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Viewing 1 to 30 of 951
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1689
Peter Subke
Remote diagnostic systems, support diagnostic communication by having the capability of sending diagnostic requests to a vehicle and receiving diagnostic responses from a vehicle. Diagnostic communication includes but is not limited to the services that are specified in SAE J1979, SAE J1939 or ISO 14229 (UDS). Diagnostic communication utilizes the standard in-vehicle network, which is usually CAN. Any unauthorized access to the in-vehicle network poses a security vulnerability. Such vulnerabilities can severely harm the functional safety, thus causing damage to the vehicle, machine or – even worse – to life and health of the driver, passengers or operators. This paper describes the architecture of a system for remote diagnostics, its security vulnerability and measures to prevent unauthorized access to the in-vehicle network.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1690
Dirk Hall, Tim Felke
An IVHM Fault Model contains relations between Symptoms, Failure Modes, and Corrective Actions. Since it also encode the specific vehicle variants for which these items are applicable, it can be used to create vehicle variant specific fault isolation plans for a pattern of symptoms on a specific vehicle. This paper will discuss the methodology through which a diagnostic reasoner can use a fault model, vehicle reported symptoms and vehicle configuration data to produce a vehicle fault specific troubleshooting plan. This paper will also discuss how a wide variety of diagnostic troubleshooting plans can be automatically created for a platform and its variants and how these plans can be adapted by Service Engineering authors to further improve their content.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1686
Muhammad Askar
A vehicle's electrical system is one of the top sources of problems requiring service. Electronic means of service documentation have been replacing static documents as a way of speeding vehicle troubleshooting. The next step on this path of evolution is to turn those into smart maintenance systems, capable of offering technicians true data insights, and highly-efficient diagnostic procedures. This paper briefly summarizes the technologies underpinning the evolution in electrical system diagnosis and repair; which include schematic layout automation using prototypes and rule-based styling, instant language translation, 2D/3D view links with schematics, interactive diagnostic procedures, and dynamically-generated signal-tracing diagrams. These technologies empower after sales service teams with state-of-the-art capabilities; which not only reduce costs but also improve the quality of the brand in the eyes of its customers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0614
Hao Chen, Volker Sick
Plenoptic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) shows great potential for three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) flow measurement with a simple single-camera, single-shot setup. It is therefore especially promising for applications in systems with limited optical access, such as internal combustion engines. The 3D visualization of a plenoptic imaging system is achieved by inserting a micro-lens array directly anterior to the photo-sensor. The depth is calculated from reconstruction of the resulting multi-angle view sub-images from different micro-lenses. In the present study, we demonstrate the application of a plenoptic system for 3D3C PTV measurement of engine-like air flow on a steady-state engine flow bench. This system consists of a plenoptic camera (Raytrix R29) setup with depth-of-field about 25 mm and depth resolution of 90-350 µm depending of the distance to the camera, and a dual-cavity PIV laser (Litron Nano T 120-15).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0619
Ravi Teja Vedula, Thomas Stuecken, Harold Schock, Cody Squibb, Ken Hardman
Piston temperature plays a major role in determining details of fuel spray vaporization, fuel film deposition and the resulting combustion in direct-injection engines. Due to different heat transfer properties that occur in optical and all-metal engines, it becomes an inevitable requirement to verify the piston temperatures in both engine configurations before carrying out optical engine studies. A novel Spot Infrared Temperature Estimations (SITE) technique was developed to estimate the piston window temperature in an optical engine. Chromium spots of 200 nm thickness were vacuum-arc deposited at different locations on a sapphire window. An infrared (IR) camera was used to record the intensity of radiation emitted by deposited spots. From a set of calibration experiments, a relation was established between the IR camera measurements of these spots and the surface temperature measured by a thermocouple.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0015
Wolfgang Granig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Hubert Zangl
