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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0206
Jihas Khan
Existing encryption technique used for flashing ECU software, writing or reading the internal ECU variable values is based on a seed-key mechanism. A multitude of existing techniques can be used for finding the algorithm behind key generation from a specific seed. This hacking technique can allow a stranger to flash ECU software of his choice, to change internal variables, to change the VIN number of ECU, to lock/unlock doors and a lot more using diagnostic commands over CAN. Car thieves, car hackers can exploit this hidden feature to alter performance from stock and may prove dangerous to lives of passengers. A novel and fool proof algorithm is established and explained here to protect vehicle and ECU from such malicious activities. An advanced encryption technique is developed and tested in ECU for replacing the current seed-key mechanisms for ECU security unlock guarantying a secure operation of vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0918
Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Christopher Powell
Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle’s internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs due to large changes in refractive index between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle 500µm in diameter.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0881
Sunyu Tong, Haimiao Li, Zhaohui Yang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
For the purpose of fuel economy improvement, engine downsizing with turbocharger and the need of more accurate control of combustion process optimization are strongly desired. The cylinder pressure transducer is usually used to detect the in-cylinder combustion condition, but it is now too expensive to equip each cylinder with a pressure sensor for the automotive engines. Ion current sensor is more preferred because of its low cost and easy installation. In this paper, a robust ion current sensor and a spark plug type pressure transducer are installed on the cylinder of a 1.8L turbo boosted PFI engine. And the ion current signal and the cylinder pressure are sampled simultaneously. The parameters of ion current signal such as ion current integral value, ion current peak value and the ion current peak phase are calculated and then the relationship between ion current signal and cylinder pressure could berevealed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1249
Jinli Wang, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
There is increasing demand for engine diagnostic and control with in-cylinder pressure signal. However, the application of cylinder pressure sensors are restricted by the high cost of the sensor. Another possible way for engine combustion state estimation is by processing of instantaneous crankshaft speed signal, but it is limited by the precision and complexity of the algorithm. It could be a solution by combined processing of one cylinder pressure signal and crankshaft speed signal together. A rigid crankshaft dynamics model was used to model the system. Measurement results from experiments show that the indicated torque error traces of different cylinder are similar in shape. According to this assumption, the reference cylinder with cylinder pressure signal available can serve as both a parameter calibration information source and an error reduction measure. The algorithm can be simplified with rather good precision.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0210
S Kevin Chen, Li-Chun Chien, Masaki Nagashima, Joel Van Ess, Sam Hashemi
Misfire Detection in a Dynamic Skip Fire Engine Kevin Chen, Ricky Chien, Masaki Nagashima, Joel Van Ess and Sam Hashemi Abstract Misfire detection is one of the monitors that have the most specific and detailed requirements in the OBD-II regulations. There have been a number of technical papers in the literature discussing various methods and metrics for detecting misfire in conventional all-cylinder firing engines. However, those misfire detection systems are generally not suitable for detecting misfire in a dynamic skip fire engine. For example, a detection approach based on crankshaft angular acceleration may work well in conventional, all-cylinder firing engine operation, since it is expected that crankshaft acceleration will remain generally consistent for a given operating condition. In skip fire engine operation, however, any working cylinder or working cycle may be skipped.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0208
Hongtao Yu, Reza Langari
In order to prevent accidents caused by vehicle problems and drivers’ misapplication of vehicle controls, a detection system to perform real-time identification of abnormal vehicle behaviors is needed, which is an inherently complex task. Research efforts to this end include Sang et al. [1], which implemented an approach to abnormal behavior identification by performing video-based detection and creating information chain of tracked vehicles. Meanwhile, Bouttefroy et al. [2] introduced a paradigm for abnormal behavior detection relying on the integration of contextual information in Markov random fields. This technique models the local density of object feature vector and leads to simple and elegant criterion for behavior classification. Likewise, Chen et al. [3] presented an approach to detect potential ECU application software abnormal behavior based on the Mahalanobis Distance, the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and vehicle driving data playback capability with a simulator.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0209
Lihil Uthpala Subasinghe, Dilan Mendis, Tharindu Chandima, Nirosh Jayaweera, Sasiranga De Silva
Fault detection and diagnosis for automobile engines are very important to ensure reliable operation of the engine. Most of the faults in an automobile engine cannot be detected in real time. Detecting faults and its’ location, without dismantling the engine is very difficult. On-board diagnostic (OBD) systems in modern vehicles can be used to detect engine faults up to some extent. However, OBD systems are not accurate enough in certain conditions and technicians have difficulties when interpreting information. OBD method cannot be used for old vehicles because those vehicles do not have OBD systems. Hence, these factors necessitate the development of intelligent and accurate diagnosis method for troubleshooting automobile engine faults. Therefore in this research, a mathematical model was developed to identify engine faults through the simulation of Instantaneous Angular Speed Fluctuation (IASF) of crank shaft.
