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2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2372
Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Shun Oooka, Lin Jiang, Jun Goto, Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata
Abstract To monitor emission-related components/systems and to evaluate the presence of malfunctioning or failures that can affect emissions, current diesel engine regulations require the use of on-board diagnostics (OBD). For diesel particulate filters (DPF), the pressure drop across the DPF is monitored by the OBD as the pressure drop is approximately linear related to the soot mass deposited in a filter. However, sudden acceleration may cause a sudden decrease in DPF pressure drop under cold start conditions. This appears to be caused by water that has condensed in the exhaust pipe, but no detailed mechanism for this decrease has been established. The present study developed an experimental apparatus that reproduces rapid increases of the exhaust gas flow under cold start conditions and enables independent control of the amount of water as well as the gas flow rate supplied to the DPF.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2371
Hiroki Kambe, Naoto Mizobuchi, Eriko Matsumura
Abstract Diesel Particulate filter (DPF) is installed as after treatment device of exhaust gas in diesel engine, and collects the Particulate Matter (PM). However, as the operation time of engine increases, PM is accumulated in the DPF, resulting in deterioration of PM collection efficiency and increasing in pressure loss. Therefore, Post injection has been attracted attention as DPF regeneration method for burning and removing PM in DPF. However, Post injection causes oil dilution when fuel is injected at the middle to late stage of expansion stroke. Oil dilution are concerned to deteriorate the sliding property of piston and the thermal efficiency. For this reason, it is necessary to elucidate the mechanism and the behavior that spray impinges lubricating oil film. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to construct model of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) that predicts amount of oil dilution which is concern for post injection in diesel engine, with high accuracy.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2379
Qian Feng, Shu Shen, Mengliang Li, Zhijun Li, Kongjian Qin, Diming Lou, Jiguang Wang, Xiyu Fang
Abstract Recent toxicological and epidemiologic studies have shown that diesel emissions have been a significant toxic air contaminant. Catalyzed DPF (CDPF) not only significantly reduces the PM mass emissions (>90%), but also further promotes carrier self-regeneration and oxidize more harmful gaseous pollutants by the catalyst coated on the carrier. However, some ultrafine particles and potentially harmful gaseous pollutants, such as VOCs species, originally emitted in the vapor-phase at high plume temperature, may penetrate through the CDPF filter. Furthermore, the components and content of catalyst coated on the CDPF could influence the physicochemical properties and toxicity intensity of those escaping ultrafine particles and gaseous pollutants. In this work, (1) we investigated the influence of precious metal content as a variable parameter on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the small CDPF samples.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2287
Aniseh Abdalla, Guoyang Wang, Jun Zhang, Shi-Jin Shuai
Abstract Advanced exhaust after-treatment technology is required for heavy-duty diesel vehicles to achieve stringent Euro VI emission standards. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the most efficient system that is used to trap the particulate matter (PM), and particulate number (PN) emissions form diesel engines. The after-treatment system used in this study is catalyzed DPF (CDPF) downstream of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) with secondary fuel injection. Additional fuel is injected upstream of DOC to enhance exothermal heat which is needed to raise the CDPF temperature during the active regeneration process. The objective of this research is to numerically investigate soot loading and active regeneration of a CDPF on a heavy-duty diesel engine. In order to improve the active regeneration performance of CDPF, several factors are investigated in the study such as the effect of catalytic in filter wall, soot distribution form along filter wall, and soot loads.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2386
Naoki Ohya, Kohei Hiyama, Kotaro Tanaka, Mitsuru Konno, Atsuko Tomita, Takeshi Miki, Yutaka Tai
