerance countersinks. Electroipmact's Accurate Robot technology allows extremely accurate positioning of the tool point and the spindle vector orientation. However, due to the high local curvature of the part, even a small positional deviation of the tool point can result in a significantly different normal vector than expected from an NC program. An off-normal hole will result in an out of tolerance countersink and a non-flush fastener.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2510
Ryan Haldimann
Measurement of Countersinks to high degree of accuracy has always been a challenge. The Countersink is defined relative to the panel surface which includes some degree of curvature. This curvature thus makes accurate measurements very difficult using both contact and 2D non-contact measurements. By utilizing structured light 3D Vision technologies, the ability to very accurately measure a countersink to small tolerances can be achieved. By knowing the pose of the camera and projector, triangulation can be used to calculate the distance to thousands of points on the panel and countersink surface. The plane of the panel is then calculated using Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) method from the dataset of points which can be adjusted to account for panel curvatures. The countersink is then found using a similar RANSAC method.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2508
Jason Rediger, Kyle Fitzpatrick, Rob McDonald, Daniel Uebele
An improved aircraft assembly line incorporates fully automated robotic tool change. Ten machine tools, each with two onboard 6-axis robots, drill and fasten airplane structural components. The robots change 100% of the process tooling (drill bits, bolt anvils, hole probes, and nosepieces) to allow seamless transition across the entire range of hole and fastener sizes (3/16”-7/16”). To support required rate, total tool change time (including automatic calibration) is less than 80 seconds. This paper describes the robots and their end effector hardware, reliability testing, and simulations for both mechanical clearance and cycle time estimation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2490
Sylvain Guerin, Sylvain da Costa
The quality requirement for drilling operation in aerospace industry associated to the different material layers of the recent aircraft design is one of the most challenging issues for manufacturing engineers who want to design system for one-shot drilling operation. We have developed and validated in production a handheld electrical tool which is able to accurately monitor the drilling parameter and to adjust the drilling conditions to specific material in the stack-up. This “Smart Driller” achieves quality and performances equivalent to those obtained by the most advanced heavy automated drilling systems at a small portion of weight and cost.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2500
Brigitte Vasques
Authors: Brigitte Vasques (a), A. Mendes (a) a) ApexToolGroup S.N.C. 25, avenue Maurice Chevalier-Z. I. 77330 Ozoir-la-Ferrière (France) brigitte.vasques@apextoolgroup.com Abstract: The drilling of multilayers composite stacks remains a common process in aerospace industry. Research of productive solutions such as one shot and dry drilling operations to avoid reaming and lubrication are contemplated by aerospace customers on titanium multilayers composite applications. Those solutions permit to reduce the number of finishing operation and drilling time. Special ADEs (advanced drilling equipment’s) machines are used to drill aircraft components in limited access areas. Parameters such as cutters, ADE machines, rigidity fixation, drill cutting conditions, chip fragmentation and extraction are related and influence the hole quality. Titanium (TA6V) thickness and cutting configuration influence the cutter wear development.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2509
Eric Reid
The Boeing Company has recently developed a mobile robotic drilling and fastening system, in support of its commitment to lean manufacturing techniques. The robotic system, referred to as Lower Panel Drilling and Fastening System (LPDFS), was initially developed as a way to minimize facilities costs by not requiring costly foundation work. It is designed to operate with a high level of autonomy, minimizing operator intervention, including that required for machine setup and tool changes. System design enables positioning the work piece at a lower ergonomic height for concurrent manual processes. In all aspects of design, the system will maintain maximum flexibility for accommodating future manufacturing changes and increases in production rate, while meeting the strict accuracy requirements characteristic of aircraft manufacturing.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2489
Philippe Le Vacon, Fabien Albert, Thomas Buisson
The NC template developed by AIRBUS GROUP Innovations, is a light and low cost five axis drilling machine, dedicated to the assembly of hybrid (CFRP/Al/Ti) aircraft structure. This solution aims to replace the current process where operators move the drilling units from one hole to another. It’s providing a high level of flexibility compared to drilling templates with a special interest during the ramp up phase of new A/C program, because it has just to be reprogrammed if fasteners positions change. The NRC can also be reduced due to limitation of operators, because one operator can manage several grids. The architecture of the machine is made up of a Cartesian table having a tool holder carriage on which is fixed a normality module with a standard ADU (Advanced Drilling Unit). The normality module has 3 axes (Z and two rotations) which give the capability to operate on double convex curvatures, flat up to 1500 mm radius.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2513
