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2017-11-12
WIP Standard
J1699/3
The main purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles are capable of communicating a minimum subset of information, in accordance with the diagnostic test services specified in SAE J1979: E/E Diagnostic Test Modes, or the equivalent document ISO 15031-5: Communication Between Vehicle and External Equipment for Emissions-Related Diagnostics – Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services. Any software meeting these specifications will utilize the vehicle interface that is defined in SAE J2534, Recommended Practice for Pass-Thru Vehicle Programming.
CURRENT
2017-10-09
Standard
J2809_201710
This Technical Information Report defines the proprietary diagnostic communication protocol for ABS or VSA ECU (Electronic Control Unit) implemented on some Honda vehicles. This protocol does not apply to all Honda vehicles. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement the communication protocol in an enhanced SAE J2534 interface. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement the communication protocol in an enhanced SAE J2534 interface.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2403
Yanzhao An, R Vallinayagam, S Vedharaj, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Alaaeldin Dawood, Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Bengt Johansson
Abstract In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2218
Roman Varbanets, Sergey Karianskyi, Sergey Rudenko, Igor V. Gritsuk, Aleksey Yeryganov, Olena Kyrylash, Nadezhda Aleksandrovskaya
Abstract Operability and efficiency of transport diesel engines significantly depend on periodical diagnosis of its technical condition. The article considers the features of monitoring and diagnostic of transport diesel engines with the help of vibroacoustic analysis of high pressure fuel equipment and gas distribution mechanism. Functional scheme of diagnostic system and analytical method of TDC determination is described. Article gives an example of four-stroke and two-stroke diesel engines diagnosis. Also the article shows turbocharger speed determination and diagnosis with the help of vibroacoustic spectrum analysis. The main feature of the given methods is their high efficiency for diagnosis of transport diesel engines during operation.
2017-09-21
WIP Standard
AIR8012
The purpose of the document is to provide the guidelines of the technological approach for developing a PHM system for EMAs with particular reference to their possible use as primary flight control actuators. It provides a basic description of the physics of the most common degradation processes,a reliability assessment and a discussion on the signals, with the associated data processing, required to build up an effective health monitoring system.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2125
Mohammad Barkat, Vivek Karan, Pradeep N
Abstract The exponential increase in the number of aircrafts and air travelers has triggered new innovations which aim to make airline services more reliable and consumer friendly. Quick and efficient maintenance actions with minimum downtime are the need of the hour. Areas that have a large potential for improvement in this regard are the real time use of diagnostic data, filtering/elimination of nuisance faults and machine learning capabilities with respect to maintenance actions. Although, numerous LRUs installed on the aircraft generate massive amounts of diagnostic data to detect any possible issue or LRU failure, it is seldom used in real time. The turnaround time for LRU maintenance can be greatly reduced if the results of the diagnostics conducted during LRU normal operation is relayed to ground stations in real-time. This enables the maintenance engineers to plan ahead and initiate maintenance actions well before the aircraft lands and becomes available for maintenance.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2124
Violet Leavers
Abstract Within the aviation industry analysis of wear debris particles recovered from magnetic plugs and lubricating fluids is an essential condition monitoring tool. However, in large organisations, high staff turnover in remote work environments often leaves dangerous gaps in on-site support and background knowledge. The current work develops interactive software for wear debris particle classification, root cause diagnosis and serviceability prognostics. During the research several hundred wear debris particle images were collected, analysed and classified by a number of experts. At each stage of the analysis the experts were questioned about the knowledge and experience used to make their diagnoses and prognoses. The end result is an extensive knowledge base representing the combined expertise of a number of highly trained engineers, each with decades of hands-on experience.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2126
Ashutosh Kumar Jha, Gaurav Sahay, Adishesha Sivaramasastry
Abstract In aerospace industry, the concept of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) has gained momentum and is becoming need of the hour for entire value chain in the industry. The expected benefits of lesser time for maintenance reduced operating cost and ever busy airports are motivating aircraft manufacturers to come up with tools, techniques and technologies to enable advanced diagnostic and prognostic systems in aircrafts. At present, various groups are working on different systems and platforms for health monitoring of an aircraft e.g. SHM (Structural Health Monitoring), PHM (Prognostics Health Monitoring), AHM (Aircraft Health Monitoring), and EHM (Engine Health Monitoring) and so on.