Abstract Diesel engines have better fuel economy over comparable gasoline engines and are useful for the reduction of CO2 emissions. However, to meet stringent emission standards, the technology for reducing NOx and particulate matter (PM) in diesel engine exhaust needs to be improved. A conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and urea-SCR catalyst. Recently, more stringent regulations have led to the development of SCR systems with a larger volume and increased the cost of such systems. In order to solve these problems, an SCR catalyst-coated DPF (SCR/DPF) is proposed. An SCR/DPF system has lower volume and cost compared to the conventional SCR system. The SCR/DPF catalyst has two functions: combustion of PM and reduction of NOx emissions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0123
Christopher Eck, Futoshi Nakano
Abstract Small commercial vehicles (SCV) with Diesel engines require efficient exhaust aftertreatment systems to reduce the emissions while keeping the fuel consumption and total operating cost as low as possible. To meet current emission legislations in all cases, a DOC and DPF and some NOx treatment device (e,g. lean NOx trap or SCR) are required. Creating a cost-effective SCV also requires keeping the cost for the exhaust aftertreatment system as low as possible because the contribution to total vehicle cost is high. By using more sophisticated and more robust operating strategies and control algorithms, the hardware cost can be reduced. To keep the calibration effort at a low level, it is necessary to apply only algorithms which have a time-efficient calibration procedure. This paper will focus on the active regeneration of the DPF. For safe and efficient DPF regeneration, a very reliable and stable DOC out temperature control is required.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0126
Christian Zöllner, Dieter Brueggemann
Abstract The removal of particulate matter (PM) from diesel exhaust is necessary to protect the environment and human health. To meet the strict emission standards for diesel engines an additional exhaust aftertreatment system is essential. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are established devices to remove emitted PM from diesel exhaust. But the deposition and the accumulation of soot in the DPF influence the filter back pressure and therefore the engine performance and the fuel consumption. Thus a periodical regeneration through PM oxidation is necessary. The oxidation behavior should result in an effective regeneration mode that minimizes the fuel penalty and limits the temperature rise while maintaining a high regeneration efficiency. Excessive and fast regenerations have to be avoided as well as uncontrolled oxidations, which may lead to damages of the filter and fuel penalty.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0144
Carlo Beatrice, Maria Antonietta Costagliola, Chiara Guido, Pierpaolo Napolitano, Maria Vittoria Prati
Abstract Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the most effective emission control device for reducing particle emissions (both mass, PM, and number, PN) from diesel engines, however many studies reported elevated emissions of nanoparticles (<50 nm) during its regeneration. In this paper the results of an extensive literature survey is presented. During DPF active regeneration, most of the literature studies showed an increase in the number of the emitted nanoparticles of about 2-3 orders of magnitude compared to the normal operating conditions. Many factors could influence their amount, size distribution, chemical-physical nature (volatiles, semi-volatiles, solid) and the duration of the regenerative event: i.e. DPF load and thermodynamic conditions, lube and fuel sulfur content, engine operative conditions, PN sampling and measurement methodologies.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0139
Francesco Barba, Alberto Vassallo, Vincenzo Greco
Abstract The aim of the present study is to improve the effectiveness of automotive diesel engine and aftertreatment calibration process through the critical evaluation of several methodologies to estimate the soot mass flow produced by diesel engines fueled by petroleum fuels and filtered by Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). In particular, its focus has been the development of a reliable simulation method for the accurate prediction of the engine-out soot mass flow starting from Filter Smoke Number (FSN) measurements executed in steady state conditions, in order to predict the DPF loading considering different engine working conditions corresponding to NEDC and WLTP cycles. In order to achieve this goal, the study was split into two main parts: Correlation between ‘wet PM’ (measured by soot filter weighing) and the ‘dry soot’ (measured by the Micro Soot Sensor MSS).
