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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1949
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2303
Yan Wang, Xudong Wang, Zhen Zhang, Yong Wang, Guoxiu Li, Yusong Yu
Abstract Fuel spray impingement is a common phenomenon during the combustion processes of a DI diesel engine. When liquid droplets impinge on the hot surface of a combustion chamber, a complex heat transfer and mechanical interaction occur between the droplets and combustion chamber. This probably changes the surface topography and microstructure of the impact position. Based on the experimental method, the fuel spray phenomenon and conditions of a surface pit caused by droplet impingement were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the surface pit is formed under specific conditions, i.e., a specific droplet diameter and surface temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of the pit area shows that the microstructure of the pit changed from an original dense and smooth surface to a loose structure. The microstructure of the pit did not show a molten state. The concentration of metal and nonmetallic elements in the pit area changed significantly.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2290
Zhixin Sun, Shaoqing Yang, Xinyong Qiao, Zhiyuan Zhang
Abstract When operating at high elevation of 3700m (atmospheric pressure about 68 kPa), the combustion process of diesel engine deteriorates, and the engine performance declines significantly. In this paper, Isooctyl Nitrate(EHN) is blended into the diesel fuel as additive to improve the combustion process. The decomposition of Isooctyl Nitrate(EHN) is analyzed and its mechanism is studied through chemical kinetics. A series of tests were carried out on a single cylinder diesel engine to study the effects of EHN on diesel engine combustion with the low intake pressure of 68kPa. Results show that the generation of OH、 H、 HO2 and H2O2 in n-heptane cleavage reactions can be promoted by EHN. In both stages of low and high temperature, the decomposition of n-heptane is accelerated, which shortened the ignition delay period. Four kinds of fuel are studied by tests: diesel fuel, diesel fuel with 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9% mass fraction EHN respectively.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2306
Xiaochuan Sun, Xiang Li, Zhong Huang, Dehao Ju, Xing-cai Lu, Dong Han, Zhen Huang
Abstract Recently, the shortage of fossil resources contributes to strict regulations of environmental protection. The research on the high efficiency and low emission of engines becomes an important direction all over the world. Technologies like high injection pressure, high levels of supercharging and higher levels of back pressure have come into application. Increasing the injection pressure and average cylinder pressure results in that parts of the spray can experience transcritical and supercritical regimes. In this paper, we established a surrogate fuel composed of n-Hexadecane, HMN and 1-Metylnaphthalene, to analyze the injection and atomization of diesel surrogate fuel with large eddy simulation (LES) in a cubic calculation region with high temperature and high pressure environment.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2320
George S. Dodos, Chrysovalanti E. Tsesmeli, Iraklis Zahos Siagos, Theodora Tyrovola, Dimitrios Karonis, Fanourios Zannikos
Abstract FAME is the most common renewable component of conventional automotive diesel. Despite the advantages, biodiesel is more susceptible to oxidative deterioration and due to its chemical composition as well as its higher affinity to water, is considered to be a favorable substrate for microorganisms. On the other hand, apart from biodiesel, alcohols are considered to be promising substitutes to conventional diesel fuel because they can offer higher oxygen concentration leading to better combustion characteristics and lower exhaust emissions. More specifically, n-butanol is a renewable alcohol demonstrating better blending capabilities and properties when it is added to diesel fuel, as its composition is closer to conventional fuel, when compared ethanol to for example. Taking into consideration the alleged disinfectant properties of alcohols, it would be interesting to examine also the microbial stability of blends containing n-butanol in various concentrations.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2329
Xiao Ma, Yue Ma, Shuaishuai Sun, Shi-Jin Shuai, Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang
Abstract Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) are promising alternative fuel candidates for diesel engines because they present advantages in soot reduction. This study uses a PODEn mixture (contains PODE3-6) from mass production to provide oxygen component in blend fuels. The spray combustion of PODEn-diesel bend fuels in a constant volume vessel was studied using high speed imaging, PLII-LEM and OH* chemiluminescence. Fuels of several blend ratios are compared with pure diesel. Flame luminance data show a near linear decrease tendency with the blend ratio increasing. The OH* images reveal that the ignition positions of all the cases have small differences, which indicates that using a low PODEn blend ratio of no more than 30% does not need significant adjustment in engine combustion control strategies. It is found that 30% PODEn blended with diesel (P30) can effectively reduce the total soot by approximately 68% in comparison with pure diesel.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2332