2017-09-18
WIP Standard
J1939/73
SAE J1939-73 Diagnostics Application Layer defines the SAE J1939 messages to accomplish diagnostic services and identifies the diagnostic connector to be used for the vehicle service tool interface. Diagnostic messages (DMs) provide the utility needed when the vehicle is being repaired. Diagnostic messages are also used during vehicle operation by the networked electronic control modules to allow them to report diagnostic information and self-compensate as appropriate, based on information received. Diagnostic messages include services such as periodically broadcasting active diagnostic trouble codes, identifying operator diagnostic lamp status, reading or clearing diagnostic trouble codes, reading or writing control module memory, providing a security function, stopping/starting message broadcasts, reporting diagnostic readiness, monitoring engine parametric data, etc.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0044
Jeremy Rochussen, Jeff Son, Jeff Yeo, Mahdiar Khosravi, Patrick Kirchen, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan
Abstract Alternative fuel injection systems and advanced in-cylinder diagnostics are two important tools for engine development; however, the rapid and simultaneous achievement of these goals is often limited by the space available in the cylinder head. Here, a research-oriented cylinder head is developed for use on a single cylinder 2-litre engine, and permits three simultaneous in-cylinder combustion diagnostic tools (cylinder pressure measurement, infrared absorption, and 2-color pyrometry). In addition, a modular injector mounting system enables the use of a variety of direct fuel injectors for both gaseous and liquid fuels. The purpose of this research-oriented cylinder head is to improve the connection between thermodynamic and optical engine studies for a wide variety of combustion strategies by facilitating the application of multiple in-cylinder diagnostics.
2017-07-24
Book
Timothy Wilmering
Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) is the unified capability of a system of systems (SoS) to assess the current or future state of the member system health, and integrate it within a framework of available resources and operational demand. As systems complexities have increased, so have system support costs, driven by more frequent and often enigmatic subsystem failures. IVHM strategies can be used to mitigate these issues by taking a Systems of Systems view. Combined with advanced decision support methods, this approach can be used to more effectively predict, isolate, schedule, and repair failed subsystems, reducing platform support costs and minimizing platform down time. Integrated Vehicle Health Management- System of Systems Integration brings together ten seminal SAE technical papers addressing the challenges and solutions to maintaining highly complex vehicles.
CURRENT
2017-07-21
Standard
J1699/3_201707
The main purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles are capable of communicating a minimum subset of information, in accordance with the diagnostic test services specified in SAE J1979: E/E Diagnostic Test Modes, or the equivalent document ISO 15031-5: Communication Between Vehicle and External Equipment for Emissions-Related Diagnostics – Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services. Any software meeting these specifications will utilize the vehicle interface that is defined in SAE J2534, Recommended Practice for Pass-Thru Vehicle Programming.
CURRENT
2017-07-19
Standard
AIR4174A
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which aircraft propulsion energy in a turbine or reciprocating engine is converted via a gear train to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers aircraft engine driven transmission and gearbox components, their interfaces, drivetrain shafting, drive shaft hanger bearings, and associated rotating accessories, propellers, and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. For guidance on monitoring additional engine components not addressed, herein (e.g., main shaft bearings and compressor/turbine rotors), refer to ARP1839.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1868
Rod Morris-Kirby, Evan Harry
Abstract The authors previously presented at SAE 2015, the use of acoustic diagnostic network algorithms (Acoustic DNA) for the measurement and analysis of noise paths in motor vehicles. To further the understanding of the huge amount of data created in this method, especially by the end user or customer, a secure web based application platform has been engineered. The current paper presents operating aspects of the web based approach, including cyber security, multi device accessibility and intuitive user interface together with an innovative optimization toolbox from which both noise sources and vehicle body systems can be modified to be target compliant.
2017-05-19
WIP Standard
J1979-2
SAE J1979/ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
CURRENT
2017-05-12
Standard
J1939/73_201705
SAE J1939-73 Diagnostics Application Layer defines the SAE J1939 messages to accomplish diagnostic services and identifies the diagnostic connector to be used for the vehicle service tool interface. Diagnostic messages (DMs) provide the utility needed when the vehicle is being repaired. Diagnostic messages are also used during vehicle operation by the networked electronic control modules to allow them to report diagnostic information and self-compensate as appropriate, based on information received. Diagnostic messages include services such as periodically broadcasting active diagnostic trouble codes, identifying operator diagnostic lamp status, reading or clearing diagnostic trouble codes, reading or writing control module memory, providing a security function, stopping/starting message broadcasts, reporting diagnostic readiness, monitoring engine parametric data, etc.
