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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0278
Philipp Bergmeir, Christof Nitsche, Jürgen Nonnast, Michael Bargende
In order to achieve high customer satisfaction and to avoid high warranty costs caused by component failures of the power-train of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), car manufacturers have to optimize the dimensioning of these elements. Hence, it is obligatory for them to gain knowledge about the different types of vehicle usage being predominant all over the world. Therefore, in this paper we present a Data Mining system that combines an Autoencoder, i.e., a special kind of Artificial Neural Network used for unsupervised representation learning, with t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding, i.e., a technique for dimensionality reduction, to automatically identify and visualize different types of vehicle usage by applying them to aggregated logged on-board data, i.e., load spectrum data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0072
Jihas Khan
Unified Diagnostic Service and On Board Diagnostics requires a client side device with a necessary software to implement certain specific algorithms. This paper is proposing a highly optimized, reusable and scalable model based software architecture for implementing these particular algorithms which include flow control, timing control, CAN database parsing, logging of messages, ODX/MDX database parsing, security unlock, intuitive HMI layer design, fault insertion hardware control, DTC display with textual information, frame control, multi network - multi ECU support, software flashing, physical-functional message handling, dll support for other software and interface for multiple hardware host devices. Re usability of this model based product ensures that it can be ported to the diagnostic tool used by a work shop engineer or by a diagnostics validation engineer working at OEM or Tier 1 side. This means that this software is hardware independent.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0376
Yunkai Gao, Zhaoxuan Feng, Jianguang fang, Shihui Wang
The performance of the rear axle plays an important role in the performance of vehicle, and its fatigue durability is an integral part in the vehicle development. Taking a SUV model as the research subject, a new methodology of multi-channel spindle coupled road simulator and fatigue simulation analysis for rear axle assembly was introduced in the paper, aiming to address the fatigue design and its verification for the rear axle in the development phase. Firstly, road loads in the proving ground was collected by arranging proper sensors. Secondly, physical iteration was performed on the multi-channel spindle coupled road simulator by taking six component forces at the wheel hub as the target signals. Then, after the time waveform replication of the loads the durability test was conducted. Finally, the validated simulation model was successfully implemented to improve the fatigue life of the axle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0073
Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref
Especially in the production of passenger cars, the reprogramming of electronic control units can be considered as state-of-the art. Today, the automotive industry has to solve the problem that reprogramming of the ever-increasing amount of data takes too long. The CAN bus as interface hit the wall, CAN-FD might solve the problem, Ethernet will do. UDSonIP (ISO 14229) on DoIP (ISO 13400) and Ethernet (IEEE 802.11) are employed in the production of high-class passenger cars. On those vehicles, former discretionary pins of the OBD connector (SAE J1962) are used for the wired connection of external test equipment that supports UDSonIP. With a device that that fits the OBD connector and acts as a bridge between the Ethernet signals to WLAN, external test equipment that supports wireless communication, can be connected to the vehicle. Examples for such wireless devices include smart phones and tablets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0643
Jian Zhang, Changwen Liu, Fengrong Bi, Yiqiang Pei, Xiaobo Bi
Knock threshold detection is the key of closed loop control of ignition in gasoline engine, and it is also the difficult point in knock measurement. In this paper, an investigation of knock detection in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines using bispectrum slice and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based on the engine cylinder head vibration signals. By adding some finite amplitude Gaussian white noises to the signal, EEMD keeps the signal continuous in different time span, and therefore the mode mixing inhering in the classical empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is alleviated. Power spectrum density (PSD) estimation is used to determine the band range of the resonance frequency generated by knock component. EEMD was used to decompose the original signals, the time-frequency characteristics of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) were analyzed using Continues Wavelet Transform (CWT) due to its excellent time-frequency resolution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0865
R. Lockett, Mahesh Jeshani PhD, Kassandra Makri, Richard Price
Laser Sheet Dropsizing (LSD) is a recently developed optical diagnostic that has proven to be useful for the determination of relative liquid volume fraction and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) distributions in combusting, evaporating and non-evaporating sprays. The present work focuses on primary atomization in diesel sprays obtained from 250 bar and 350 bar rail pressures respectively, in order to identify the effect of distillation profile and rail pressure on the drop size distribution in the sprays obtained during primary atomization. Solutions of Rhodamine-B in 1-decanol and 1-octanol respectively were added to samples of conventional crude-oil derived middle-distillate diesel (distillation profile range 200 oC - 360 oC) and light distillate kerosene (distillation profile range 160 oC - 180 oC). These mixtures were delivered into an optically accessible Denso mini-sac injector, using a custom-designed and manufactured high-pressure common rail diesel fuel injection (FIE) system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0642
