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Viewing 1 to 30 of 560
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2424
Shemin Zhang, Huaping Li, Tao Chen, Nan Jiang, Xinzhen Tan, Limei Deng, Qingsong Xia, Paul Kapus, Mingtang Ma, Wei Li, Junqiang Zhang, Qingjun Ma, Yong Xia
In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislation on fuel and emissions. Turbocharged downsizing DI engine is playing an increasing vital role in OEM’s powertrain strategies. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new type of 1.0-liter 3 cylinder TGDI gasoline engine to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concepts of DFM 3-cylinder 1.0TGDI gasoline engine are explored to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerning about the fuel cost and pollution. The combustion system with side-mounted 6-hole direct injector and 200bar injection pressure has been optimized by CFD simulation and transparent engine investigation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2387
Yonge Wu, Xingyu Liang, Ge-Qun Shu, Boxi Shen, Yuesen Wang, Xikai Liu, Zhijun Li
SCR (selective catalytic reduction) is one of the main after-treatment systems currently to control engine NOx emission, and its structure parameters affect its performance and cost directly. In this study, the structural parameters of the SCR reactor are optimized by considering the coupling relationship between each structural parameter by using the RSM (Response Surface Methodology). Finally, the new reactor with the optimized parameters was simulated to double check its NOx reduction ability. A 1D model of SCR system is constructed using AVL BOOST software. The influence of structure parameters, such as catalyst cross-section area, catalyst length, substrate wall thickness, washcoat thickness, substrate cell density (CPSI), have been taken into consideration to study their effects on the SCR performance. Using BBD (Box Behnken Design) experimental design method, the tests of every factor under different levels are carried out by Design Expert software.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0163
Apostolos Pesiridis, Angelo Saccomanno, Raffaele Tuccillo, Alfredo Capobianco
Abstract The modern automotive industry is under strict regulations to reduce emissions to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, a universally acknowledged treaty aiming at reducing exhaust gas emissions. In order to achieve the required future emission reduction targets, further developments on gasoline engines are required. One of the main methods to achieve this goal is the application of engine downsizing. Turbocharging is a cost-effective method of downsizing an engine whilst reducing exhaust gas emissions, reducing fuel consumption and maintaining prior performance outputs. For these reasons, the turbocharging is becoming the most widely adopted technology in the automotive markets. In 2012, 32% of passenger and commercial vehicles sold had a turbocharger installed, and is predicted to be 40% of 2017 [1]. Even if the engine turbocharging is a widespread technology, there are still drawbacks present in current turbocharging systems.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1792
Magnus Knutsson, Erik Kjellson, Rodney Glover, Hans Boden
Abstract Increased demands for reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are driven by the global warming. To meet these challenges with respect to the passenger car segment the strategy of utilizing IC-engine downsizing has shown to be effective. In order to additionally meet requirements for high power and torque output supercharging is required. This can be realized using e.g. turbo-chargers, roots blowers or a combination of several such devices for the highest specific power segment. Both turbo-chargers and roots blowers can be strong sources of sound depending on the operating conditions and extensive NVH abatements such as resonators and encapsulation might be required to achieve superior vehicle NVH. For an efficient resonator tuning process in-duct acoustic source data is required. No published studies exists that describe how the gas exchange process for roots blowers can be described by acoustic sources in the frequency domain.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1835
Nader Dolatabadi, Ramin Rahmani, Stephanos Theodossiades, Homer Rahnejat, Guy Blundell, Guillaume Bernard
Abstract Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0776
Ulrich Kramer, Thomas Lorenz, Christian Hofmann, Helmut Ruhland, Rolf Klein, Carsten Weber
Abstract A fundamental requirement for natural gas (NG) and renewable methane (e.g. bio-methane or power-to-gas methane) as automotive fuel is reliable knock resistance; to enable optimization of dedicated NG engines with high compression ratio and high turbocharger boost (which enables considerable engine downsizing factors). In order to describe the knock resistance of NG, the Methane Number (MN) has been introduced. The lowest MN which generally can be found in any NG is 65, and the vast majority of NG (~ 99.8%) is delivered with a MN above 70. The MN of bio-methane and power-to-gas methane is usually far above 80. Thus, from an automotive point of view any methane fuel should at least provide a minimum Methane Number of 70 at any point of sale. But the European draft standard describing the automotive CNG fuel quality so far proposes a minimum MN limit of 65.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1723
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Jham Tikoliya, Hemant Nishad
