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2014-11-07
Book
Ian K. Jennions
Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned is the fourth title in the IVHM series published by SAE International. This new book introduces a variety of case studies, lessons learned, and insights on what it really means to develop, implement, or manage an integrated system of systems. Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned brings to the reader a wide set of hands-on stories, made possible by the contribution of twenty-three authors, who agreed to share their experience and wisdom on how new technologies are developed and put to work. This effort was again coordinated by Dr. Ian K. Jennions, Director of the IVHM Centre at Cranfield University (UK), and editor of the previous books in the series. Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned, with seventeen, fully illustrated chapters, covers diverse areas of expertise such as the impact of trust, human factors, and evidential integrity in system development.
2014-09-30
WIP Standard
AIR6334
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) examines the need for and the application of a power train usage metric that can be used to more accurately determine the TBO for helicopter transmissions. It provides a formula for the translation of the recorded torque history into mechanical usage. It provides examples of this process and recommends a way forward. This document of the SAE HM-1 IVHM Committee is not intended as a legal document and does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation concerns and potential benefits.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2427
Giorgio Malaguti, Carlo Ferraresi, Luca Dariz, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Abstract Alongside with the increasing vehicle complexity, the functionalities related to the safety, diagnosis and maintainability have become critical. The operators of special machines such as agricultural, mining, construction vehicles might be overwhelmed by this increased complexity and, as a result, operations for the recovery or maintenance of their vehicles become difficult. The Augmented Reality (AR) seems to be a very promising technology both if applied to traditional smart-phones or to the upcoming glasses, that has been just presented to the market by several manufacturers. This paper reviews some use cases of applications created in Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (IMAMOTER) of the National research Council of Italy (CNR) engineers laboratories, which propose a novel approach for assisted maintenance, recovery or training. These take advantage of the use of AR, providing an efficient method for user fast learning of simple procedures as well as a support for fault recovery and maintenance in hazardous environments or work places.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2164
Srikanth Gururajan, Mario Luca Fravolini, Matthew Rhudy, Antonio Moschitta, Marcello Napolitano
Abstract Recent catastrophic air crashes have shown that physical redundancy is not a foolproof option for failures on Air Data Systems (ADS) on an aircraft providing airspeed measurements. Since all the redundant sensors are subjected to the same environmental conditions in flight, a failure on one sensor could occur on the other sensors under certain conditions such as extreme weather; this class of failure is known in the literature as “common mode” failure. In this paper, different approaches to the problem of detection, identification and accommodation of failures on the Air Data System (ADS) of an aircraft are evaluated. This task can be divided into component tasks of equal criticality as Sensor Failure Detection and Identification (SFDI) and Sensor Failure Accommodation (SFA). Data from flight test experiments conducted using the WVU YF-22 unmanned research aircraft are used. Analytical redundancy is provided through a least squares modeling based approach and an extended Kalman filter approach to handle the Sensor Failure Accommodation (SFA) task.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2161
Alireza R. Behbahani, Alex Von Moll, Robert Zeller, James Ordo
Abstract Modern propulsion system designers face challenges that require that aircraft and engine manufacturers improve performance as well as reduce the life-cycle cost (LCC). These improvements will require a more efficient, more reliable, and more advanced propulsion system. The concept of smart components is built around actively controlling the engine and the aircraft to operate optimally. Usage of smart components intelligently increases efficiency and system safety throughout the flight envelope, all while meeting environmental challenges. This approach requires an integration and optimization, both at the local level and the system level, to reduce cost. Interactions between the various subsystems must be understood through the use of modeling and simulation. This is accomplished by starting with individual subsystem models and combining them into a complete system model. Hierarchical, decentralized control reduces cost and risk by enabling integration and modularity. This process involves defining, developing, and validating against requirements for key integrated propulsion, power, and thermal management system capabilities.
2014-08-11
Standard
J1979_201408
SAE J1979 / ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
2014-07-07
Standard
ARP6275
This ARP provides insights on how to perform a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment that would result from implementing an integrated Health Management (HM) system on an air vehicle. The word “integrated” refers to the combination or “roll up” of sub-systems health management tools to create a platform centric system. The document describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with HM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a HM system could provide. Prognostics is a capability within some HM systems that provides an estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) or time to failure and so Prognostic Health Management (PHM) is used where this predictive element exists.