Understanding oil transport mechanisms is critical to developing better tools for oil consumption and piston skirt lubrication. Our existing Two-Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (2DLIF) with an acquisition rate of 1 frame every one or two cycles was proven to be effective to display oil accumulation patterns and their evolution over many cycles in the piston ring pack system. Yet, the existing system is unable to resolve instantaneous oil flows in the piston system. In this work, a high-speed LIF system was developed. After a number of iterations the finalized high speed LIF system includes a 23 W, 100 kHz, 532 nm laser and a high speed camera capable of 100,000 FPS at 384 x 264 pixel resolution. After each component was selected, optimization of the quality of images taken from the system began. Each component in the optical system was tested for improvement of image quality; such components include: camera lens, beam expander, beam splitter, and optical filter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0641
Thomas De Cuyper, Sam Bracke, Jolien Lavens, Stijn Broekaert, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
To optimize internal combustion engines (ICEs), a good understanding of engine operation is essential. The heat transfer from the working gases to the combustion chamber walls plays an important role, not only in the performance, but also in the emissions of the engine. Besides, thermal management of ICEs is becoming more and more important as an additional tool for optimizing efficiency and emission aftertreatment. In contrast little is known about the convective heat transfer inside the combustion chamber due to the complexity of the working processes. Heat transfer measurements inside the combustion chamber pose a challenge in instrumentation due to the harsh environment. Additionally, the heat loss in a spark ignition (SI) engine shows a high temporal and spatial variation. In this paper we examine the heat transfer in a production SI ICE through the use of Thin Film Gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors. An inlet valve has been equipped with 7 TFG sensors in a row.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0076
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Eman Magdy Moawad, Mohammed Diab, Mohamed ElHelw
New challenges and complexities are continuously increasing in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) development (e.g. active safety, driver assistant and autonomous vehicle systems). Therefore, the health management of ADAS’ components needs special improvements. Since software contribution in ADAS’ development is increasing significantly, remote diagnosis and maintenance for ADAS become more important. Furthermore, it is highly recommended to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) for the prognosis of ADAS’ safety critical components; e.g. (Ultrasonic, Cameras, Radar, Lidar). This paper presents a remote diagnosis, maintenance and prognosis (RDMP) framework for ADAS, which can be used during development phase and mainly after production. An overview of RDMP framework’s elements is explained to demonstrate how/when this framework is connected to database servers and remote analysis servers.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0640
Alan Kastengren, Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, James Sevik, Katarzyna Matusik, Thomas Wallner, Christopher F. Powell
Understanding the short-lived structure of the plasma that forms between the electrodes of a spark plug is crucial to the development of improved ignition models for SI engines. However, measuring the amount of energy deposited in the gas directly and non-intrusively is difficult, due to the short time scales and small length scales involved. The breakdown of the spark gap occurs at nanosecond time scales, followed by an arc phase lasting a few microseconds. Finally, a glow discharge phase occurs over several milliseconds. It is during the arc and glow discharge phases that most of the heat transfer from the plasma to the electrodes and combustion gases occurs. In this paper, we present the results of a proof of concept experiment that demonstrates the use of time-resolved x-ray radiography to measure the density of the plasma in the spark gap during the glow discharge phase of a conventional transistorized coil ignition system.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0644
Syahar Shawal, Martin Goschutz, Martin Schild, Sebastian Kaiser, Marius Neurohr, Juergen Pfeil, Thomas Koch
Early flame-front propagation has been investigated in research engines with large optical access for quite some time. Usually, chemiluminescence is visualized with sensitive camera systems and the images can then be used to, e.g., determine flame shape and flame-front propagation speed. However, optically accessible internal combustion engines are limited in their operating range (load and speed), have large uncooled glass parts, and operate mostly in steady state. In contrast, large-aperture UV endoscopes enable optical access in nearly unmodified production engines, operated at speeds and loads significantly exceeding the limits of most “optical” engines. Here, we investigate the image quality achievable with an endoscope system in terms of detecting the premixed flame front. This study is an extension of our previous work on endoscopic flame imaging documented in SAE 2014-01-1178.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0639
Brian C. Kaul, Benjamin Lawler, Akram Zahdeh
Engine acoustics measured by microphones near the engine have been used in controlled laboratory settings for combustion feedback and even combustion phasing control, but the use of these techniques in a vehicle where many other noise sources exist is problematic. In this study, surface-mounted acoustic emissions sensors are installed on the block of a 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine, and the signal is analyzed to identify useful feedback features. The use of acoustic emissions sensors, which have a very high frequency response and are commonly used for detecting material failures for health monitoring, including detecting gear pitting and ring scuffing on test stands, enables detection of acoustics both within the range of human hearing and in the ultrasonic spectrum. The high-speed acoustic time-domain data are synchronized with the crank-angle-domain combustion data, and various engine events, including combustion and both the start and end of fuel injection are identified.