CURRENT
2017-03-30
Standard
J2403DA_201703
This document is intended to supplement SAE J2403 by providing the content of Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 from SAE J2403 in a form that can be sorted and searched for easier use. It is NOT intended as a substitute for the actual document, and any discrepancies between this Digital Annex and the published SAE J2403 document must be resolved in favor of the published document. This document provides the content of Table 1 and Table 2 published in SAE J2403 into the single table in the 'Term' tab, while the 'Recommended Term Definitions' tab provides the content of Table 3 in SAE J2403 and the 'Glossary' tab provides the content of Table 4 in SAE J2403.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1685
Gopal K. Chamarthi, Andrew Sarkar, Paul Baltusis, Mark Laleman
Abstract An average luxury car contains more than 50 sensors connected, to over 28 microprocessors, through multiple communication networks. What makes these complex machines diagnosable at a dealership, is the ability of sophisticated diagnostics algorithms. Besides use of diagnostics in service, diagnosing a failure is also key for functional safety and vehicle availability. Safety related diagnostic functions such as loss of Brake fluid and leaky fuel system detection are critical. Once a failure is detected, Vehicle availability functions extend vehicle operation, so that one could reach the dealership without being stranded. The number of failure modes in a car could far exceed tens of thousands, thereby identifying key failure modes that require diagnostics can be a challenge.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1686
Muhammad Askar
Abstract A vehicle's electrical system is one of the top sources of problems requiring service. For years now electronic means of service documentation have been replacing static documents as a way of speeding vehicle troubleshooting. The next step on this path of evolution is to turn this e-documentation into smart maintenance systems, capable of offering technicians true data insights and highly-efficient diagnostic procedures. This paper briefly summarizes the technologies underpinning the evolution in electrical system diagnosis and repair; which include schematic layout automation using prototypes and rule-based styling, instant language translation, 2D/3D view links with schematics, interactive diagnostic procedures, and dynamically-generated signal-tracing diagrams. These technologies empower after sales service teams with state-of-the-art capabilities; which not only reduce costs but also improve the quality of the brand in the eyes of its customers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1690
Dirk Hall, Tim Felke
Abstract An IVHM Reference Model contains relations between Symptoms, Failure Modes, Troubleshooting Tests and Corrective Actions. Since it also encodes the specific vehicle variants for which these items are applicable, it can be used to create vehicle variant specific fault isolation plans for a pattern of symptoms on a specific vehicle. This paper will discuss the methodology through which a diagnostic reasoner can use a fault model, vehicle reported symptoms and vehicle configuration data to produce a vehicle fault specific troubleshooting plan. This paper will also discuss how a wide variety of Diagnostic Work Plans can be automatically created for a platform and its variants and how these plans can be adapted by Service Engineering authors to further improve their content.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1192
Amardeep Sidhu, Afshin Izadian, Sohel Anwar
In this paper, multiple-model adaptive estimation techniques have been successfully applied to fault detection and identification in lithium-ion batteries. The diagnostic performance of a battery depends greatly on the modeling technique used in representing the system and the associated faults under investigation. Here, both linear and non-linear battery modeling techniques are evaluated and the effects of battery model and noise estimation on the over-charge and over-discharge fault diagnosis performance are studied. Based on the experimental data obtained under the same fault scenarios for a single cell, the non-linear model based detection method is found to perform much better in accurately detecting the faults in real time when compared to those using linear model based method.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1623
Tim Felke, Steven Holland, Sachin Raviram
Abstract Suppliers and integrators are working with SAE’s HM-1 standards team to develop a mechanism to allow “Health Ready Components” to be integrated into larger systems to enable broader IVHM functionality (reference SAE JA6268). This paper will discuss how the design data provided by the supplier of a component/subsystem can be integrated into a vehicle reference model with emphasis on how each aspect of the model is transmitted to minimize ambiguity. The intent is to enhance support for the analytics, diagnostics and prognostics for the embedded component. In addition, we describe functionality being delegated to other system components and that provided by the supplier via syndicated web services. As a specific example, the paper will describe the JA6268 data submittal for a typical automotive turbocharger and other engine air system components to clarify the data modeling and integration processes.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1684
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki, Michael Kluzner, Robert Jentz
Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) imbalance between engine cylinders remains one of the most challenging problems in powertrain systems diagnostics. California Air Resources Board(CARB) has started imposing specific requirements on automotive companies since 2011 that required the integration of on-board diagnostics (OBD) monitor for the detection and reporting of this type of powertrain malfunction. In this paper, some methodologies of AFR cylinder imbalance monitoring are investigated and a novel approach is proposed that shows reliable detection capability compared to the other methods. The proposed method requires certain conditions during deceleration fuel shutoff events to intrusively reactivate the cylinders and determine the imbalance condition. The method was evaluated on a V6 3.7L engine in an experimental Lincoln MKZ vehicle. Vehicle results are shown and discussed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1688