Hans-Juergen Borchers, Kadir Akkuş
New Aircraft drilling installations show a tendency to use Robotic concepts for the positioning of the end effector. At the same time demands of fulfilling the continually increasing customer requirements forces suppliers to improve their system solutions to match the specifications. This paper will discuss the process of drilling large diameter holes within high quality requirements using a Robot positioning concept with a High speed spindle End effector. This Robot End effector system provides flexibility to handle different aircraft sections due to its Robot arm design. The material configuration that will discussed in this paper is a mixed material stack of CFRP and Aluminum. The diameter range is from 7.9 mm to 15.9 mm. This paper will focus on the large diameter holes. What are the process forces that have to be handled and what are the solutions.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2502
Jeremy Jallageas, Matthieu Ayfre, Mehdi Cherif, Jean-Yves K'nevez, Olivier Cahuc
This study investigates the self-adjusted cutting parameters technique to improve drilling multi-stacked material. The technique consists in changing automatically the cutting strategy accordingly to the material machined. The success of this technique relies on an accurate signal analysis regardless to process setting. Motor current or thrust force are mostly used as incoming signals. Today analyzes are based on thresholding method. It consists in assigning lower and upper limits for each type of material. The material is then identified when the signal level is stabilized in between one of the thresholds. Good results are observed as long as signal steps are significantly distinct. It is the case during drilling TA6V-CFRP stacks. However, thrust force standard remains roughly unchanged for AA7175-CFRP stacks, leading to overlapping thresholds. Moreover, these boundaries limits may change with tool geometry, wear condition, cutting parameters, etc.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2501
Cosme de Castelbajac, Sylvain Laporte, Julian Lonfier, Emmanuel Puviland
Over the last few years, a number of aircraft production lines have seen their production rate increase. In some cases, to avoid bottlenecks in the assembly lines, the productivity of processes needs to be improved while keeping existing machine-tools. In this context, the case of drilling machine-tools tends to require particular attention, especially when multi-material parts are drilled. In such instances, the Vibration Assisted Drilling (V.A.D.) process can be a way to improve productivity and reliability while controlling quality standards. This article presents a case of a drilling/countersinking process for stainless steel and titanium stack parts. Firstly, the article assesses the feasibility and benefits of using Vibration Assisted Drilling and Countersinking with the current cutting-tools.
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9105
Akram Faqeeh, Ahmed Sherif El-Gizawy
The present paper aims at optimization of multiple quality characteristics (dimensional accuracy and surface roughness) in dry drilling Ti-6Al-4V using TiAlN-coated carbide tool while the controllable factors are spindle speed and feed rate. To do so, desirability methodology is used to explore optimum conditions for concurrent optimization of the addressed quality characteristics. Central composite design (CCD) is used for experimentation. In order to create reliable models describing the process behavior, response surface methodology (RSM) is used.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2246
Yanbin Yao
Abstract Drilling plays a significant process in the aircraft manufacturing. This paper develops a robot automatic drilling system for processing the titanium alloy, aluminum alloy and laminated composites component of aircraft. The accurate robot drilling system is comprised of ABB IRB6640-235 robot, drilling end-effector, end-effctor control system and vision system. Experimental results show that the system absolute location precision is within 0.3mm, and the drilling efficiency can be up to four holes per minute. The drilling efficiency and quality of the aircraft component can be increased immensely by the developed robot automatic drilling system.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2259
Greg Adams
Abstract Electroimpact has developed a second generation of mobile robots with several improvements over the first generation. The frame has been revised from a welded steel tube to a welded steel plate structure, making the dynamic response of the structure stiffer and reducing load deflections while maintaining the same weight. The deflections of the frame have been optimized to simplify position compensation. The caster mechanism is very compact, offers greater mounting flexibility, and improved maneuverability. The mechanism uses a pneumatic airbag for both lifting and suspension. The robot sled has been improved to offer greater rigidity for the same weight, and dual secondary feedback scales on the vertical axis further improve the rigidity of the overall system. Maintenance access has been improved by rerouting the cable and hose trays, and lowering the electrical cabinet.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2255