2015-01-20
WIP Standard
J1939/75
SAE J1939-75 Generator Sets and Industrial Applications defines the set of data parameters (SPNs) and messages (PGNs) for information predominantly associated with monitoring and control generators and driven equipment in electric power generation and industrial applications. Applications using the SAE J1939-75 document may need to reference SAE J1939-71 for the SAE J1939 parameters and messages for monitoring and controlling the power units, e.g. engines and turbines, that power the generators and driven industrial equipment.
2015-01-15
Standard
J3054_201501
This Technical Information Report defines the diagnostic communication protocol TP1.6. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface. Some Volkswagen of America and Audi of America vehicles are equipped with ECU(s), in which a TP1.6 proprietary diagnostic communication protocol is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface. This Technical Information Report describes how a tester can be connected to a vehicle to perform diagnostics using the TP1.6 protocol. Details regarding ECU to ECU communication have been left out.
2015-01-15
Standard
J2610_201501
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to specify the requirements necessary to fully define the Serial Data Communication Interface (SCI) used in the reprogramming of emission-related powertrain Electronic Control Units (ECU) in Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) vehicles. It is intended to satisfy new regulations proposed by the federal U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resource Board (CARB) regulatory agencies regarding “pass-thru programming” of all On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) compliant emission-related powertrain devices. These requirements are necessary to provide independent automotive service organizations and after-market scan tool suppliers the ability to reprogram emission-related powertrain ECUs for all manufacturers of automotive vehicles. Specifically, this document details the SCI physical layer and SCI data link layer requirements necessary to establish communications between a diagnostic tester and an ECU.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0090
Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare, Luca Lacchini, Nicolò Cavina, Sandeep Sohal
Abstract The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put on the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a physical model of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
2014-12-11
Standard
J2912_201412
This SAE Standard applies to refrigerant identification equipment to be used for identifying refrigerant HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFO-1234yf (R-1234yf) refrigerant when servicing a mobile A/C system or for identifying refrigerant in a container to be used to charge a mobile A/C system. Identification of other refrigerants is the option of the equipment manufacturer, although it shall not misidentify refrigerants, per 3.2.
2014-12-03
Standard
J3005_201412
The scope of the document is to define communication best practices in order to minimize problems for the vehicle owner when installing equipment which has a permanently or semi-permanently diagnostic communication device connected to the SAE J1962 connector or hardwired directly to the in-vehicle network.
2014-11-10
Book
Ian K. Jennions
Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned is the fourth title in the IVHM series published by SAE International. This new book introduces a variety of case studies, lessons learned, and insights on what it really means to develop, implement, or manage an integrated system of systems. Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned brings to the reader a wide set of hands-on stories, made possible by the contribution of twenty-three authors, who agreed to share their experience and wisdom on how new technologies are developed and put to work. This effort was again coordinated by Dr. Ian K. Jennions, Director of the IVHM Centre at Cranfield University (UK), and editor of the previous books in the series.
2014-11-05
WIP Standard
ARP6887
The ARP shall cover the objectives and activities of Verification & Vallidation Processes required to assure high quality and/or criticality level of an IVHM Systems and Software.
2014-11-04
Standard
J2403DA_201411
This document is intended to supplement SAE J2403 by providing the content of Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 from SAE J2403 in a form that can be sorted and searched for easier use. It is NOT intended as a substitute for the actual document, and any discrepancies between this Digital Annex and the published SAE J2403 document must be resolved in favor of the published document. This document provides the content of Table 1 and Table 2 published in SAE J2403 into the single table in the 'Term' tab, while the 'Recommended Term Definitions' tab provides the content of Table 3 in SAE J2403 and the 'Glossary' tab provides the content of Table 4 in SAE J2403.
2014-09-30
WIP Standard
AIR6334
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) examines the need for and the application of a power train usage metric that can be used to more accurately determine the TBO for helicopter transmissions. It provides a formula for the translation of the recorded torque history into mechanical usage. It provides examples of this process and recommends a way forward. This document of the SAE HM-1 IVHM Committee is not intended as a legal document and does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation concerns and potential benefits.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2427
Giorgio Malaguti, Carlo Ferraresi, Luca Dariz, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Abstract Alongside with the increasing vehicle complexity, the functionalities related to the safety, diagnosis and maintainability have become critical. The operators of special machines such as agricultural, mining, construction vehicles might be overwhelmed by this increased complexity and, as a result, operations for the recovery or maintenance of their vehicles become difficult. The Augmented Reality (AR) seems to be a very promising technology both if applied to traditional smart-phones or to the upcoming glasses, that has been just presented to the market by several manufacturers. This paper reviews some use cases of applications created in Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (IMAMOTER) of the National research Council of Italy (CNR) engineers laboratories, which propose a novel approach for assisted maintenance, recovery or training.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2161
Alireza R. Behbahani, Alex Von Moll, Robert Zeller, James Ordo
Abstract Modern propulsion system designers face challenges that require that aircraft and engine manufacturers improve performance as well as reduce the life-cycle cost (LCC). These improvements will require a more efficient, more reliable, and more advanced propulsion system. The concept of smart components is built around actively controlling the engine and the aircraft to operate optimally. Usage of smart components intelligently increases efficiency and system safety throughout the flight envelope, all while meeting environmental challenges. This approach requires an integration and optimization, both at the local level and the system level, to reduce cost. Interactions between the various subsystems must be understood through the use of modeling and simulation. This is accomplished by starting with individual subsystem models and combining them into a complete system model. Hierarchical, decentralized control reduces cost and risk by enabling integration and modularity.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2164
Srikanth Gururajan, Mario Luca Fravolini, Matthew Rhudy, Antonio Moschitta, Marcello Napolitano
Abstract Recent catastrophic air crashes have shown that physical redundancy is not a foolproof option for failures on Air Data Systems (ADS) on an aircraft providing airspeed measurements. Since all the redundant sensors are subjected to the same environmental conditions in flight, a failure on one sensor could occur on the other sensors under certain conditions such as extreme weather; this class of failure is known in the literature as “common mode” failure. In this paper, different approaches to the problem of detection, identification and accommodation of failures on the Air Data System (ADS) of an aircraft are evaluated. This task can be divided into component tasks of equal criticality as Sensor Failure Detection and Identification (SFDI) and Sensor Failure Accommodation (SFA). Data from flight test experiments conducted using the WVU YF-22 unmanned research aircraft are used.
