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Book
2014-07-08
This 2014 edition of the Automotive Cockpits and Dashboards Report is the latest in the series of reports by Supplier Business looking at trends and developments in the vehicle cockpit space. Over time we have seen many changes in terms of the design and structure of the main modules and components that go to make up the dashboard and cockpit element of the vehicle’s interior. In particular the increasing level of in-vehicle connectivity has caused interior designers to rethink the layout and content of the dashboard and center console. In this report the main trends and developments are highlighted, with particular reference to examples of the way in which the industry has responded to the challenge. The strongest influence on the vehicle’s cockpit and dashboard continues to be the requirement for in-vehicle connectivity. Consumer demand for seamless connectivity between home, office and vehicle dominates the cockpit’s interior design and structure. The technology required to provide the level of connectivity demanded by users is increasingly complex and, by necessity, has to embrace advanced driver active safety systems (ADAS) and the anticipated development of semi-autonomous and ultimately, fully autonomous vehicles.
WIP Standard
2014-06-23
This ARP covers the system design, human interface considerations, and hardware performance recommendations and requirements for touch interactive electronic display systems installed in the cockpit/flight deck for use by pilots. System design and human interface considerations include: identification of functions that could use and benefit from touch interactions, the pilot and cockpit/flight deck environment characteristics that impact usability, and specific pilot interface characteristics such as touch mode, single and multi touch applications, feedback, latency, potential human error, and basic usability. Also addressed are workload, fatigue, and transition from hard to soft control considerations. Hardware issues cover performance aspects of touch screens installed on cockpit/flight deck displays. This ARP is intended to cover Part 23 and 25 category airplanes as well as Part 27 and 29 rotorcraft.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kathleen Ku, Michael Tschirhart
Abstract Displays that support complex graphics in driver information (DI) systems allow for the presentation of detailed visual data by employing a range of static (fixed image) and/or dynamic (moving image) design approaches. Such displays are gaining market share across a wide range of mainstream vehicles as the availability and cost of such technologies improves. Although a range of 2D, rendered 3D, and 3D imaging (or stereoscopic) information displays have been demonstrated throughout the automotive industry in recent years, there is limited empirical research examining consumer preference of the respective approaches or their influence on driving related tasks. The vehicle environment is known to be a demanding context for efficiently displaying information to the driver. Research in 3D [1, 2] reveals some of the factors that influence its acceptance and effective use, but there is limited research on the effects of 3D-related design elements when used in a driver-vehicle interface.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael Tschirhart, Kathleen Ku
Abstract The vehicle environment is known to be a demanding context for efficiently displaying information to the driver. Research in typography reveals some factors that influence reading performance measures, but there is limited research on the influence of typographic design elements in a driver-vehicle interface on user performance with a simulated driver task. Participants in these studies completed a set of vehicle infotainment tasks that involved a text-based item search in a custom-designed interface that employed a family of Helvetica Neue fonts, in a static environment and a driving simulator environment. Analysis of the data from the two studies reveals a modest but statistically significant effect of font on certain driving-related task performance measures. In both studies, fonts with intermediate values of character width and line thickness were associated with the best performance on a simulated driving task. The results of this study suggest that using typefaces with intermediate values of certain intrinsic design factors may serve as a simple and effective means of improving vehicle user interfaces.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jason Lisseman, Lisa Diwischek, Stefanie Essers, David Andrews
The last years have seen an increasing amount of innovations in the functionality of car electronics (e.g. advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) and in-vehicle infotainment systems (IVIS)). These electrical systems are not reserved for premium cars anymore, but additionally reach mid-size, compact, and subcompact cars. The growing number of functionalities in these cars entails increasing amount of interfaces, which may confuse, overload, or annoy the driver. Accompanying this, there is a trend towards the integration of capacitive touchscreens as user interfaces. These touchscreens were implemented first in consumer electronics and had a substantial impact on the way in which users interact with technology. This in turn has led to an increased user driven demand for the technology to be implemented in other domains, even in safety-critical ones like the automotive area. Capacitive touchscreens have certain drawbacks in their distraction potential and their usability, leading to safety-critical situations and negative user feedback.
Magazine
2014-03-04
Touch-less control coming to cars Use of proximity and gesture-recognition systems in auto cockpits could rise fifty-fold within a decade. Forming a strong bond Multi-material vehicles are becoming more prevalent as automakers attempt to reduce vehicle weight and boost fuel efficiency. Selecting the proper adhesive is critical when bonding dissimilar materials. SAE 2014 World Congress preview special section: 'Creating New Possibilities' Host company Hyundai and Tier 1 Strategic Partner, Delphi, established "Creating New Possibilities" as the theme for this year's premier engineering event taking place April 8-10 in Detroit's Cobo Center. This special Congress preview section uncovers some of those possibilities, featuring insights from the event's executive leadership; details of a Delphi/Hyundai advanced engine program; highlights from the technical program in the areas of powertrain, materials, testing and simulation, electronics, interiors, and body/chassis; and more.