Joseph R. Malcomb
Abstract Automated countersink measurement methods which require contact with the workpiece are susceptible to a loss of accuracy due to cutting debris and lube build-up. This paper demonstrates a non-contact method for countersink diameter measurement on CFRP which eliminates the need for periodic cleaning. Holes are scanned in process using a laser profilometer. Coordinates for points along the countersink edge are processed with a unique filtering algorithm providing a highly repeatable estimate for major and minor diameter.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2270
Jason Rediger, Joseph Malcomb, Craig Sylvester
Abstract A new portable floor drilling machine, the 767AFDE, has been designed with a focus on increased reach and speed, ease-of-use, and minimal weight. A 13-foot wide drilling span allows consolidation of 767 section 45 floor drilling into a single swath. A custom CNC interface simplifies machine operations and troubleshooting. Four servo-driven, air-cooled spindles allow high rate drilling through titanium and aluminum. An aluminum space frame optimized for high stiffness/weight ratio allows high speed operation while minimizing aircraft floor deflection. Bridge track tooling interfaces between the machine and the aircraft grid. A vacuum system, offline calibration plate, and transportation dolly complete the cell.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2274
Riley HansonSmith, Alan Merkley
Abstract The Boeing Company is striving to improve quality and reduce defects and injuries through the implementation of lightweight “Right Sized” automated drill and fasten equipment. This has lead to the factory adopting Boeing developed and supplier built flex track drill and countersink machines for drilling fuselage circumferential joins, wing panel to spar and wing splice stringers. The natural evolution of this technology is the addition of fastener installation to enable One Up Assembly. The critical component of One Up Assembly is keeping the joint squeezed tightly together to prevent burrs and debris at the interface. Traditionally this is done by two-sided machines providing concentric clamp up around the hole while it is being drilled. It was proposed that for stiff structure, the joint could be held together by beginning adjacent to a tack fastener, and assemble the joint sequentially using the adjacent hole clamp up from the previous hole to keep the joint clamped up.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2234
Nelson W. Sorbo, Jason J. Dionne
Abstract The use of composite materials and composite stackups (CO-Ti or CO-Al) in aerospace and automotive applications has been and will continue to grow at a very high rate due to the high strength and low weight of the materials. One key problem manufacturers have using this material is the ability to efficiently drill holes through the layers to install fasteners and other components. This is especially true in stackups of CFRP and titanium due to the desire of drilling dry for the CFRP layer and the need for cooling when drilling the high strength Ti layer. By using CO2 through tool cooling, it is possible to protect both layers. Through work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE) it is shown that CO2 through tool cooling productivity can be significantly increased while maintaining required hole tolerances in both the composite and Ti layers.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2236
Julian Lonfier, Côme De Castelbajac
Abstract As aircraft programs currently ramp up, productivity of assembly processes needs to be improved while keeping quality, reliability and manufacturing cost requirements. Efficiency of the drilling process still remains an issue particularly in the case of CFRP/metal stacks: hot and long metallic chips are difficult to remove and often damage the surface of CFRP holes. Low frequency axial vibration drilling has been proposed to solve this issue. This innovative drilling process allows breaking up the metallic chips in such a way that jamming is avoided. This paper presents a case of CFRP/Ti6Al4V drilling on a CNC machine where productivity must be increased. A comparison is made between the current regular process and the MITIS drilling process. First the analysis and comparison method is presented. The current process is analyzed and its limits are highlighted. Then the vibration process is implemented and its performances are studied.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2241
Jamie Skovron, Laine Mears, Durul Ulutan, Duane Detwiler, Daniel Paolini, Boris Baeumler, Laurence Claus
Abstract A state of the art proprietary method for aluminum-to-aluminum joining in the automotive industry is Resistance Spot Welding. However, with spot welding (1) structural performance of the joint may be degraded through heat-affected zones created by the high temperature thermal joining process, (2) achieving the double-sided access necessary for the spot welding electrodes may limit design flexibility, and (3) variability with welds leads to production inconsistencies. Self-piercing rivets have been used before; however they require different rivet/die combinations depending on the material being joined, which adds to process complexity. In recent years the introductions of screw products that combine the technologies of friction drilling and thread forming have entered the market. These types of screw products do not have these access limitations as through-part connections are formed by one-sided access using a thermo-mechanical flow screwdriving process with minimal heat.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2258