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1798
Jiri Navratil, Warren Seeley, Peng Wang, Shriram Siravara
Abstract The ability to accurately predict exhaust system acoustics, including transmission loss (TL) and tailpipe noise, based on CAD geometry has long been a requirement of most OEM’s and Tier 1 exhaust suppliers. Correlation to measurement data has been problematic under various operating conditions, including flow. This study was undertaken to develop robust modelling technique, ensuring sensible correlation between the 1-D models and test data. Ford use Ricardo WAVE as one of their 1-D NVH tools, which was chosen for the purpose of this benchmark study. The most commonly used metrics for evaluating the acoustical performance of mufflers are insertion loss (IL), TL, and noise reduction (NR). TL is often the first step of analysis, since it represents the inherent capability of the muffler to attenuate sound if both the source and termination are assumed to be anechoic. It can also be reliably measured and numerically simulated without having to connect to an engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1000
Jong Lee, Yu Zhang, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey, William Partridge, Michael Lance
Abstract Greenhouse gas regulations and global economic growth are expected to drive a future demand shift towards diesel fuel in the transportation sector. This may create a market opportunity for cost-effective fuels in the light distillate range if they can be burned as efficiently and cleanly as diesel fuel. In this study, the emission performance of a low cetane number, low research octane number naphtha (CN 34, RON 56) was examined on a production 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using only production hardware, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions were examined during the heavy-duty emission testing cycles using naphtha and ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. Without any modifications to the hardware and software, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using either naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty test cycles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0952
Michael B. Hopka, David Bilby, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt
Abstract The resistive particulate matter sensor (PMS) is rapidly becoming ubiquitous on diesel vehicles as a means to diagnose particulate filter (DPF) leaks. By design the device provides an integrated measure of the amount of PM to which it has been exposed during a defined measurement period within a drive cycle. The state of the art resistive PMS has a large deadband before any valid output related to the accumulated PM is realized. As a result, most DPF monitors that use the PMS consider its output only as an indicator that a threshold quantity of PM has amassed rather than a real-time measure of concentration. This measurement paradigm has the unfortunate side effect that as the PM OBD threshold decreases, or the PMS is used on a vehicle with a larger exhaust volume flow, a longer measurement is required to reach the same PM sensor output. Longer PMS measurement times lead to long particulate filter monitoring durations that may reduce filter monitor completion frequency.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0927
Carl Justin Kamp, Shawn Zhang, Sujay Bagi, Victor Wong, Greg Monahan, Alexander Sappok, Yujun Wang
Abstract Diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment components, especially the diesel particulate filter (DPF), are subject to various modes of degradation over their lifetimes. One particular adverse effect on the DPF is the significant rise in pressure drop due to the accumulation of engine lubricant-derived ash which coats the inlet channel walls effectively decreasing the permeability of the filter. The decreased permeability due to ash in the DPF can result in increased filter pressure drop and decreased fuel economy. A unique two-step approach, consisting of experimental measurements and direct numerical simulations using ultra-high resolution 3D imaging data, has been utilized in this study to better understand the effects of ash accumulation on engine aftertreatment component functionality.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0111
MY Raghu, Prashant Sharma
Abstract In recent times diesel powered vehicles are becoming popular due to improved performance and reduced exhaust emission with this the market share of diesel passenger cars expected to approach 60 % over the next few years. In compliance with future emission standards for diesel powered vehicles, it is required to use diesel particulate filters (DPF) along with other exhaust emission control devices. There is a need for more optimized DPF cell structure to collect maximum soot load with low pressure drop and improved exhaust performance from diesel vehicles in Indian driving conditions. In this thesis paper a detailed parametric study have been carried out on different DPF cell structures like Square, Hexagonal and combined cell geometry. The performances of different cell structure has been evaluated for maximum soot loading capacity and regeneration rate, pressure drop, temperature distribution across cell structure.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0128
Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Ketan Krishnamurthy, David Blanco-Rodriguez, Bastian Holderbaum, Thomas Körfer