Authors: DI(FH) Wolfgang Granig, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Dirk Hammerschmidt, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Hubert Zangl, Alpe-Adria University Klagenfurt Abstract: Functional safe products conforming the ISO26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications wherein electronic takes more and more response for safety relevant operations. Consequently safety mechanisms are needed and implemented in order to reach defined functional safety targets. To prove their effectiveness diagnostic coverage provides a measurable quantity. A straight forward safety mechanism for sensor systems can be established by redundant signal paths measuring the same physical quantity and subsequently performing an independent output difference-check that decides if the data can be transmitted or an error message shall be sent.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0386
Michael Wohlthan, Gerhard Pirker, Andreas Wimmer
To achieve high power output and good efficiency and to comply with increasingly stricter emission standards, modern combustion engines require a more complex engine design, which results in a greater number of control parameters. As the measurement effort and the number of sensors for engine development at the test bed continue to increase, it is becoming nearly impossible for the test bed engineer to manually check measurement data quality. As a result, automated methods for analysis and plausibility checks of measurement data are necessary in order to find faults as soon as they occur and to obtain test results of the highest possible quality. This paper presents a fully integrated methodology for automated fault diagnosis on engine test beds. The methodology allows reliable detection of measurement faults as well as the identification of the root cause of faults.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1684
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki, Michael Kluzner, Robert Jentz
Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) imbalance between engine cylinders remains one of the most challenging problems in powertrain systems diagnostics. California Air Resources Board(CARB) has started imposing specific requirements on automotive companies since 2011 that required the integration of on-board diagnostics (OBD) monitor for the detection and reporting of this type of powertrain malfunction. In this paper, some methodologies of AFR cylinder imbalance monitoring are investigated and a novel approach is proposed that shows reliable detection capability compared to the other methods. The proposed method requires certain conditions during deceleration fuel shutoff events to intrusively reactivate the cylinders and determine the imbalance condition. The method was evaluated on a V6 3.7L engine in an experimental Lincoln MKZ vehicle. Vehicle results are shown and discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1688
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki
The usage of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor to control the the air-fuel ratio (AFR) in gasoline engines allowed to significantly improve the efficiency of the combustion process and reduce tailpipe emissions. The diagnostics of this sensor is very important to ensure proper operation and indicate the need for service when the sensor fails to accurately determine the AFR upstream of the catalyst. California air resources board (CARB) has imposed several legislations around the operation of the UEGO sensor and particularly when specific faults would cause tailpipe emissions to exceed certain limits. In this paper, the possible sensor faults are reviewed, and a non-intrusive diagnostics monitor is proposed to detect, identify and estimate the magnitude of the fault present. This paper extends the approach in [1] where technical details are emphasized and algorithm improvements are discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1685
Gopal K. Chamarthi, Andrew Sarkar, Paul Baltusis, Mark Laleman
An average luxury car contains more than 50 sensors connected, to over 28 microprocessors, through multiple communication networks. What makes these complex machines diagnosable at a dealership, is the ability of sophisticated diagnostics algorithms. Besides use of diagnostics in service, diagnosing a failure is also key for functional safety and vehicle availability. Safety functions such as loss of Brake fluid and leaky fuel system are essential. Once a failure is detected, Vehicle availability functions allow vehicle to operate, so that one could reach the dealership without being stranded. The number of failure modes in a car could far exceed tens of thousands, thereby identifying key failure modes for developing diagnostics can be a challenge.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1192
Amardeep Sidhu, Afshin Izadian PhD, Sohel Anwar
Condition monitoring of lithium ion batteries plays a critical role in the battery management system of a hybrid electric or full electric vehicle. Battery fault conditions such as overcharge and over discharge causes significant variations of parameters from nominal values and can be considered as separate models. In this paper, multiple- model adaptive estimation techniques have been successfully applied to fault detection and identification in lithium-ion batteries. The diagnostic performance of a battery depends greatly on the modeling technique used in representing the system and the associated faults under investigation. Here, both linear and non-linear battery modeling techniques are evaluated and the effects of battery model and noise estimation on the over-charge and over-discharge fault diagnosis performance are studied.
CURRENT
2017-01-04
Standard
AIR1839D
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS ) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174.