Sylvain Laporte, Etienne Gueydon, Alain Auffret, Cosme De Castelbajac
Abstract In today's aircraft assembly process several new features make drilling operations very challenging according to production requirements. Parts are made of thin or thick multi-material stacks with a large scope to cover and complex assembly sequences. In addition, the current ramp-up in aircraft programs involves to improve productivity while keeping process quality and reliability. In this context robotic solution meets perfectly all these requirements as it is flexible, reconfigurable, fast and agile. Among the possible end-effectors, the Barrel Multi-Function End Effector (BMFEE) appears to be the most flexible solution to allow many different process configurations. The latest developments have been focused on the drilling equipment of this BMFEE. In fact the drilling process efficiency can be constantly improved especially in terms of reliability, quality and productivity. Therefore vibration-assisted drilling system has been integrated into the BMFEE drilling module.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2271
Ryan Haldimann, Daniel Orf
Abstract In an attempt to be more flexible and cost effective, Aerospace Manufacturers have increasingly chosen to adapt a manufacturing style which borrows heavily from the Automotive industry. To facilitate this change in methodologies a system for locating robots has been developed which utilizes cameras for both locating and guidance of a mobile platform for a robot with drilling and fastening end effector.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0825
Yi-Hsin Chen, Xu Chen, Nan Xu, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract The residual stresses found in components are mainly due to thermal, mechanical and metallurgical changes of material. The manufacturing processes such as fabrication, assembly, welding, rolling, heat treatment, shot peening etc. generate residual stresses in material. The influence of residual stress can be beneficial or detrimental depending on nature and distribution of the residual stress in material. In general, the compressive residual stress can increase the fatigue life of material because it provides greater resistance for crack initiation and propagation. A significant number of improvements for residual stress measurement techniques have occurred in last few decades. The most popular technique of residual stress measurement is based on the principle of strain gage rosette and hole drilling (ASTM E837-01, destructive).
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2224
Joseph R. Malcomb
Previous Flex Track drilling systems move along two parallel tracks that conform to the contour of a work piece surface. Until recently, applications have been limited to relatively simple surfaces such as the cylindrical mid-body fuselage join of a commercial aircraft. Recent developments in the state of the art have introduced the 5-axis variant which is capable of precision drilling on complex contours. This paper presents solutions to two positioning challenges associated with this added functionality: the ability to align the spindle axis normal to an angled drilling surface while maintaining accuracy in tool-point position, the ability to maintain synced motion between dual drives on complex track profiles.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2338
Troy Gray, Daniel Orf, Greg Adams
The versatility of the accurate robot has been increased by coupling it with a mobile platform with vertical axis. The automation can be presented to fixed aircraft components such as wings, fuselage sections, flaps, or other aircraft assemblies requiring accurate drilling, inspection, and fastening. The platform accommodates a tool changer, ride along coupon stand, fastener feed system, and other systems critical for quality automated aircraft assembly. The accurate robot's flexibility is increased by a floor resynchronization system. The indexing system is replaced by an automated two-camera onboard vision system and miniature targets embedded in the factory floor, with accuracy comparable to cup and cone alternatives. The accurate robot can be deployed by casters, curvilinear rail, or air bearings.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2152
Karl-Erik Neumann, Robert Reno
The improvements in Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKM) coupled with new innovative technologies, allow for Advanced Automated Milling, Drilling and Fastening in the Aerospace industry. Providing economical alternatives to processes that currently utilize highly customized machine tools, sacrificing flexibility and dynamics, or complex robotic cells sacrificing system capabilities with the rigidity and accuracy limitations of serial robots. The latest in PKM technology eliminates the ball joints that were mandatory in all previous PKM machines, as well as the heavy platforms or structures supporting the actuators. This allows for the strength and rigidity common to machine tools, but with the flexibility and high dynamics associated with standard serial robots. The new use of Auto-Calibration and cross lasers allow for highly accurate positioning, adaptation to a material surface, edge, datum, hole, etc. or to reference the machine to the adjacent work zone.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2227