Abstract Despite the trend in increased prosperity, the Indian automotive market, which is traditionally dominated by highly cost-oriented producion, is very sensitive to the price of fuels and vehicles. Due to these very specific market demands, the U-LCV (ultra-light commercial vehicle) segment with single cylinder natural aspirated Diesel engines (typical sub 650 cc displacement) is gaining immense popularity in the recent years. By moving to 2016, with the announcement of leapfrogging directly to Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission legislation in India, and in addition to the mandatory application of Diesel particle filters (DPF), there will be a need to implement effective NOx aftertreament systems. Due to the very low power-to-weight ratio of these particular applications, the engine operation takes place under full load conditions in a significant portion of the test cycle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0133
Ashok Kumar, Junhui Li, Jinyong Luo, Saurabh Joshi, Aleksey Yezerets, Krishna Kamasamudram, Niklas Schmidt, Khyati Pandya, Prachetas Kale, Thangaraj Mathuraiveeran
Abstract Advanced emission control systems for diesel engines usually include a combination of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), and Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC). The performance of these catalysts individually, and of the aftertreatment system overall, is negatively affected by the presence of oxides of sulfur, originating from fuel and lubricant. In this paper, we illustrated some key aspects of sulfur interactions with the most commonly used types of catalysts in advanced aftertreatment systems. In particular, DOC can oxidize SO2 to SO3, collectively referred to as SOx, and store these sulfur containing species. The key functions of a DOC, such as the ability to oxidize NO and HC, are degraded upon SOx poisoning. The impact of sulfur poisoning on the catalytic functions of a DPF is qualitatively similar to DOC.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0135
Bandu Shamrao Zagade, Vijay Sharma, Thomas Körfer
Abstract In a move to curb vehicular pollution, Indian Government decided to bring forward the date for BSVI standards into effect from April 2020 while skipping the intermediate BSV stage. The plan to implement BSVI norms, which initially was scheduled for 2024 according to the National Auto Fuel Policy dated April 27, 2015, has now been slotted for April 2020. For particulate mass (PM) emissions to be brought down to the BS VI level (4.5mg/km), diesel passenger cars need to be fitted with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a device designed to remove soot from the exhaust gas of the diesel engine. DPF must be cleaned/regenerated from time to time else, it will block up. Optimized DPF calibration is the key for various challenges linked with its use as one of the effective PM reduction technology.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0144
Dominik Lamotte, Peter Neumann, Klaus Schrewe
Abstract Emissions of diesel engine are considered to be harmful to health especially particulate emissions. Therefore, the introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPF) were successively forced by government due to reducing the emission limits to a level where inner engine measures are not sufficient anymore. To limit additional fuel consumption by increasing backpressure over the DPF, the collected soot has to be regenerated continuously or discrete by active regeneration. Active regeneration is usually realized by injecting additional fuel either due to the engines injection system into the combustion chamber (late post injection) or via an additional fuel injection device in the exhaust line. This enables increasing exhaust temperature and / or an exothermic reaction in the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) of the aftertreatment system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0127
Antoine Lacarriere, Thierry Seguelong, David Spivey, Ashish DAS
Abstract India is moving to Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) from 2019 significantly lowering particulate mass (PM) , particle number (PN) and Nitrogen Oxides NOx emissions limits, as well as Carbon Dioxide CO2. BSVI’s particulate limits will require the use of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), which will need to operate properly under the driving conditions prevalent in India. Furthermore, NOx and CO2 emissions control will include advanced combustion modes with advanced fuel injectiontechnologies based on high pressure fuel injection and smaller injector holes, in combination with active NOx reduction measures. These advanced technologies will increase sensitivity to fuel quality, so will require tighter control of sulfur content, water contamination, fuel stability, lubricity and corrosion. These are real challenges for the robustness and durability of strategies developed for BS-VI and beyond.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0116
Mahesh Govindareddy, Achim Heibel
Abstract With Bharat Stage VI (BSVI) regulations on the horizon [3],[4]tighter particulate matter (PM) regulations will require the use of wall flow diesel particulate filters for on-road heavy duty (HD) diesel engines in India. The Indian HD vehicle market is very cost sensitive, especially with the majority of engine displacement being less than 7L [5] therefore, after treatment cost plays a significant role in design of the system. Robust wall flow diesel particulate filter solutions with the ability to deliver high filtration requirements required for particle number regulations can be designed in a cost-efficient manner. In this paper advanced design for diesel particulate filters with pressure drop, ash capacity, regeneration, and filtration performance are discussed. Corning’s asymmetric cell technology (ACT) was created to improve ash capacity and reduce pressure drop and has the potential to downsize up to 45%.