2014-08-11
Standard
J1979_201408
SAE J1979 / ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
2014-07-07
Standard
ARP6275
This ARP provides insights on how to perform a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment that would result from implementing an integrated Health Management (HM) system on an air vehicle. The word “integrated” refers to the combination or “roll up” of sub-systems health management tools to create a platform centric system. The document describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with HM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a HM system could provide.
2014-06-26
WIP Standard
J1979DA
On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations require passenger cars, and light and medium duty trucks, to support communication of a minimum set of diagnostic information to off-board “generic” test equipment. This document specifies the diagnostic data which may be required to be supported by motor vehicles and external test equipment for diagnostic purposes which pertain to motor vehicle emission-related data. SAE J1979 was originally developed to meet U.S. OBD requirements for 1996 and later model year vehicles. ISO 15031 5 was based on SAE J1979 and was intended to combine the U.S. requirements with European OBD requirements for 2000 and later model year vehicles.
2014-06-10
Standard
J1979DA_201406
On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations require passenger cars, and light and medium duty trucks, to support communication of a minimum set of diagnostic information to off-board “generic” test equipment. This document specifies the diagnostic data which may be required to be supported by motor vehicles and external test equipment for diagnostic purposes which pertain to motor vehicle emission-related data. SAE J1979 was originally developed to meet U.S. OBD requirements for 1996 and later model year vehicles. ISO 15031 5 was based on SAE J1979 and was intended to combine the U.S. requirements with European OBD requirements for 2000 and later model year vehicles.
2014-04-14
WIP Standard
AIR4174A
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which the gas generator energy is transferred to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers engine power train components, their interfaces, transmissions, gearboxes, hanger bearings, shafting and associated rotating accessories, propellers and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. This document addresses application for rotorcraft, turboprop, and propfan drive trains for both commercial and military aircraft. Information is provided to assist in; a. Defining technology maturity and application risk b. Cost benefit analysis (Value analysis) c. Selection of system components d.
2014-04-09
Standard
J1699/4_201404
To define a list of anomalies related to OBD Communications. Misinterpretations of various OBD Communications Standards and Recommended Practices have resulted in OBD “no-communications” situations in the field. This Information Report identifies the most prevalent of these.
2014-04-01
Collection
Vehicle diagnostics deals with the development, delivery and execution of diagnostic procedures for vehicle systems. This technical paper collection will explore new technologies, processes and trends in the area of vehicle diagnostics.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0291
Gopal Athani, Prasad Yerraguntla, Anand Gajaraj, Kapil Dongare
Abstract Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0281
Peter Subke
Abstract In the past, the automotive industry has learned the lesson that competition on the level of bits and bytes, proprietary bus systems, data communication and diagnostic protocols is unrewarding. Too much time and money has been spent on the development of proprietary diagnostic tools. Vehicle manufacturers and suppliers realized that standardization would be the best way to overcome this situation. Furthermore, regulatory requirements in the US and the EU for such standardization have strengthened this lesson. As a result, the automotive industry has standardized the technology for the communication of external test equipment with electronic control units (ECUs) in road vehicles. Standardization serves the price, the quality and the maintainability via scale and training curve effects.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0278
Olof Lindgarde, Rune Prytz
Abstract This paper presents an approach to fault detection and isolation that is based on off-board 1D simulation tools such as GT-power or AVL Boost. The proposed method enables engineers to develop diagnostic functions early on in a development project. The proposed algorithm is evaluated based on measurements from the air path system of the new Volvo FH truck. The results are encouraging. The paper discusses pros and cons of the method and concludes that it has clear potential to be used for on-board diagnostics.
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