Tamara Ottenwaelder, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this paper, several fuels were selected which can be produced out of biomass or with hydrogen which is generated directly via electrolysis with electricity from renewable sources. All fuels are compared to conventional diesel fuel and two diesel surrogates. It is well known that there can be a large effect of fuel properties on mixture formation and combustion, which may result in a completely different engine performance compared to the operation with conventional diesel fuels. Mixture formation and ignition behavior can also largely affect the pollutant formation. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is also important to design new engine geometries or implement new calibrations for an existing engine. The fuel properties of the investigated fuels comprise a large range, for example in case of the derived cetane number, from below 30 up to 100.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2333
Marcos Gutierrez, Andres Castillo, Juan Iniguez, Gorky Reyes
Abstract Aiming for cleaner and more efficient energy from the internal combustion engines makes necessary to ensure the special conditions for exploitation of alternative fuels. The engine vibrations are primarily understood as effects of mechanical failures, but they are also a subject of the fuel combustion effects. These effects depend on the fuel type and its ability to complete the combustion process. The vibrations of a diesel engine were measured and analyzed with a frequency spectrum calculated with fast Fourier transforms. The engine was operated with a fuel blend of 10 % recycled lubricating oil with 90% diesel fuel as well as with neat diesel. It was found that the engine operation with this fuel blend has a lower vibration level in comparison with the use of neat diesel fuel. The goal of this research is to determine the properties of the fuel blend, which provide more stability to the engine by means of vibrations reduction.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2407
Michael Bardon, Greg Pucher, David Gardiner, Javier Ariztegui, Roger Cracknell, Heather Hamje, Leonardo Pellegrini, David Rickeard
Abstract Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this, but a practical concern is the flammability of the headspace vapours in the vehicle fuel tank. Gasoline is much more volatile than diesel so, at most ambient temperatures, the headspace vapours in the tank are too rich to burn. A gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank therefore can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model is presented that predicts the flammability of the headspace vapours in a tank containing mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel. Fourteen hydrocarbons and ethanol represent the volatile components. Heavier components are treated as non-volatile diluents in the liquid phase.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2336
Tanjin He, Hao-ye Liu, Yingdi Wang, Boyuan Wang, Hui Liu, Zhi Wang
Abstract Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ether (PODEn) is a promising green additive to diesel fuel, owing to the unique chemical structure (CH3O[CH2O]nCH3, n≥2) and high cetane number. Together with the general wide-distillation fuel (WDF), which has an attractive potential to reduce the cost of production of vehicle fuel, the oxygenated WDF with PODEn can help achieve a high efficiency and low emissions of soot, NOx, HC, and CO simultaneously. In this paper, the first detailed reaction mechanism (225 species, 1082 reactions) which can describe the ignition characteristics of PODE1 and PODE3 at low temperature was developed.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2400
Yanlong Wu, Jason Ferns, Hu Li, Gordon Andrews
Abstract Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) diesel fuels have the potential to provide a reduced carbon footprint for diesel engines and reduce exhaust emissions. Therefore, it is a strong candidate for transport and diesel powered machines including electricity generators and other off-road machines. In this research, a waste cooking oil derived HVO diesel was investigated for its combustion and emission performance including ignition delays, size segregated particulate number emissions and gaseous emissions. The results were compared to the standard petroleum diesel. A EURO5 emission compliant three litre, direct injection, intercooled IVECO diesel engine equipped with EGR was used which has a maximum power output of 96kW. The engine was equipped with an integrated DOC and DPF aftertreatment system. Both the upstream and downstream of the aftertreatment emissions were measured. The tests were conducted at different RPM and loads at steady state conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0069