2016-11-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9047
Taewon Han, Huajun Zhen, Gediminas Mainelis
Abstract We recently developed a novel diesel emissions control device, Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emissions Control (ESBEC), where diesel exhaust particles are collected onto metal screens using electrostatic principle. This paper focuses on further development of this technology: design and integration of a particle charger and testing of ESBEC with diesel exhaust. Two units - 0.038 and 0.152 m (1.5 and 6 inches) in diameter - were fabricated using 3D printing. Both units feature cylinder-shaped housing integrating the electrical charger and up to seven pairs of metal screens, which collect airborne particles. In the small-scale version, particles are charged by ions emitted from a carbon fiber brush, while in the large-scale version, this is done by using two tungsten wires traversing the cross-section of ESBEC in a crisscross pattern.
2016-10-24
Journal Article
2016-01-9079
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
Time-lapse images of particulate matter (PM) deposition on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) at the PM-particle scale were obtained via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). This particle scale time-series visualization showed the detailed processes of PM accumulation inside the DPF. First, PM introduced into a micro-pore of the DPF wall was deposited onto the surface of SiC grains composing the DPF, where it formed dendritic structures. The dendrite structures were locally grown at the contracted flow area between the SiC grains by accumulation of PM, ultimately constructing a bridge and closing the porous channel. To investigate the dominant parameters governing bridge formation, the filtration efficiency by Brownian diffusion and by interception obtained using theoretical filtration efficiency analysis of a spherical collector model were compared with the visualization results.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2320
Tsuyoshi Asako, Ryuji Kai, Tetsuo Toyoshima, Claus Vogt, Shogo Hirose, Shiori Nakao
Abstract Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is adapted for a variety of applications to control nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust. The most commonly used catalyst for SCR in established markets is Cu-Zeolite (CuZ) due to excellent NOx conversion and thermal durability. However, most applications in emerging markets and certain applications in established markets utilize vanadia SCR. The operating temperature is typically maintained below 550°C to avoid vanadium sublimation due to active regeneration of the diesel particulate filter (DPF), or some OEMs may eliminate the DPF because they can achieve particulate matter (PM) standard with engine tuning. Further improvement of vanadia SCR durability and NOx conversion at low exhaust gas temperatures will be required in consideration of future emission standards.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2193
Gen Shibata, Hideyuki Ogawa, Fukei Sha, Kota Tashiro
Abstract Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are widely used in diesel engines, and forced regeneration is necessary to remove particulate matter (PM) accumulating on the DPF. This may be achieved with fuel injected after the main combustion is complete, the socalled “post fuel injection”, and supplied to the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the DPF. This increases the exhaust gas temperature in the DOC and the DPF is regenerated with the high temperature gas flow. In most cases, the post fuel injection takes place at 30-90CA ATDC, and fuel may impinge on and adhere to the cylinder liner wall in some cases. Buddie and Pischinger [1] have reported a lubricant oil dilution with the post fuel injection by engine tests and simulations, and adhering fuel is a cause of worsening fuel consumption.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2282
Toru Uenishi, Eijiro Tanaka, Takao Fukuma, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Abstract Experimental and numerical studies on the combustion of the particulate matter in the diesel particulate filter with the particulate matter loaded under different particulate matter loading condition were carried out. It was observed that the pressure losses through diesel particulate filter loaded with particulate matter having different mean aggregate particle diameters during both particulate matter loading and combustion periods. Diesel particulate filter regeneration mode was controlled with introducing a hot gas created in Diesel Oxidation Catalyst that oxidized hydrocarbon injected by a fuel injector placed on an exhaust gas pipe. The combustion amount was calculated with using a total diesel particulate filter weight measured by the weight meter both before and after the particulate matter regeneration event.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2214
Teuvo Maunula, Thomas Wolff