2016-02-01
WIP Standard
J2012
This document supersedes SAE J2012 DEC2007, and is technically equivalent to ISO 15031-6:2010 with the exceptions described in Section 1.2. This document is intended to define the standardized Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) that On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems in vehicles are required to report when malfunctions are detected. SAE J2012 may also be used for decoding of enhanced diagnostic DTCs and specifies the ranges reserved for vehicle manufacturer specific usage. This document includes: a. Diagnostic Trouble Code format. b. A description of the standardized set of Diagnostic Trouble Codes and descriptions contained in SAE J2012-DA. The two most significant bytes of a DTC may be decoded according to two different lists; DTC Format Identifier 0x00 and 0x04. c. A description of the standardized set of Diagnostic Trouble Codes subtypes known as Failure Types contained in SAE J2012-DA (applies only when three byte DTCs are used).
2016-01-22
Standard
J1939/73_201601
SAE J1939-73 Diagnostics Application Layer defines the SAE J1939 messages to accomplish diagnostic services and identifies the diagnostic connector to be used for the vehicle service tool interface. Diagnostic messages (DMs) provide the utility needed when the vehicle is being repaired. Diagnostic messages are also used during vehicle operation by the networked electronic control modules to allow them to report diagnostic information and self-compensate as appropriate, based on information received. Diagnostic messages include services such as periodically broadcasting active diagnostic trouble codes, identifying operator diagnostic lamp status, reading or clearing diagnostic trouble codes, reading or writing control module memory, providing a security function, stopping/starting message broadcasts, reporting diagnostic readiness, monitoring engine parametric data, etc.
2016-01-03
WIP Standard
AIR6900
This AIR will address the need for a strategy to achieve aircraft operating certificate holder maintenance efficiencies within the existing regulatory environment as well as the need for regulation, policy, and guidance changes in the long-term to accommodate more complex IVHM solutions. This document will analyse which IVHM solutions can be incorporated within existing maintenance procedures and which also comply with regulations, policy, and guidance. One of the AIR’s objectives is to define best practices for aircraft operating certificate holders to engage with regulators to get approval for simpler IVHM applications leading to maintenance efficiencies. Additionally, this document will analyse the barriers that existing regulations, policy, and guidance present to the implementation of more advanced IVHM solutions. The result is a set of recommendations to certify and implement end-to-end IVHM solutions for the purpose of gaining maintenance efficiencies.