Abstract As the commercial vehicle engine heads towards the next generation of stringent emissions and fuel economy targets, all aspects of the internal combustion engine are subject to close scrutiny. Inherently, ICE’s are very inefficient, with efficiency varying between 18 ~ 40%. This efficiency is a function of friction losses, pumping losses and wasted heat. Currently, automotive OEM’s globally are hard at work trying to attack these issues with various solutions to achieve incremental gains. The leading trend is getting more power from less space, also known as downsizing. Due to the importance of downsizing, direct injection and other technologies, it is imperative to highlight another key area, where OEM’s are expanding their limits to gain those extra few kilometers per liter of fuel i.e. weight reduction. From an emissions perspective, it is estimated that every 50 kg of weight reduced from an average 1,500 kg vehicle cuts CO2 emissions by 4 ~ 5 grams.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1224
Ryota Kitamoto, Shinnosuke Sato, Hiromichi Nakamura, Atsushi Amano
Abstract A new fuel cell voltage control unit (FCVCU) has been developed for a new fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In order to simultaneously reduce the electric powertrain size and increase the driving motor power, the FCVCU is needed to boost the voltage supplied from the fuel cell (FC) stack to the driving motor. The FCVCU circuit configuration has four single-phase chopper circuits arranged in parallel to form a 4-phase interleaved circuit. The intelligent power module (IPM) is a full SiC IPM, the first known use to date in a mass production vehicle, and efficiency has been enhanced by making use of the effects of the increased frequency to reduce both the size of the unit and the loss from passive parts. In addition, a coupled inductor was used to reduce the inductor size. As a result, the inductor volume per unit power was reduced approximately 30% compared to the previous VCU inductor.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1244
Keisuke Kimura, Tasbir Rahman, Tadashi Misumi, Takeshi Fukami, Masafumi Hara, Sachiko Kawaji, Satoru Machida
Abstract One way to improve the fuel efficiency of HVs is to reduce the losses and size of the Power Control Unit (PCU). To achieve this, it is important to reduce the losses of power devices (such as IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCU since their losses account for about 20% of the total loss of an HV. Furthermore, another issue when reducing the size of power devices is ensuring the thermal feasibility of the downsized devices. To achieve the objectives of the 4th generation PCU, the following development targets were set for the IGBTs: reduce power losses by 19.8% and size by 30% compared to the 3rd generation. Power losses were reduced by the development of a new Super Body Layer (SBL) structure, which improved the trade-off relationship between switching and steady-state loss. This trade-off relationship was improved by optimizing the key SBL concentration parameter.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0646
Michael Bassett, Jonathan Hall, Tony Cains, Mark Underwood, Richard Wall
Abstract Gasoline engine downsizing is already established as a technology for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions. Further benefits are possible through more aggressive downsizing, however, the tradeoff between the CO2 reduction achieved and vehicle drivability limits the level of engine downsizing currently adopted by vehicle manufacturers. This paper will present the latest results achieved from a very heavily downsized engine, and resulting demonstrator vehicle, featuring eSupercharging in combination with a conventional turbocharger. The original 1.2 litre, 3-cylinder, MAHLE downsizing engine has been re-configured to enable a specific power output in excess of 160 kW/litre. Of key importance is a cost effective, efficient and flexible boosting system.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0687
Patrick Haenel, Henning Kleeberg, Rob de Bruijn, Dean Tomazic
Abstract Modern combustion engines must meet increasingly higher requirements concerning emission standards, fuel economy, performance characteristics and comfort. Especially fuel consumption and the related CO2 emissions were moved into public focus within the last years. One possibility to meet those requirements is downsizing. Engine downsizing is intended to achieve a reduction of fuel consumption through measures that allow reducing displacement while simultaneously keeping or increasing power and torque output. However, to reach that goal, downsized engines need high brake mean effective pressure levels which are well in excess of 20bar. When targeting these high output levels at low engine speeds, undesired combustion events with high cylinder peak pressures can occur that can severely damage the engine. These phenomena, typically called low speed pre-ignition (LSPI), set currently an undesired limit to downsizing.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0037
Christian Zinner, Stephan Jandl, Stephan Schmidt
Abstract The internal combustion engine is still the most important propulsion system for individual mobility. Especially for the application of motorcycles and recreation vehicles the extraordinary high power density is crucial. Today, these engines are mainly 4-stroke naturally aspirated MPFI engines. The main difference to the automotive sector is the abandonment of all cost intensive technologies, like variable valve timing, intake air charging or gasoline direct injection. The need for further investigations and implementation of new technologies is given due to the very high share of total road transport emissions of motorcycles and the introduction of the emission limits of EURO5 in 2020. One possibility to reach the future emission limits is the downsizing strategy. For this, the potential for emission and fuel consumption reduction is well known.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0006