Hyunwook Park, Jugon Shin, Choongsik Bae
Abstract The spray and combustion of diesel fuel were investigated to provide a better understanding of the evaporation and combustion process under the simulated cold-start condition of a diesel engine. The experiment was conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber and the engine cranking period was selected as the target ambient condition. Mie scattering and shadowgraph techniques were used to visualize the liquid- and vapor-phase of the fuel under evaporating non-combustion conditions (oxygen concentration=0%). In-chamber pressure and direct flame visualization were acquired for spray combustion conditions (oxygen concentration=21%). The fuel was injected at an injection pressure of 30 MPa, which is the typical pressure during the cranking period.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0089
S. Vedharaj, R. Vallinayagam, Yanzhao An, Alaaeldin Dawood, Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Junseok Chang, Bengt Johansson
Abstract The literature study on PPC in optical engine reveals investigations on OH chemiluminescence and combustion stratification. So far, mostly PRF fuel is studied and it is worthwhile to examine the effect of fuel properties on PPC. Therefore, in this work, fuel having different octane rating and physical properties are selected and PPC is studied in an optical engine. The fuels considered in this study are diesel, heavy naphtha, light naphtha and their corresponding surrogates such as heptane, PRF50 and PRF65 respectively. Without EGR (Intake O2 = 21%), these fuels are tested at an engine speed of 1200 rpm, fuel injection pressure of 800 bar and pressure at TDC = 35 bar. SOI is changed from late to early fuel injection timings to study PPC and the shift in combustion regime from CI to PPC is explored for all fuels. An increased understanding on the effect of fuel octane number, physical properties and chemical composition on combustion and emission formation is obtained.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0083
Hassan Khatamnejad, Shahram Khalilarya, Samad Jafarmadar, Mostafa Mirsalim, Mufaddel Dahodwala
Abstract RCCI strategy gained popularity in automotive applications due to lower fuel consumption, less emissions formation and higher engine performance in compared with other diesel combustion strategies. This study presents results of an experimental and numerical investigation on RCCI combustion using natural gas as a low reactivity premixed fuel with advanced injection of diesel fuel as a high reactivity fuel in a CI engine. An advanced three dimensional CFD simulation coupled with chemical kinetic developed to examine the effects of diesel injection timing, diesel/natural gas ratio and diesel fuel included spray angle on combustion and emissions formation in various engine loads and speeds, in a heavy duty diesel engine.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0080
Ross Ryskamp, Gregory Thompson, Daniel Carder, John Nuszkowski
Abstract Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a form of dual-fuel combustion that exploits the reactivity difference between two fuels to control combustion phasing. This combustion approach limits the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and soot while retaining high thermal efficiency. The research presented herein was performed to determine the influences that high reactivity (diesel) fuel properties have on RCCI combustion characteristics, exhaust emissions, fuel efficiency, and the operable load range. A 4-cylinder, 1.9 liter, light-duty compression-ignition (CI) engine was converted to run on diesel fuel (high reactivity fuel) and compressed natural gas (CNG) (low reactivity fuel). The engine was operated at 2100 revolutions per minute (RPM), and at two different loads, 3.6 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and 6 bar BMEP.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0085
Jesus Benajes, Antonio Garcia, Javier Monsalve-Serrano, Vicente Boronat
Abstract This work investigates the particulates size distribution of reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion, a dual-fuel concept which combines the port fuel injection of low-reactive/gasoline-like fuels with direct injection of highly reactive/diesel-like fuels. The particulates size distributions from 5-250 nm were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer at six engine speeds, from 950 to 2200 rpm, and 25% engine load. The same procedure was followed for conventional diesel combustion. The study was performed in a single-cylinder engine derived from a stock medium-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine of 15.3:1 compression ratio. The combustion strategy proposed during the tests campaign was limited to accomplish both mechanical and emissions constraints. The results confirms that reactivity controlled compression ignition promotes ultra-low levels of nitrogen oxides and smoke emissions in the points tested.