2015-11-18
WIP Standard
J2403DA
This document is intended to supplement SAE J2403 by providing the content of Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 from SAE J2403 in a form that can be sorted and searched for easier use. It is NOT intended as a substitute for the actual document, and any discrepancies between this Digital Annex and the published SAE J2403 document must be resolved in favor of the published document. This document provides the content of Table 1 and Table 2 published in SAE J2403 into the single table in the 'Term' tab, while the 'Recommended Term Definitions' tab provides the content of Table 3 in SAE J2403 and the 'Glossary' tab provides the content of Table 4 in SAE J2403.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0748
Nobuyuki Kawahara, Shota Hashimoto, Eiji Tomita
The objective of this study is to investigate the initial flame propagation characteristics of turbulent flame in an engine cylinder through time-series analysis of radical emissions. A spark plug with optical fiber was developed in this study. The plug sensor is M12 type that makes it possible to mount in practical engine. The spark plug sensor can detect radical emissions in time-resolved spectra through time-series spectroscopic measurement. In this spectra, some kinds of radical emissions such as OH*(306nm), CH*(431nm) and C2*(517nm) based on principle of chemiluminescence are observed. In this study, the spark plug sensor was applied to both compression-expansion machine (CEM) and practical engine. As a result of CEM with bottom viewed high-speed camera, three kinds of spectra could be detected.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0783
Yong Fu Syu, Jia Siou Wu, Jhih Si Syu, Bo-Chiuan Chen, Yuh-Yih Wu
In this paper, the off-line analysis method is applied to develop three-way catalytic converter (TWC) diagnostic strategy including oxygen sensor (O2 sensor) diagnostic strategy with common narrow band oxygen sensor (EGO sensor) in Matlab/Simulink software. Moreover, Mototron ECU (Engine Control Unit) is used for monitoring catalyst deterioration. However, aged catalyst is difficult to possess so the different catalytic conversion efficiency (CCE) is simulated by using exhaust by-pass valve. The CEC (China Engine Corporation) 1L V2, four stroke, water-cooled engine is selected as target engine to conduct engine dynamometer test. After making sure O2 sensor operates normally, the catalyst diagnostic strategy test is executed. The experimental result shows that the catalyst deterioration accurately can be detected when the failure phenomenon takes place.
2015-11-05
Standard
J1939/75_201511
SAE J1939-75 Generator Sets and Industrial Applications defines the set of data parameters (SPNs) and messages (PGNs) for information predominantly associated with monitoring and control generators and driven equipment in electric power generation and industrial applications. The data parameters (SPNs) and messages (PGNs) previously published within this document are now published in SAE J1939DA. Applications using the SAE J1939-75 document may need to reference SAE J1939DA for the SAE J1939 parameters and messages for monitoring and controlling the power units, e.g. engines and turbines, that power the generators and driven industrial equipment.
2015-10-12
WIP Standard
J1699/3
The main purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles are capable of communicating a minimum subset of information, in accordance with the diagnostic test services specified in SAE J1979: E/E Diagnostic Test Modes, or the equivalent document ISO 15031-5: Communication Between Vehicle and External Equipment for Emissions-Related Diagnostics – Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services. Any software meeting these specifications will utilize the vehicle interface that is defined in SAE J2534, Recommended Practice for Pass-Thru Vehicle Programming.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2846
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong, Wenchao Liu
Abstract This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection (FD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could detect parameter variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A motion controller based on sliding mode control (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2879
Evandro Silva
Abstract In recent years the commercial vehicle industry, specifically the heavy duty truck product line, has seen a rapid increase in the replacement of pure mechanical systems by electronic controlled systems. Engine, transmission, brakes, lighting, clusters, etc. are all monitored and/or controlled electronically. The adoption of electronic systems created a substantial change in the complexity of the heavy duty trucks systems. Currently Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) displayed on instrument clusters, in the majority of the cases, are no longer generated by a single sensor/component failure, instead these DTCs are triggered by a system monitor flag, as the result of a below average performance or a failure of an entire system. This new level of complexity makes it very difficult for the current diagnostic methods and tools, to identify what is causing the equipment to operate below ideal conditions.