Shuhei Segawa, Junich Tamura, Satoshi Suzuki, Hisao Oka, Kiichi Meguro, Yoshiji Satou
In the expansion of composite material application, it is one of the most important subjects in assembly of aircraft structure how drilling of composite/metal stack should be processed in an efficient way. This paper will show the result of development of a drill bit for CFRP/Aluminum-alloy stack by Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) and Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal (SEH). In order to improve workability and economic performance, the drill bit which enables drilling CFRP/Al-alloy stack: at 1 shot; from both directions; without air blow and coolant (just usual vacuuming); was required. A best mix drill bit which has smooth multi angles edge and pointed finishing edge was produced as a result of some trials. Developed drill bit achieved required performance and contributed to large cost reduction, labor hour saving, production speed increase and work environment improvement.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2337
Peter Mueller-Hummel, Abdelatif Atarsia, Axel Wiemann
This article describes the physical background and the experience in the drilling of carbon fiber and aluminum-carbon fiber stacks. Low temperatures and intelligent chip removal technologies are the most important requirements for dry drilling or to avoid the MQL (minimum quantity lubrication). The drilling in one shot and in IT8 quality is mandatory. In case of machining metal, like aluminum or titanium, a lot of heat is generated by the tools and the cutting process. Machining of composites, the material and the tool should remain as cold as possible even by drilling without external or internal coolant. A new drill design is now developed, qualified and patented by MAPAL that allows the dry drilling of metals at very low temperatures also. We are now able to drill, all batches (composite / aluminum) without MMS. The high drilling feed and due to that, the shorter contact length between the tool and the material stack also gives us approximately twice the tool life.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2223
Peter Mueller-Hummel, Prithvi Sripathy, Abdelatif Atarsia
Ever since the advent of fiber reinforced polymer materials in the field of Aerospace, Metal-FRP stacks started to gain importance due to their superior fatigue performance, phenomenal low weight and good specific strength. However the machining, specially drilling these multi stack materials has always proved to be a challenge for the field of manufacturing and assembly. Drilling holes in only metal with a drill (metal drill), the material removal is through a process of clear shearing since the tool is much harder and sharper than the base material. The tools hence wears at a much slower and gradual rate, also the malleable properties of the machined metal compensate to the reduced cutting capability of the worn out drill. These properties of the machined metal act like a ‘FAIL SAFE’ mechanism during the machining process assuring a trouble free fail safe environment during the drilling process. However, drilling FRP composites is altogether a different story.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2078
Jeremy Jallageas, Mehdi Cherif, Jean-Yves K'nevez, Olivier Cahuc
To reduce the weight of aero structures, composite materials are combined with metallic parts. These multilayer materials are one-shot drilled during the assembly process. During drilling, interactions appear between the different layers creating new quality issues. To improve machining efficiency, the portable semi-automated drilling units commonly used for such operations need to be upgraded. For this purpose, vibration systems have been recently introduced into drilling units. This article first considers the effect of the reciprocating axial movement on the quality of the machined surface, then focuses on the effect of the oscillation parameters (frequency, magnitude) on the cutting process (cutting forces, thermal load, etc.). Experimental and numerical results are used to find the method that produces the optimal vibration setting. This method is then applied to the case of drilling composite-metallic stack.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2226
Abdelatif Atarsia
This technical paper deals with design and manufacture of axial and orbital cutters for drilling large diameters holes in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) / Titanium (TA6V) thick stack by means of an Automated Drilling Unit fixed on a drilling template. Creating tools that drill such stacked holes in a single operation is particularly difficult. The common strategies for tool designs designated to cutting composites stacked with metals as titanium include uncoated carbide, tools with a diamond coating applied by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). It is also question of what kind of drilling process should we use to achieve larger holes in minimum time. Therefore, axial drilling process with pilot, drill and ream steps find a competitor drilling process named orbital drilling which can achieve both operations in one step allowing then, burrless, free delamination, small and easy removable chips all with one tool being able to achieve different hole sizes.
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