2017-08-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9378
Eric Kurtz, Christopher J. Polonowski
Abstract The design of modern diesel-powered vehicles involves optimization and balancing of trade-offs for fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise. To meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, diesel powertrains employ aftertreatment devices to control nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter emissions and use active exhaust warm-up strategies to ensure those devices are active as quickly as possible. A typical strategy for exhaust warm-up is to operate with retarded combustion phasing, limited by combustion stability and HC emissions. The amount of exhaust enthalpy available for catalyst light-off is limited by the extent to which combustion phasing can be retarded. Diesel cetane number (CN), a measure of fuel ignition quality, has an influence on combustion stability at retarded combustion phasing. Diesel fuel in the United States tends to have a lower CN (both minimum required and average in market) than other countries.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0720
Omar Ramadan, Luc Menard, David Gardiner, Aaron Wilcox, Gary Webster
Abstract This paper is a continuation of work previously discussed in SAE 2014-01-0179 [1] and SAE 2015-01-0805 [2], which was intended to improve the capability and precision of the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) and associated ASTM D6890 [3]/CEN EN 15195 [4]/EI IP 498 [5] Test Methods. The results presented in those two papers indicated how the new generation of IQT™ with the TALM Precision Package upgrade can markedly improve the precision of the ASTM D6890, CEN EN 15195 and EI IP 498 Derived Cetane Number (DCN) test methods. This paper will evaluate the performance of the upgraded instruments over the past 21 months of their participation in ASTM’s National Fuel Exchange Group (NEG) diesel fuel exchange program.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0655
Mohammadmohsen Moslemin Koupaie, Alasdair Cairns, Hassan vafamehr, Thompson Lanzanova
Abstract This work was concerned with study of the in-cylinder flow field and flame development in a spark ignition research engine equipped with Bowditch piston optical access. High-speed natural light (chemiluminescence) imaging and simultaneous in-cylinder pressure data measurement and analysis were used to understand the fundamentals of flame propagation for a variety of ethanol fuels blended with either gasoline or iso-octane. PIV was undertaken on the same engine in a motoring operation at a horizontal imaging plane close to TDC (10 mm below the fire face) throughout the compression stroke (30°,40°,90° and 180°bTDC) for a low load engine operating condition at 1500rpm/0.5 bar inlet plenum pressure. Up to 1500 cycles were considered to determine the ensemble average flow-field and turbulent kinetic energy. Finally, comparisons were made between the flame and flow experiments to understand the apparent interactions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0766
Gary D. Neely, Radu Florea, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
Abstract The CO2 advantage coupled with the low NOX and PM potential of natural gas (NG) makes it well-suited for meeting future greenhouse gas (GHG) and NOX regulations for on-road medium and heavy-duty engines. However, because NG is mostly methane, reduced combustion efficiency associated with traditional NG fueling strategies can result in significant levels of methane emissions which offset the CO2 advantage due to reduced efficiency and the high global warming potential of methane. To address this issue, the unique co-direct injection capability of the Westport HPDI fuel system was leveraged to obtain a partially-premixed fuel charge by injecting NG during the compression stroke followed by diesel injection for ignition timing control. This combustion strategy, referred to as DI2, was found to improve thermal and combustion efficiencies over fumigated dual-fuel combustion modes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0756
Zhenkuo Wu, Christopher Rutland, Zhiyu Han
Abstract Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to its rich reserves and low price, as well as good physical and chemical properties. Its low carbon structure and high octane number are beneficial for CO2 reduction and knock mitigation, respectively. Diesel and natural gas dual fuel combustion is a viable pathway to utilize natural gas in diesel engines. To achieve high efficiency and low emission combustion in a practical diesel engine over a wide range of operating conditions, understanding the performance responses to engine system parameter variations is needed. The controllability of two combustion strategies, diesel pilot ignition (DPI) and single injection reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), were evaluated using the multi-dimension CFD simulation in this paper.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0758
Yaopeng Li, Ming Jia, Yachao Chang, Guangfu Xu