2015-09-16
Collection
This collection of technical papers addesses health management - subsystems; IVHM business case; health monitoring - structures; vehicle level health management; and prognostics and diagnostics.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2583
James Hare, Shalabh Gupta, Nayeff Najjar, Paul D'Orlando, Rhonda Walthall
Abstract This paper addresses the issues of Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) in complex networked systems such as the Environmental Control System (ECS) of an aircraft. The ECS controls and supplies pressurized air to the aircraft and consists of multiple subsystems that in turn consist of interconnected components, heterogeneous sensing devices, and feedback controllers. These complex interconnections and feedback control loops make fault detection and isolation a very challenging task in the ECS. For example, a faulty component yields off-nominal outputs which are inputs to the other coupled components. This coupling leads to off-nominal outputs from otherwise healthy components, thus causing unwanted false-alarms. Secondly, due to off-nominal inputs, the healthy components are driven beyond their normal operating conditions, leading to cascading failures.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2582
Andre Silva, Nayeff Najjar, Shalabh Gupta, Paul D'Orlando, Rhonda Walthall
Abstract The Environmental Control System (ECS) of an aircraft provides thermal and pressure control of the engine bleed air for comfort of the crew members and passengers onboard. For safe and reliable operation of the ECS under complex operating environments, it is critical to detect and diagnose performance degradations in the system during early phases of fault evolution. One of the critical components of the ECS is the heat exchanger, which ensures proper cooling of the engine bleed air. This paper presents a wavelet-based fouling diagnosis approach for the heat exchanger.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2589
Julien Feau, Philippe Chantal, Jayant Sen Gupta
Abstract Modern aircraft, such as A380 or A350 for Airbus, are very well connected in flight to ground stations through wireless communications. For maintenance and operations purpose, the aircraft is programmed to send regularly information such as flight reports based on the BITE messages (Built-In Test Equipment) or standard reports based on the value of physical parameters. Moreover, Airbus is capable of sending requests (called uplinks) to the aircraft to retrieve the value of different parameters in almost real-time. This ability, associated with adequate process, improves significantly the reaction time of the diagnostic and prognostic solutions that Airbus can provide to its customers. Traditionally Health Monitoring is considered useful when the Potential to Functional failure (P-F) interval is greater than one flight cycle.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2592
Joao Pedro Malere, Wlamir Olivares Loesch Vianna
Abstract This paper presents a method to determine the root cause of an aircraft component failure by means of the aircraft fault messages history. The k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) and the Tree-Augmented naive Bayes (TAN) methods were used in order to classify the failure causes as a function of the fault messages (predictors). The contribution of this work is to show how well the fault messages of aircraft systems can classify specific components failure modes. The training set contained the messages history from a fleet and the root causes of a butterfly valve reported by the maintenance stations. A cross-validation was performed in order to check the loss function value and to compare both methods performance. It is possible to see that the use of just fault messages for the valve failure classification provides results that close to 2/3 and could be used for faster troubleshooting procedures.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2587
Matthew Smith, Peter F. Sulcs, Rhonda Walthall, Mark Mosher, Gregory Kacprzynski
Abstract The Aircraft System Health Management (ASHM) tool is a UTC developed web application that provides access to Aircraft Condition Monitoring Function (ACMF) reports and Flight Deck Effects (FDE) records for Boeing 787®, A320®, and A380® aircraft. The tool was built with a flexible architecture to field a range of off-board diagnostics and prognostics modules designed to transform an abundance of data into actionable and timely knowledge about fleet health. This paper describes the system architecture and implementation with a focus on “lessons learned” in applying diagnostic and prognostics algorithms to available fleet data. Key topics include ensuring analytic robustness, design for cross-enterprise collaboration and defining a workable approach to testing, validating and deploying prognostics and diagnostics models with various degrees of complexity. A case study is provided related to fluid leak detection within an environmental control subsystem.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2593
Jonathan L. Geisheimer, Michael Wabs, Carlos Carvalho
Abstract Time Domain Reflectometery (TDR) is a Radio Frequency (RF) technology that has been used for many years to find cable breaks and measure fluid levels in industrial processes. The technology uses picosecond length pulses and the associated reflections off the fluid surface in a time of flight measurement to determine fluid height. TDR signals have additional information that can be processed and utilized for Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) applications. For example, when water collects in the fuel tank, TDR is capable of identifying and measuring the amount of water. This can allow the water sumps to be drained on condition instead of on a schedule. In addition, electromagnetic properties of the fluid can be determined, such as the dielectric constant, which can be used to identify mis-fueling situations, contaminants in the fluid, and potentially other fluid health properties.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2530
Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Abstract A vehicle gearbox serves for torque and speed conversion with help of rotating elements. Therefore the gearbox experiences periodic excitation forces with a fundamental frequency following the rotation frequency. These excitation forces give rise to corresponding periodic response signals, i.e. signals having content at the fundamental (rotational) frequency and its harmonics. Order analysis is an analysis technique which is used to extract these harmonic orders from the response signals. This article intends to use the order tracking analysis for gearbox fault diagnosis under variable speed conditions to compare between healthy and faulty cases by using order extraction. Finally, determine maximum Root Mean Square (RMS) as severity index.
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