The latest emission regulations for mobile and stationary applications require the use of aftertreatment methods for NOx and diesel particulate filters (DPF) for particulate matter (PM). SCR catalysts were evaluated by laboratory experiments and the most promising SCR catalysts were also scaled up to full-size. Development with copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) on zeolitic materials (Beta, ZSM-5, SAPO, chabazite) has resulted in the new generation of thermally durable SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalysts, which have also an improved sulfur tolerance and a low N2O formation tendency. Opposite to Cu on Beta and ZSM-5, Cu on chabazite and SAPO showed clearly lower N2O formation. Cu-SCR catalysts had a low dependency on NO2/NOx but Fe-SCR catalysts required a higher NO2/NOx ratio (>0.3) to keep a high NOx efficiency.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2319
Kihong Kim, Rahul Mital, Takehiro Higuchi
Abstract In the previous research1), the authors discovered that the sudden pressure increase phenomenon in diesel particulate filter (DPF) was a result of soot collapse inside DPF channels. The proposed hypothesis for soot collapse was a combination of factors such as passive regeneration, high humidity, extended soak period, high soot loading and high exhaust flow rate. The passive regeneration due to in-situ NO2 and high humidity caused the straw like soot deposited inside DPF channels to take a concave shape making the collapse easier during high vehicle acceleration. It was shown that even if one of these factor was missing, the undesirable soot collapse and subsequent back pressure increase did not occur. Currently, one of the very popular NOx reduction technologies is the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) on Filter which does not have any platinum group metal (PGM) in the washcoat.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2280
Emilio Xuereb, Mario Farrugia
Abstract Diesel particulate filters (DPF) regeneration is required to remove accumulated particulate matter in DPF. High pressure drop across DPF triggers an active regeneration by the ECU to burn off the accumulated soot. In city driving such as in a small island as Malta, exhaust gas temperatures are not high enough for passive regenerations, and ECU active regeneration might fail due to short trips. The particulate loading quantity in DPF is beneficial information as it provides an estimate of the remaining mileage expectancy of the DPF. Many vehicles provide information on particulate filter loading quantity in the OBD data. However, since this parameter is not on the mandatory list, different manufacturers provide this loading parameter in different forms, e.g.: grams; percentage (%); remaining mileage; etc. Thus comparison of the loading quantity across different manufacturers is not straightforward.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2283
Stephane Zinola, Stephane Raux, Mickael Leblanc
Abstract The more and more stringent regulations on particle emissions at the vehicle tailpipe have led the car manufacturers to adopt suitable emissions control systems, like particulate filters with average filtration efficiency that can exceed 99%, including particulate mass (PM) and number (PN). However, there are still some specific operating conditions that could exhibit noticeable particle number emissions. This paper aims to identify and characterize these persistent sources of PN emissions, based on tests carried out both at the engine test bench and at the chassis dynamometer, and both for Diesel and Gasoline direct injection engines and vehicles. For Diesel engines, highest particle numbers were observed downstream of the catalyzed DPF during some operation conditions like engine warm up or filter regeneration phases.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2286
Christophe Chaillou, Alexandre Bouet, Arnaud Frobert, Florence Duffour
Abstract Adaptation of both oil based fuel and engine technologies are key enablers to reduce CO2 footprint as well as pollutant emissions. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOX and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In addition, properties of naphtha produced directly from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process in a refinery offer significant CO2 benefits. When introducing such innovative fuel and engine, after-treatment investigations are mandatory to meet pollutant regulations. In that respect, this work focuses on investigating structure and properties of the particulates produced with naphtha fuel to validate Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) design requirements. First, soot mass measurement techniques are detailed. Then, characterization of soot is performed through DPF pressure drop, soot oxidation rates with and without Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC), composition & structure analysis.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 904

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