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki
The usage of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor to control the air-fuel ratio (AFR) in gasoline engines allowed to significantly improve the efficiency of the combustion process and reduce tailpipe emissions. The diagnostics of this sensor is very important to ensure proper operation and indicate the need for service when the sensor fails to accurately determine the AFR upstream of the catalyst. California air resources board (CARB) has imposed several legislations around the operation of the UEGO sensor and particularly when specific faults would cause tailpipe emissions to exceed certain limits. In this paper, the possible sensor faults are reviewed, and a non-intrusive diagnostics monitor is proposed to detect, identify and estimate the magnitude of the fault present. This paper extends the approach in [4] where technical details are emphasized and algorithm improvements are discussed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1689
Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref, Andreas Vach, Markus Steffelbauer
Abstract (Summary) Remote diagnostic systems support diagnostic communication by having the capability of sending diagnostic request services to a vehicle and receiving diagnostic response services from a vehicle. These diagnostic services are specified in diagnostic protocols, such as SAE J1979, SAE J1939 or ISO 14229 (UDS). For the purpose of diagnostic communication, the tester needs access to the electronic control units as communication partners. Physically, the diagnostic tester gets access to the entire vehicle´s E/E system, which consists of connectors, wiring, the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN), the electronic control units, sensors, and actuators. Any connection of external test equipment and the E/E system of a vehicle poses a security vulnerability. The combination can be used for malicious intrusion and manipulation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0015
Wolfgang Granig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Hubert Zangl
Abstract Functional safe products conforming to the ISO 26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications wherein electronic takes more and more response for safety relevant operations. Consequently safety mechanisms are needed and implemented in order to reach defined functional safety targets. To prove their effectiveness diagnostic coverage provides a measurable quantity. A straight forward safety mechanism for sensor systems can be established by redundant signal paths measuring the same physical quantity and subsequently performing an independent output difference-check that decides if the data can be transmitted or an error message shall be sent. This paper focuses on the diagnostic coverage figure calculation of such data correlation-checks for linear sensors which are also shown in ISO 26262 part5:2011 ANNEX D2.10.2.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0386
Michael Wohlthan, Gerhard Pirker, Andreas Wimmer
Abstract To achieve high power output and good efficiency and to comply with increasingly stricter emission standards, modern combustion engines require a more complex engine design, which results in a higher number of control parameters. As the measurement effort and the number of sensors for engine development at the test bed continue to increase, it is becoming nearly impossible for the test bed engineer to manually check measurement data quality. As a result, automated methods for analysis and plausibility checks of measurement data are necessary in order to find faults as soon as they occur and to obtain test results of the highest possible quality. This paper presents a methodology for automated fault diagnosis on engine test beds. The methodology allows reliable detection of measurement faults as well as the identification of the root cause of faults.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0614
Hao Chen, Volker Sick
Abstract Plenoptic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) shows great potential for three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) flow measurement with a simple single-camera setup. It is therefore especially promising for applications in systems with limited optical access, such as internal combustion engines. The 3D visualization of a plenoptic imaging system is achieved by inserting a micro-lens array directly anterior to the camera sensor. The depth is calculated from reconstruction of the resulting multi-angle view sub-images. With the present study, we demonstrate the application of a plenoptic system for 3D3C PTV measurement of engine-like air flow in a steady-state engine flow bench. This system consists of a plenoptic camera and a dual-cavity pulsed laser. The accuracy of the plenoptic PTV system was assessed using a dot target moved by a known displacement between two PTV frames.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0619
Ravi Teja Vedula, Thomas Stuecken, Harold Schock, Cody Squibb, Ken Hardman
Abstract Piston temperature plays a major role in determining details of fuel spray vaporization, fuel film deposition and the resulting combustion in direct-injection engines. Due to different heat transfer properties that occur in optical and all-metal engines, it becomes an inevitable requirement to verify the piston temperatures in both engine configurations before carrying out optical engine studies. A novel Spot Infrared-based Temperature (SIR-T) technique was developed to measure the piston window temperature in an optical engine. Chromium spots of 200 nm thickness were vacuum-arc deposited at different locations on a sapphire window. An infrared (IR) camera was used to record the intensity of radiation emitted by the deposited spots. From a set of calibration experiments, a relation was established between the IR camera measurements of these spots and the surface temperature measured by a thermocouple.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1626
Tomas Poloni, Jianbo Lu
Abstract This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear.
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