WIP Standard
2014-02-26
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies minimum performance standards for Electronic Flight Information System (EFIS) Displays that are intended for use in the flight deck by the flightcrew in all 14 CFR Part 23, 25, 27, and 29 aircraft. The requirements and recommendations in this document are intended to apply to, but are not limited to, the following types of display functions: • Primary Flight and Primary Navigation which include vertical situation, horizontal situation, and moving map displays. • Systems display and displays that have alerting functions which may include engine instrument, aircraft systems information/control, pilot or flightcrew alerting, and documentation displays. • Control Displays including communication, navigation and system control displays. • Information Displays which may include navigation displays used for situation awareness only, supplemental data displays, and maintenance displays. • Display Unit (DU) providing the visual display of SG symbology.
Magazine
2014-01-14
Picturing a brighter future Displays are becoming a central focus for automotive interior design, forcing engineers to examine myriad trade-offs related to size, resolution, and supporting electronics.
Technical Paper
2013-11-27
Manali Brahme, Vivek S. Joshi
Automotive exterior lighting systems has several regulatory requirements & most of the manufactures have defined internal standards to achieve desired expectations based on vehicle category. Unavailability of such requirements for interior light illuminating systems has motivated the authors to generate test specifications & measurement methodology. There has been growing interest in automotive vehicle interior lighting for both functional and aesthetic requirements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Interior light illuminating devices in terms of “Light harmony”. The lighting harmony is “Maintain the color combination and light intensity level within users comfort zone”. In this study the lighting harmony is measured by means of two methods; one is Subjective evaluation & other is Objective evaluation. The details of these methods are discussed & the available results were analyzed to understand the acceptable limits of light intensity & color combination to achieve expected harmony.
WIP Standard
2013-11-26
This document describes operational scenarios and examples of system operation based on the experience of different developers of airborne wake vortex safety systems. This information is intended to supplement the recommendations and guidance given in ARP 6267 “Airborne Wake Vortex Safety Systems” as well as facilitate the application of other wake vortex standards and guidance documents generated by SAE and RTCA.
Standard
2013-09-13
The scope of this Vertical Flight document is limited to human behavioral technologies associated with design and/or implementation of Enhanced Synthetic Vision Systems (ESVS) in vertical flight aircraft. Any overlap into logic problems or hardware/software design shall be considered to be incidental to the human factors issues. Where the performance characteristics of specific technologies are relevant they will be identified, and where performance criteria are relevant to specific intended functions/use they will be identified. From a regulatory view, intended function (Full Flight Guidance or Information/Situation Awareness support) has a tremendous effect upon the design of an ESV System. However from a Human Engineering standpoint, the information on display must be discernible and comprehensible to the human operator in both cases and differences may be primarily in information content (required to support a specific task). The document is independent of candidate technologies and concentrates on human interface criteria.
Magazine
2013-09-05
Operators see bright screens in their future HMIs borrow from tablets, phones to help operators perform a broad range of tasks Small engine landscape Kubota engineers developed new small-displacement engines that adopt a common-rail system while optimizing the combustion system and injection characteristics. Sensitive to safety A growing number of digital sensors are among the tools being used to make sure failures are rare and injuries are even more infrequent.
Standard
2013-07-18
This document recommends general specifications for the location, accessibility and restraint for those items of survival, emergency, and miscellaneous equipment which are intended to be used by the flight crew, and which are stowed on or near the flight deck.
Standard
2013-07-18
The purpose of this document is to recommend criteria for the provision of crew escape facilities from the flight deck area.
Standard
2013-07-18
This document recommends provisions for crew safety and survival which are intended to apply to cargo or combination aircraft and equipment.
WIP Standard
2013-05-30
This document recommends criteria for the design and installation of flight crew rest facilities on commercial transport aircraft capable of ultra long-range operations with augmented/enlarged crew complement.
WIP Standard
2013-05-22
This document recommends criteria for the installation and operation of a printer intended for use by flight crew members on the flight deck. The printer is used to supply the flight crew with hard copies of information that originates from data sources such as FMS, ELS/EDMS, ACMS, CMS, and data link.
WIP Standard
2013-05-22
This document establishes the minimum requirements for seats and restraint systems for the flight deck. Due to limitations that it would place upon basic aircraft design, it is not considered practical for these requirements to apply fully to the observer seat. However, it is emphasized that every effort should be made to provide the observer seat position with an equivalent level of comfort and safety. This document is also intended to make recommendations for flight crew restraint systems. A properly designed crew restraint system will mminimize injury or debilitation during a survivable crash and enable post crash assistance to occupants and escape from the aircraft. Crew member safety is the primary objective, with appropriate provisions for crew comfort taken into consideration. The criteria established herein are designed to standardize restraint systems without hindering the development of new, improved systems.