Abstract Multi-dimensional models coupled with a reduced chemical mechanism were used to investigate the effect of fuel on exergy destruction fraction and sources in a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine. The exergy destruction due to chemical reaction (Deschem) makes the largest contribution to the total exergy destruction. Different from the obvious low temperature heat release (LTHR) behavior in gasoline/diesel RCCI, methanol has a negative effect on the LTHR of diesel, so the exergy destruction accumulation from LTHR to high temperature heat release (HTHR) can be avoided in methanol/diesel RCCI, contributing to the reduction of Deschem. Moreover, the combustion temperature in methanol/diesel RCCI is higher compared to gasoline/diesel RCCI, which is also beneficial to the lower exergy destruction fraction. Therefore, the exergy destruction of methanol/diesel RCCI is lower than that of gasoline/diesel RCCI at the same combustion phasing.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0523
Adam B. Dempsey, Scott B. Fiveland, Scott L. Post
Abstract This study focuses on the development of an autoignition model for diesel sprays that is applicable to phenomenological multi-zone combustion models. These models typically use a single-step Arrhenius expression to represent the low-temperature chemistry leading up to autoignition. There has been a substantial amount of work done in the area of n-heptane autoignition in homogeneous mixtures. Reduced kinetic mechanisms with ten reactions or less have been proposed in the literature to represent the complex low-temperature oxidation of n-heptane. These kinetic models are attractive for multi-zone simulations because of the low number of reactions involved. However, these kinetic mechanisms and the multi-zone treatment of the fuel spray do not account for the effect of turbulence/chemistry interactions on the chemical reaction rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0811
John Williams, Heather D. Hamje, David J. Rickeard, Andreas Kolbeck, Kalle Lehto, Elena Rebesco, Walter Mirabella, Carole A. Bontoft, Maria Dolores Cardenas
Abstract Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are used to describe gasoline combustion which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. Some workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both parameters instead of either RON or MON to give an indication of gasoline knock resistance. Previous Concawe work investigated the effect of RON and MON on the power and acceleration performance of two Euro 4 gasoline passenger cars during an especially-designed acceleration test cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0803
Christiane Behrendt, Alastair Smith
Abstract Injector cleanliness is well characterised in the literature [1,2,3,4] as a key factor for maintained engine performance in modern diesel cars. Injector deposits have been shown to reduce injector flow capacity resulting in power loss under full load; however, deposit effects on fuel economy are less well characterised. A study was conducted with the aim of developing an understanding of the impact of diesel injector nozzle deposits on fuel economy. A series of tests were run using a previously published chassis dynamometer test method. The test method was designed to evaluate injector deposit effects on performance under driving conditions more representative of real world driving than the high intensity test cycle of the industry standard, CEC DW10B engine test, [1]. The efficacy of different additive levels in maintaining injector cleanliness and therefore power and fuel economy was compared in a light duty Euro 5 certified vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0769
Pierpaolo Napolitano, Chiara Guido, Carlo Beatrice, Nicola Del Giacomo
Abstract An increasing interest in the use of natural gas in CI engines is currently taking place, due to several reasons: it is cheaper than conventional Diesel fuel, permits a significant reduction of carbon dioxide and is intrinsically clean, being much less prone to soot formation. In this respect, the Dual Fuel concept has already proven to be a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the heavy duty engines category. An experimental research activity was devoted to the analysis of the potentiality offered by the application of a Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG configuration on a light duty 2L Euro 5 automotive diesel engine, equipped with an advanced control system of the combustion. The experimental campaign foresaw to test the engine in dynamic and steady state conditions, comparing engine performance and emissions in conventional Diesel and Dual Fuel combustion modes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0582
Naoki Kurimoto, Naoki Watanabe, Shinya Hoshi, Satoru Sasaki, Masashi Matsumoto