Ran Amiel, Leonid Tartakovsky
Abstract This paper provides an analysis of the effect of a flight altitude on knock occurrence in reciprocating SI turbocharged engines. It presents results of the computational study aimed at investigating reasons leading to knock occurrence and methods of alleviating the knock tendency of small aircraft engines. Turbochargers are frequently used to improve the performance of aviation platforms at high altitudes. Although a turbocharger provides the benefits of increased power, improved BSFC and a downsized engine, it can result in engine knock because of increasing the intake air temperature, due to a rise in the compression ratios as the air density drops. Aerial platforms experience environmental conditions that can change drastically in a matter of a few minutes. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the combined effects of altitude, initial ground temperature, humidity, flight velocity and fuel octane numbers on the emergence of knock following takeoff.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2172
Matthieu Cordier, Olivier Laget, Florence Duffour, Xavier Gautrot, Loic De Francqueville
Abstract Increasing global efficiency of direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine is nowadays one of the main concerns in automotive research. A conventional way to reduce DISI engine fuel consumption is through downsizing. This approach is well suited to the current homologation cycle as NEDC, but has the drawback to induce over-consumptions in customer real driving usage. Moreover, the driving cycles dedicated to EURO 6d and future regulations will evolve towards higher load operating conditions with higher particulate emissions. Therefore, efficiency of current DISI has to be strongly increased, for homologation cycle and real driving conditions. This implies to deeply understand and improve injection, mixing and flame propagation processes.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2174
Reza Golzari, Yuanping Li, Hua Zhao
Abstract As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as dual injection systems (combined port and direct fuel injection), split injection strategies (single and multiple direct fuel injection) and different intake air devices to generate an intense in-cylinder air motion. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture preparation (in terms of homogeneity and temperature) and therefore enhance the combustion, which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions. This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. A set of experiments has been conducted with combined port fuel and late direct fuel injection strategy in order to improve the combustion process.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2178
Daniela Siano, Gerardo Valentino, Fabio Bozza, Arturo Iacobacci, Luca Marchitto
Abstract In this paper, a downsized twin-cylinder turbocharged spark-ignition engine is experimentally investigated at test-bench in order to verify the potential to estimate the peak pressure value and the related crank angle position, based on vibrational data acquired by an accelerometer sensor. Purpose of the activity is to provide the ECU of additional information to establish a closed-loop control of the spark timing, on a cycle-by-cycle basis. In this way, an optimal combustion phasing can be more properly accomplished in each engine operating condition. Engine behavior is firstly characterized in terms of average thermodynamic and performance parameters and cycle-by-cycle variations (CCVs) at high-load operation. In particular, both a spark advance and an A/F ratio sweep are actuated. In-cylinder pressure data are acquired by pressure sensors flush-mounted within the combustion chamber of both cylinders.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2339
Xue-Qing Fu, Bang-Quan He, Hua Zhao
Abstract Engine downsizing can effectively improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, but extreme downsizing is limited by knocking combustion and low-speed pre-ignition at higher loads. A 2-stroke SI engine can produce higher upper load compared to its naturally aspirated 4-stroke counterpart with the same displacement due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. To determine the potential of a downsized two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve SI gasoline engine with 0.7 L displacement in place of a naturally aspirated 1.6 L gasoline (NA4SG) engine, one-dimensional models for the 2-stroke gasoline engine with a single turbocharger and a two-stage supercharger-turbocharger boosting system were set up and validated by experimental results.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2214
Teuvo Maunula, Thomas Wolff
The latest emission regulations for mobile and stationary applications require the use of aftertreatment methods for NOx and diesel particulate filters (DPF) for particulate matter (PM). SCR catalysts were evaluated by laboratory experiments and the most promising SCR catalysts were also scaled up to full-size. Development with copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) on zeolitic materials (Beta, ZSM-5, SAPO, chabazite) has resulted in the new generation of thermally durable SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalysts, which have also an improved sulfur tolerance and a low N2O formation tendency. Opposite to Cu on Beta and ZSM-5, Cu on chabazite and SAPO showed clearly lower N2O formation. Cu-SCR catalysts had a low dependency on NO2/NOx but Fe-SCR catalysts required a higher NO2/NOx ratio (>0.3) to keep a high NOx efficiency.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2276
Toyoharu Kaneko, Kazuo Yamamori, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Ko Onodera, Satoshi Ogano