WIP Standard
2013-05-22
This document is intended to specify the environmental conditions for transport aircraft necessary to permit the crew to perform their duties and functions in comfort, with minimum fatigue and no distraction. Environment conditions should cause no short or long-term effects deleterious to health or physical well-being, nor significantly impair ability to perform normal or abnormal crew functions.
WIP Standard
2013-05-13
This document is intended for the application of color to cathode-ray-tube (CRT) displays, liquid crystal displays (LCD) and other types of display technologies such as projection displays. Emerging color display technologies other than those noted above, may not be adequately covered by these recommendations. Color recommendations will not address Night Vision Devices (NVD), Head-Up Displays (HUD) or Head or Helmet Mounted Displays (HMD). This document is applicable to aircraft as understood in 14 CFR Parts 23, Part 25, Part 27 and Part 29, and EASA CS-23, CS-25. CS-27 and CS-29 certification standards.
Magazine
2013-04-16
Low-cost instrument clusters A Delphi expert proposes a design strategy to help overcome challenges for manufacturability of automotive displays suited for emerging markets. BMW's technology play Dr. Herbert Diess, BMW's board member in charge of development, talks about where his company is placing its technology bets, the challenge of meeting the 95-g CO2 regulation in 2020, and the growing role of female engineers at BMW.
Magazine
2013-04-01
Top tech talent Spotlight on some of the technologies that have been judged worthy of an AEI SAE 2013 Tech Award On the charge New solutions for turbocharger hoses were revealed at a leading international conference. Ian Adcock reports Gateway to electronic future Chris Edwards asks if field-programmable gate array will be the next big step in automotive electronics
WIP Standard
2013-03-26
This document recommends criteria for Airborne Wake Vortex Information Systems, including operational objectives, characteristics, and functional requirements. The recommendations in this document apply to transport aircraft, and describe the operational objectives of wake vortex information systems, situational displays, guidance systems, and avoidance/detection systems.
Technical Paper
2013-03-25
Jeong Il Yu, Youngjae Lim, David Chung
There have been many current studies regarding touch display locations. However, these studies revolve specifically around the Y and Z axes which disregard certain elements of an touch display in terms of usability factors. The compact car has limited space for the layouts of touch display locations. In addition, the users of compact cars have smaller body types which could be problematic for the usage frequency of touch displays without proper consideration of its location. This study focused on the touch display locations that are placed in compact cars. The conditions of this experiment focused on women drivers who drove working vehicles during actual traffic and driving scenarios. The 3-dimensional axes(X, Y, Z) determines the location of the touch display and were analyzed throughout the experiment. The experiment is divided into two experiments. During the first experiment discomfort score of menu touch task while driving are measured according to 24 location alternatives. The results showed that X and Z axes are more significant for the safety and subjective assessment when compared to the Y axis.
Technical Paper
2013-03-25
Yong Lee, Jongyong Nam, Eui-seung Jung, Youngjae Lim, Sung wook Jung, David Chung
In order to utilize in-vehicle systems efficiently, many vehicles are becoming equipped with integrated controls near the center fascia or the control box. However, the placement of these control systems can cause safety issues and risks due to visual distractions. In this study, we proposed a new integrated touch screen on the steering wheel. For this experiment, a control system was placed on the steering wheel or the center fascia. 15 participants were required to drive while utilizing vent and navigation control tasks regarding four different locations. Three of these locations were based on the steering wheel (center, upper right, lower right) and one location on the center fascia. Afterwards, the task completion time and visual distraction rate of the different locations were measured and compared. The results showed that a touch screen placed on the upper right section of the steering wheel had better performance and lower user discomfort.
Technical Paper
2013-03-25
Narasimhan Rajagopal
Display devices play a vital role as the man-machine interface in most embedded domains including the automotive industry. Display systems provide information regarding the health of various safety critical subsystems and the general status of the machine. Accuracy and precision of the information displayed is a key factor in proper machine operation. Hence display systems need to be tested meticulously before they are delivered to the customer. Current Scenario The present generation display ECM's (Electronic Control Module) function is not restricted to displaying parameters like fuel level or speed; it also acts as the virtual master of the vehicle. Most display ECMs in off-highway vehicles present at least half a dozen screens to the operator, who selects the one he wants to view based on the need. Hence testing the display ECM becomes as complex as its design. The testing process covers various aspects like data link communication and conformance with protocol, button behavior and response, accurate displacement of gauges, the timely response of indicators and quick navigation between screens, sanity checks, flashing and compatibility checks.
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