2016-12-21
WIP Standard
ARP6915
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) offers best practice regarding the implementation of IVHM systems taking into account Human Factors, both the vehicle crew and the maintenance staff. The document will include considerations regarding both military and civil fixed wing aircraft. Safety implications will also be addressed.
CURRENT
2016-12-13
Standard
AIR6212
This document collates the ways and means that existing sensors can identify the platform’s exposure to volcanic ash. The capabilities include real-time detection and estimation, and post flight determinations of exposure and intensity. The document includes results of initiatives with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Transport Canada, various research organizations, Industry and other subject matter experts. The document illustrates the ways that an aircraft can use existing sensors to act as health monitoring tools so as to assess the operational and maintenance effects related to volcanic ash incidents and possibly help determine what remedial action to take after encountering a volcanic ash (VA) event.
CURRENT
2016-12-13
Standard
J2012DA_201612
The J2012 Digital Annex of Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions Spreadsheet provides DTC information in an excel format for use in your organization's work processes. The column headings include the same information as contained in the J2012 standard.

There is also a column heading denoting which DTC have been updated in the current version.

CURRENT
2016-12-13
Standard
J2012_201612
This document supersedes SAE J2012 DEC2007, and is technically equivalent to ISO 15031-6:2010 with the exceptions described in 1.2. This document is intended to define the standardized Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) that On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems in vehicles are required to report when malfunctions are detected. SAE J2012 may also be used for decoding of enhanced diagnostic DTCs and specifies the ranges reserved for vehicle manufacturer specific usage.
CURRENT
2016-11-29
Standard
AIR1873A
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes a Limited Engine Monitoring System that can be used by the flight crew or the maintenance staff, or both, to monitor the health of gas turbine engines in aircraft. This AIR considers monitoring of gas path performance and mechanical parameters, and systems such as low cycle fatigue counters and engine history recorders. It also considers typical measurement system accuracies and their impact. This AIR is intended as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard. AIR 1873 supplements ARP 1587, Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Monitoring System Guide.
2016-10-18
WIP Standard
J1930DA
This Digital Annex contains all of the information previously found within the SAE J1930 tables, including diagnostic terms applicable to electrical/electronic systems and related mechanical terms, definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2159
Zheming Li, Yann Gallo, Ted Lind, Oivind Andersson, Marcus Alden, Mattias Richter
Abstract Soot emissions from diesel internal combustion engines are strictly regulated nowadays. Laser extinction measurement (LEM) and natural luminosity (NL) of sooty flames are commonly applied to study soot. LEM measures soot along the laser beam path and it can probe soot regardless of temperature. NL integrates the whole field of view and relies on soot temperature. In this work, a comparison of simultaneously recorded LEM and NL data has been performed in a heavy-duty optical engine. A 685 nm laser beam is used for LEM. The laser was modulated at 63 kHz, which facilitated subtraction of the background NL signal from the raw LEM data. By Beer-Lambert’s law, KL factor can be calculated and used as a metric to describe soot measurements. A compensation of transmitted laser intensity fluctuation and soot deposits on optical windows has been performed in this work.
2016-10-13
WIP Standard
J3005-2
SAE J3005-2 describes OBD interface security guidelines for J1979 communications and best practices for telematic devices connected with the SAE J1962 OBD vehicle connector.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2046
Neno Novakovic
Abstract A Landing Gear Control and Actuation System (LGCAS) is one of the most complex aircraft systems. Due to the large landing gear masses and high performance requirements, aircraft hydraulic power with multiple hydraulic actuators and valves is used to provide system dynamic. LGCAS also requires a electrical source of energy for the electro-mechanical components, sensors and electronic control unit. For many years, correct fault isolation in a complex kinematic system, such as an aircraft landing gear actuation system, has been a great challenge with limited success. The fault isolation design challenge rests on the fact that landing gear control and actuation system has many so called “passive” components, whose basic function cannot be continuously monitored without additional sensors, transducers, and designated health monitoring equipment.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2022
Ajay Rao, Vivek Karan, Pradeep Kumar
Abstract Turbulence is by far the number one concern of anxious passengers and a cause for airline injuries. Apart from causing discomfort to passengers, it also results in unplanned downtime of aircrafts. Currently the Air Traffic Control (ATC) and the meteorological weather charts aid the pilot in devising flight paths that avoid turbulent regions. Even with such tailored flight paths, pilots report constant encounters with turbulence. The probability of turbulence avoidance can be increased by the use of predictive models on historical and transactional data. This paper proposes the use of predictive analytics on meteorological data over the geographical area where the aircraft is intended to fly. The weather predictions are then relayed to the cloud server which can be accessed by the aircraft planned to fly in the same region. Predictive algorithms that use Time series forecasting models are discussed and their comparative performance is documented.