2014-06-26
WIP Standard
J1979DA
On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations require passenger cars, and light and medium duty trucks, to support communication of a minimum set of diagnostic information to off-board “generic” test equipment. This document specifies the diagnostic data which may be required to be supported by motor vehicles and external test equipment for diagnostic purposes which pertain to motor vehicle emission-related data. SAE J1979 was originally developed to meet U.S. OBD requirements for 1996 and later model year vehicles. ISO 15031 5 was based on SAE J1979 and was intended to combine the U.S. requirements with European OBD requirements for 2000 and later model year vehicles.
2014-06-10
Standard
J1979DA_201406
On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations require passenger cars, and light and medium duty trucks, to support communication of a minimum set of diagnostic information to off-board “generic” test equipment. This document specifies the diagnostic data which may be required to be supported by motor vehicles and external test equipment for diagnostic purposes which pertain to motor vehicle emission-related data. SAE J1979 was originally developed to meet U.S. OBD requirements for 1996 and later model year vehicles. ISO 15031 5 was based on SAE J1979 and was intended to combine the U.S. requirements with European OBD requirements for 2000 and later model year vehicles.
2014-04-14
WIP Standard
AIR4174A
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which the gas generator energy is transferred to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers engine power train components, their interfaces, transmissions, gearboxes, hanger bearings, shafting and associated rotating accessories, propellers and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. This document addresses application for rotorcraft, turboprop, and propfan drive trains for both commercial and military aircraft. Information is provided to assist in; a. Defining technology maturity and application risk b. Cost benefit analysis (Value analysis) c. Selection of system components d. Selection of technology e.
2014-04-09
Standard
J1699/4_201404
To define a list of anomalies related to OBD Communications. Misinterpretations of various OBD Communications Standards and Recommended Practices have resulted in OBD “no-communications” situations in the field. This Information Report identifies the most prevalent of these.
2014-04-01
Collection
Vehicle diagnostics deals with the development, delivery and execution of diagnostic procedures for vehicle systems. This technical paper collection will explore new technologies, processes and trends in the area of vehicle diagnostics.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0281
Peter Subke
Abstract In the past, the automotive industry has learned the lesson that competition on the level of bits and bytes, proprietary bus systems, data communication and diagnostic protocols is unrewarding. Too much time and money has been spent on the development of proprietary diagnostic tools. Vehicle manufacturers and suppliers realized that standardization would be the best way to overcome this situation. Furthermore, regulatory requirements in the US and the EU for such standardization have strengthened this lesson. As a result, the automotive industry has standardized the technology for the communication of external test equipment with electronic control units (ECUs) in road vehicles. Standardization serves the price, the quality and the maintainability via scale and training curve effects. This paper contains a technical introduction of internationally standardized diagnostic protocols (UDS on CAN, WWH-OBD, UDSonIP and DoIP), the D-Server (MVCI) with D-Server API and D-PDU API, the diagnostic data format (ODX) and the open test sequence exchange format (OTX).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0291
Gopal Athani, Prasad Yerraguntla, Anand Gajaraj, Kapil Dongare
Abstract Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities. This scenario poses a great challenge to conduct the system performance checks at End of Line testing stations in assembly lines, and also in after sales service stations, as the battery data is not available, without which the micro hybrid systems cannot perform their full set of functions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0278
Olof Lindgarde, Rune Prytz
Abstract This paper presents an approach to fault detection and isolation that is based on off-board 1D simulation tools such as GT-power or AVL Boost. The proposed method enables engineers to develop diagnostic functions early on in a development project. The proposed algorithm is evaluated based on measurements from the air path system of the new Volvo FH truck. The results are encouraging. The paper discusses pros and cons of the method and concludes that it has clear potential to be used for on-board diagnostics.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0282
Alex Beresnev, Max Beresnev
The article provides the rationale for, and describes a new internal combustion engine (ICE) diagnosing method, which involves obtaining a signal within the audio frequency range and its examination together with engine performance through the use of algorithms of high resolution time-and-frequency analysis and techniques involving partial signal reconstruction in the phase space. Examples of how the method may be applied to reveal defects and faults of various units and systems are also described in the article. The paper shows that the method may also be used for other assemblies and units of cars (apart from engines) to analyze patterns for periodic wave structures.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0279
Rasoul Salehi, Aria Alasty, Gholam-Reza Vossoughi