Abstract A methodology for simulating effect of international variations in fuel compositions on spray combustion is proposed. The methodology is validated with spray combustion experiments with real fuels from three different countries. The compositions of those fuels were analyzed through GC×GC and H-NMR. It was found that ignition delay times, flame region and flame luminosity were significantly affected by the compositional variations. For the simulation, an evaporation surrogate consisting of twenty two species, covering basic molecular types and a wide range of carbon numbers, is developed. Each species in the evaporation surrogate is then virtually converted to a reaction surrogate consisting of n-hexadecane, methylcyclohexane and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene so that combustion reactions can be calculated with a published kinetic model. The virtual species conversion (VSC) is made so as to take over combustion-related properties of each species of evaporation surrogates.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1000
Jong Lee, Yu Zhang, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey, William Partridge, Michael Lance
Abstract Greenhouse gas regulations and global economic growth are expected to drive a future demand shift towards diesel fuel in the transportation sector. This may create a market opportunity for cost-effective fuels in the light distillate range if they can be burned as efficiently and cleanly as diesel fuel. In this study, the emission performance of a low cetane number, low research octane number naphtha (CN 34, RON 56) was examined on a production 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using only production hardware, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions were examined during the heavy-duty emission testing cycles using naphtha and ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. Without any modifications to the hardware and software, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using either naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty test cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0805
Jue Li, Tushar K. Bera, Michael Parkes, Timothy J. Jacobs
Abstract This paper investigates the effect of the cetane number (CN) of a diesel fuel on the energy balance between a light duty (1.9L) and medium duty (4.5L) diesel engine. The two engines have a similar stroke to bore (S/B) ratio, and all other control parameters including: geometric compression ratio, cylinder number, stroke, and combustion chamber, have been kept the same, meaning that only the displacement changes between the engine platforms. Two Coordinating Research Council (CRC) diesel fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) were studied. The two fuels were selected to have a similar distillation profile and aromatic content, but varying CN. The effects on the energy balance of the engines were considered at two operating conditions; a “low load” condition of 1500 rev/min (RPM) and nominally 1.88 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), and a “medium load” condition of 1500 RPM and 5.65 BMEP.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0806
Genki Kikuchi, Masashi Miyagawa, Yoshiaki Yamamoto, Naruhiko Inayoshi
Abstract Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems reduce exhaust emissions and improve fuel efficiency. Recently, the number of EGR system installed vehicles has been increasing, especially for gasoline engine systems. One of the major causes of decreasing EGR function is deposit accumulation on a gas passage. The deposit consists mainly of hydrocarbons which are degradation products of fuel, thus the amount of deposit seems to be strongly affected by fuel compositions. Unfortunately there are not as many studies on EGR deposits with gasoline fuel as there are with diesel fuel. In this study, the influence of gasoline fuel compositions, especially aromatics which are major components of EGR gas, on chemical structures of the deposit were investigated. To clarify the accumulation mechanism of EGR deposits, a thermal oxidative degradation test with an autoclave unit and an actual gasoline engine test were employed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0699
Sampad Mukhopadhyay, Sunil Srinivas Badavath, Naeim Henein
Abstract The superior fuel economy of direct injection internal combustion engines (diesel and gasoline) is related to use of a high compression ratio to auto-ignite the fuel and the overall lean combustible mixture. Two of the major problems in diesel engine emissions are the NOx and soot emissions, which are caused by the heterogeneity of the charge and the properties of the diesel fuel. Conventional Direct Injection Spark Ignition Gasoline engines don't have these problems because of the fuel properties particularly its volatility. However, its efficiency and specific power output are limited by the knock, knock produced preignition and the sporadic preignition phenomenon. The Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) engine combines the superior features of the two engines by increasing the compression ratio and use of gasoline as a fuel.
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