Abstract Increasing numbers of vehicles equipped with downsized, turbocharged engines have been introduced seeking for better fuel economy. LSPI (low speed pre-ignition), which can damage engine hardware, is a potential risk of the engines. We reported that engine oil formulation affects frequency of LSPI events, and formulating magnesium detergents into oil is a promising option to prevent LSPI events. From the viewpoint of achieving better fuel economy by engine oil, lowering viscosity is being required. However, it causes reduced oil film thickness and will expand boundary lubrication condition regions in some engine parts. Hence, a technology to reduce friction under boundary lubrication becomes important.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2320
Tsuyoshi Asako, Ryuji Kai, Tetsuo Toyoshima, Claus Vogt, Shogo Hirose, Shiori Nakao
Abstract Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is adapted for a variety of applications to control nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust. The most commonly used catalyst for SCR in established markets is Cu-Zeolite (CuZ) due to excellent NOx conversion and thermal durability. However, most applications in emerging markets and certain applications in established markets utilize vanadia SCR. The operating temperature is typically maintained below 550°C to avoid vanadium sublimation due to active regeneration of the diesel particulate filter (DPF), or some OEMs may eliminate the DPF because they can achieve particulate matter (PM) standard with engine tuning. Further improvement of vanadia SCR durability and NOx conversion at low exhaust gas temperatures will be required in consideration of future emission standards.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2248
Yuichiro Miura, Kensaku Miyahara, Shinya Sasaki, Tsuyoshi Kashio, Katsumi Yoshida
Abstract As direct injection technology in gasoline engines has become increasingly sophisticated to seek better performance, even a small amount of deposit can have a negative effect on the functionality of injectors. Against such a background, gasoline with effective additives is expected to fix this issue, however, the clean-up and keep-clean processes are not fully understood. In this study, a direct injector fouling test has been developed in order to inspect in more detail injector fouling phenomena in gasoline engines. The test engine used was a 2012 downsized supercharged direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine equipped with an injector of maximum 15MPa injection pressure. The test fuel consisted of one regular grade gasoline (RG) and three premium grade gasoline with different concentrations of detergent.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2244
Ulrich Spicher, Max Magar, Jens Hadler
Abstract At part load and wide open throttle operation with stratified charge and lean mixture conditions the Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine offers similar efficiency levels compared to compression ignition engines The present paper reports on results of recent studies on the impact of the in-cylinder processes in DISI engines e. g. the injection, the in-cylinder flow, the mixture preparation and the ignition on the combustion, the energy conversion and the exhaust emission behavior. The analyses of the spray behavior, of the in-cylinder flow during compression as well as of the flame propagation have been carried out applying advanced optical measurement techniques. The results enable a targeted optimization of the combustion process with respect to engine efficiency and exhaust emissions. The benefits of an increase in fuel injection pressures up to 100 MPa are discussed.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2160
Alexander Bech, Paul J. Shayler, Michael McGhee
A physics based, lumped thermal capacity model of a 1litre, 3 cylinder, turbocharged, directly injected spark ignition engine has been developed to investigate the effects of cylinder deactivation on the thermal behaviour and fuel economy of small capacity, 3 cylinder engines. When one is deactivated, the output of the two firing cylinders is increased by 50%. The largest temperature differences resulting from this are between exhaust ports and between the upper parts of liners of the deactivated cylinder and the adjacent firing cylinder. These differences increase with load. The deactivated cylinder liner cools to near-coolant temperature. Temperatures in the lower engine structure show little response to deactivation. Temperature response times following deactivation or reactivation events are similar. Motoring work for the deactivated cylinder is a minor loss; the net benefit of deactivation diminishes with increasing load.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2363
Jonathan Hall, Mike Bassett, Benjamin Hibberd, Simon Streng
Abstract The complexity of modern powertrain development is demonstrated by the combination of requirements to meet future emission regulations and test procedures such as Real Driving Emissions (RDE), reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions as well as customer expectations for good driving performance. Gasoline engine downsizing is already established as a proven technology to reduce automotive fleet CO2 emissions. Additionally, alternative fuels such as natural gas, offer the potential to significantly reduce both tailpipe CO2 and other regulated exhaust gas emissions without compromising driving performance and driving range. This paper presents results showing how the positive fuel properties of natural gas can be fully utilised in a heavily downsized engine. The engine has been modified to cope with the significantly higher mechanical and thermal loads when operating at high specific outputs on compressed natural gas (CNG).