2016-09-07
WIP Standard
J3005-1
SAE J3005-1 is being published as a new document which replaces J3005:20140602 ( Guidance for Remote I/M programs, Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS), GPS, Wireless-LAN or Bluetooth interfaces and insurance devices.) The SAE J3005-1 devices are not intended to be used for SAE J1699-3 vehicle validation testing. The document focuses on OBD mandated communication protocols defined in SAE J1979.
2016-09-06
WIP Standard
J2809
This Technical Information Report defines the proprietary diagnostic communication protocol for ABS or VSA ECU (Electronic Control Unit) implemented on some Honda vehicles. This protocol does not apply to all Honda vehicles. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement the communication protocol in an enhanced SAE J2534 interface. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement the communication protocol in an enhanced SAE J2534 interface.
2016-09-06
WIP Standard
J2819
This Technical Information Report defines the diagnostic communication protocol TP2.0. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface. Some Volkswagen of America and Audi of America vehicles are equipped with ECU(s), in which a TP2.0 proprietary diagnostic communication protocol is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface.
CURRENT
2016-07-19
Standard
ARD6888
The purpose of this document is to specify the functional requirements for a miniature connector to be used for health monitoring purposes on aircraft (including harsh environments such as found in propulsion systems). It is actually a family of miniature connectors that is specified in this document for various uses (e.g., pin counts) and environments. This specification will be used by the SAE committee for connectors (AE-8C1) to study the feasibility of developing a dedicated connector standard.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1836
Sylvestre Lecuru, Pascal Bouvet, Jean-Louis Jouvray, Shanjin Wang
Abstract The recent use of electric motors for vehicle propulsion has stimulated the development of numerical methodologies to predict their noise and vibration behavior. These simulations generally use models based on an ideal electric motor. But sometimes acceleration and noise measurements on electric motors show unexpected harmonics that can generate acoustic issues. These harmonics are mainly due to the deviation of the manufactured parts from the nominal dimensions of the ideal machine. The rotor eccentricities are one of these deviations with an impact on acoustics of electric motors. Thus, the measurement of the rotor eccentricity becomes relevant to understand the phenomenon, quantify the deviation and then to use this data as an input in the numerical models. An innovative measurement method of rotor eccentricities using fiber optic displacement sensors is proposed.
2016-05-17
WIP Standard
JA6268
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) was created to help industry deal with existing barriers to the successful implementation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology in the aerospace and automotive sectors. That is,given the common barriers that exist, this ARP can be applied not only to aerospace but also to the automotive, commercial and military vehicle sectors. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) in all of these sectors are heavily dependant upon a large number of component suppliers in order to design and build their products. The advent of IVHM technology has accentuated the need for improved coordination and communication between the OEM and its suppliers –to ensure that suppliers design health ready capabilities into their particular components.
CURRENT
2016-05-17
Standard
AIR6552/3
This document establishes methods to obtain, store, and access data about the health of a fiber optic network using commercial sensors located in or near the transceiver. This document is intended for: Managers, Engineers, Contracting Officers, Third Party Maintenance Agencies, and Quality Assurance.
2016-05-17
WIP Standard
AIR6245
This document is applicable to military aircraft where stakeholders are seeking guidance on the development and approval of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies and on the integration of these technologies into encompassing maintenance and operational support systems. The document will refer to those guidelines prepared under SAE ARP6461 that are relevant and applicable to military applications.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 951

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