Proper operation of an internal combustion engine is required by demands of a vehicle driver and governmental legislations. Therefore it is necessary to monitor, within an online technique, the engine and detect any fault which disrupts its normal operation. In this paper, the air-charge path, as a key element in a turbocharged engine, is monitored for an air leakage fault. At first, a robust algorithm to estimate unmeasured turbocharger rotational speed is presented. The sliding mode methodology is used to design the estimator which is shown to be robust to the compressor modeling uncertainties. The estimation error from the sliding mode observer (SMO) is then used to detect abnormal behavior of the turbocharger along with the engine due to a leakage fault in the air-charge path. Experimental results from a modern turbocharged SI engine indicate the designed monitoring technique is able to detect a leakage fault, of 7 mm or higher sizes, in the air-charge path.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0280
Rui Chen, Xinlei Wang
Abstract In this paper, a model-based diagnostic system was developed to detect and isolate the dosing fault and the outlet NOx sensor fault for the SCR system. The dosing fault is treated as an actuator additive fault, while the outlet NOx sensor drift and/or offset fault is treated as a sensor additive fault. First, a 0-D SCR model was developed to facilitate the model-based approach. A parity equation residual generator was designed based on the linearized SCR model and the fault transfer function matrix. The diagnostic algorithm is then implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment for validation. A high fidelity nonlinear 1-D SCR model is used to generate system outputs and to simulate the plant. The simulation results show that the model-based fault diagnosis system succeeds in detecting and isolating the outlet NOx sensor and dosing faults with good sensitivity and robustness
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1448
Johan Hult, Simon Matlok, Stefan Mayer
A combination of optical and laser based methods have been employed for simultaneously studying fuel jet penetration and ignition behaviour of fuel jets inside the cylinder of a large marine two-stroke diesel engine during operation. Tests were performed on a four-cylinder Diesel engine with a bore diameter of 0.5 meter. Optical access was obtained through a custom designed engine cover. A double pulsed laser was employed for global illumination of the liquid fuel jet. For detection a dual camera set-up was employed, which allowed both simultaneous fuel jet and flame emission imaging, or dual frame fuel jet imaging for velocity measurements. From the data recorded the liquid penetration, jet cone angle, jet penetration velocity, ignition location, ignition time and flame lift-off could be extracted. Data was recorded for two different charge densities and temperatures, for two different atomizer designs, and for two different fuels. The fuel jet was observed to ignite at a position around 1/4 of the length downstream.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0284
Håkan Warnquist, Mattias Nyberg, Jonas Biteus
When a truck or bus suffers from a breakdown it is important that the vehicle comes back on the road as soon as possible. In this paper we present a prototype diagnostic decision support system capable of automatically identifying possible causes of a failure and propose recommended actions on how to get the vehicle back on the road as cost efficiently as possible. This troubleshooting system is novel in the way it integrates the remote diagnosis with the workshop diagnosis when providing recommendations. To achieve this integration, a novel planning algorithm has been developed that enables the troubleshooting system to guide the different users (driver, help-desk operator, and mechanic) through the entire troubleshooting process. In this paper we formulate the problem of integrated remote and workshop troubleshooting and present a working prototype that has been implemented to demonstrate all parts of the troubleshooting system.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1260
Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu, Christopher Polonowski, Brian T. Fisher, A. S. (Ed) Cheng, Gregory K. Lilik, Charles J. Mueller
Natural luminosity (NL) and chemiluminescence (CL) imaging diagnostics are employed to investigate fuel-property effects on mixing-controlled combustion, using select research fuels-a #2 ultra-low sulfur emissions-certification diesel fuel (CF) and four of the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuels (F1, F2, F6, and F8)-that varied in cetane number (CN), distillation characteristics, and aromatic content. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder heavy-duty optical compression-ignition (CI) engine at two injection pressures, three dilution levels, and constant start-of-combustion timing. If the experimental results are analyzed only in the context of the FACE fuel design parameters, CN had the largest effect on emissions and efficiency. Low-CN fuels had higher indicated specific nitrogen oxides (ISNOx) emissions, but up to 9 and 33 times lower smoke emissions, ∼ 0.01 filter smoke number (FSN), at 80 MPa and 180 MPa injection pressure, respectively, independent of intake oxygen concentration, relative to the high-CN fuels.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1479
Antonino La Rocca, Gianluca Di Liberto, Paul Shayler, Christopher Parmenter, Mike Fay
The determination of size distribution of soot particles and agglomerates in oil samples using a Nanosight LM14 to perform Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is described. This is the first application of the technique to sizing soot-in-oil agglomerates and offers the advantages of relatively high rates of sample analysis and low cost compared to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Lubricating oil samples were drawn from the sump of automotive diesel engines run under a mix of light duty operating conditions. The oil samples were diluted with heptane before analysing. Results from NTA analysis were compared with the outputs of a more conventional analysis based on Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). This work shows that soot-in-oil exists as agglomerates with average size of 115 nm. This is also in good agreement with TEM analysis carried out in a previous work. NTA can measure soot particles in polydisperse oil solutions and report the size distribution of soot-in-oil aggregates. NTA allows for an estimation of soot mass contained in the soot-laden oil samples.