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2358
Nobunori Okui
In order to improve the fuel economy of the heavy duty trucks at a highway driving condition, the heavy duty hybrid trucks with new type of hybrid electric assist engine system were proposed at the previous report. The new system consists of a downsizing diesel engine with a two-stage charging structure, which has an electric supercharger with bypass circuit and a conventional turbocharger, the hybrid electric motor and the small-capacity battery. The electric power consumption of an electric supercharger is equivalent to the amount of the regeneration power produced during high-speed driving where the opportunity of the regeneration is small. In this report, an electric supercharger for the heavy duty hybrid truck was produced experimentally. First, the engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated using the 4 cylinder diesel engine equipped with an electric supercharger.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2164
Guillaume Pilla, Rajesh Kumar, Olivier Laget, Loic De Francqueville, Roland Dauphin, Jean-Pascal Solari
Reduction of CO2 emissions is becoming one of the great challenges for future gasoline engines. Downsizing is one of the most promising strategies to achieve this reduction, though it facilitates occurrence of knocking. Therefore, downsizing has to be associated with knock limiting technologies. The aim of the current research program is to adapt the fuel Research-Octane-Number (RON) injected in the combustion chamber to prevent knock occurrence and keep combustion phasing at optimum. This is achieved by a dual fuel injection strategy, involving a low-RON naphtha-based fuel (Naphtha, RON 71) and a high-RON octane booster (Ethanol, RON107). The ratio of fuel quantity on each injector is adapted to fit the RON requirement as a function of engine operating conditions. Hence, it becomes crucial to understand and predict the mixture preparation, to quantify its spatial and cycle-to-cycle variations and to apprehend the consequences on combustion behavior - knock especially.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2168
Masaharu Kassai, Taisuke Shiraishi, Toru Noda, Mamoru Hirabe, Yoshiki Wakabayashi, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Abstract With the development of downsized spark ignition (SI) engines, low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) has been observed more frequently as an abnormal combustion phenomenon, and there is a critical need to solve this issue. It has been acknowledged that LSPI is not directly triggered by autoignition of the fuel, but by some other material with a short ignition delay time. It was previously reported that LSPI can be caused by droplets of lubricant oil intermixed with the fuel. In this work, the ignition behavior of lubricant component containing fuel droplets was experimentally investigated by using a constant volume chamber (CVC) and a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM), which enable visualization of the combustion process in the cylinder. Various combinations of fuel compositions for the ambient fuel-air mixture and fractions of base oil/metallic additives/fuel for droplets were tested.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2255
Martin Krieck, Marco Günther, Stefan Pischinger, Ulrich Kramer, Thomas Heinze, Matthias Thewes
Abstract Liquefied Petroleum Gas direct injection (LPG DI) is believed to be the key enabler for the adaption of modern downsized gasoline engines to the usage of LPG, since LPG DI avoids the significant low end torque drop, which goes along with the application of conventional LPG port fuel injection systems to downsized gasoline DI engines, and provides higher combustion efficiencies. However, especially the high vapor pressure of C3 hydrocarbons can result in hot fuel handling issues as evaporation or even in reaching the supercritical state of LPG upstream or inside the high pressure pump (HPP). This is particularly critical under hot soak conditions. As a result of a rapid fuel density drop close to the supercritical point, the HPP is not able to keep the rail pressure constant and the engine stalls.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8078
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
Currently the downsizing of IC Engine has become the mainstream to meet fuel economy and emission regulations. It is required that higher power output while with lighter weight that is actually a daunting challenge for a common four-stroke IC engine, because it needs lots of new technologies and high manufacturing cost. For recent years the two-stroke opposed piston engine has drawn much attention in many developed countries for fundamental advantages itself. Double firing frequency means the increased power density brings about smaller engine size and lighter weight. However, the low scavenge efficiency has been assumed the main disadvantage for a two-stroke engine for a long period, and adverse to combustion efficiency. The uniflow scavenging process was investigated by the transient CFD simulation for multiple Cases. The influence of port timing and exhaust back pressure on scavenging was analyzed for two different intake port layouts.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8058
Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Hari Krishnamoorthy, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke
Abstract In recent years there has been a successful application of engine downsizing in the passenger car market, using boosting technologies to achieve higher specific power and improve fuel economy. Downsizing has also been applied in heavy-duty diesel engines for the on-highway market to improve fuel economy, motivated in part by CO2 emission limits in place under Phase 1 greenhouse gas (GHG) legislation. In the non-road market, with Tier 4 emission standards already being met and no current plan for a GHG emission requirement, there has been less activity in engine downsizing and the drivers for this approach may be different from their on-highway counterparts. For instance, manufacturers may consider emission regulation break points as a motivation for engine displacement targets. Many non-road applications demand a relatively high low-end torque and support the use of higher displacement engines.
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