2014-03-10
WIP Standard
J2030
This SAE Standard encompasses connectors between two cables or between a cable and an electrical component and focuses on the connectors external to the electrical component. This document provides environmental test requirements and acceptance criteria for the application of connectors for direct current electrical systems of 50 V or less in the majority of heavy-duty applications typically used in off-highway machinery. Severe applications may require higher test levels, or field-testing on the intended application.
2014-02-21
WIP Standard
ARP5120
SAE ARP 5120 provides recommended best practices, procedures, and technology to guide the physical and functional development, integration, verification, and validation of highly reliable Engine Health Management System (EHMS) for gas turbine engines, including aircraft engines and Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). This ARP also serves as a concise reference of considerations, approaches, activities, and requirements for producing the end-to-end engine health monitoring system comprised of both on and off-board subsystems for the sensing, acquisition, analysis, detection, and data handling functions of an EHMS. These functions and related maintenance activities promote engine safety. These functions may also be used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions when demonstrated as compliant with the applicable airworthiness requirements defined by the responsible Aviation Authority. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices.
2014-01-01
Book
James E. Duffy
Modern Automotive Technology details the construction, operation, diagnosis, service, and repair of late-model automobiles and light trucks. This comprehensive book uses a building-block approach that starts with the fundamental principles of system operation and progresses gradually to complex diagnostic and service procedures. Short sentences, concise definitions, and thousands of color illustrations help readers learn quickly and easily. The new edition of Modern Automotive Technology provides coverage of the latest developments in the automotive field and is correlated to the 2012 NATEF Task List. A new Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics section provides the background needed to troubleshoot and repair the complex electrical/electronic systems found on today’s vehicles. Updated information on hybrid drive systems has been integrated throughout the book, and a new hybrid drive system service chapter details the diagnosis and repair of these important systems.
2013-12-19
WIP Standard
ARP6290
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides best practices and guidance for creating an architecture for integrated vehicle health management systems. Where possible, this document will also provide references to tools to conduct architectural trades. Finally, this document will provide use cases to expose considerations and stakeholders to be included in these trades and utilization of an IVHM system (which may lead to new functional or non-functional requirements).
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2883
Rajesha Kundrukote
A vehicle electronic control unit consists of various high side power stages for driving different loads. Common faults such power stages experience are Short Circuit to Battery (SCB), Short Circuit to Ground (SCG) and Open Load (OL). These faults can occur during either on-state or off-state of power stage output. It is essential to diagnose a fault such as SCB during switch off-state, SCG during switch on-state and OL during both on and off-state of the switch in order to avoid system malfunction, power-stage damage etc. A high-side power-stage mainly consists of a switching power MOSFET and its driver section. Quite often the semiconductor manufacturers provide diagnostic information through a digital status (ST) output. A logic low level on the ST pin indicates a fault. The limitation the ST signal is its inability to distinguish faults SCG, SCB and OL. For high-side switches (HSS), to overcome these drawbacks, there is a need of proper diagnosing technique. The diagnosis technique should address i Detect a fault of power stage.ii Clearly distinguish the kind of fault.
2013-11-13
WIP Standard
J1939/73
SAE J1939-73 Diagnostics Application Layer defines the SAE J1939 messages to accomplish diagnostic services and identifies the diagnostic connector to be used for the vehicle service tool interface. Diagnostic messages (DMs) provide the utility needed when the vehicle is being repaired. Diagnostic messages are also used during vehicle operation by the networked electronic control modules to allow them to report diagnostic information and self-compensate as appropriate, based on information received. Diagnostic messages include services such as periodically broadcasting active diagnostic trouble codes, identifying operator diagnostic lamp status, reading or clearing diagnostic trouble codes, reading or writing control module memory, providing a security function, stopping/starting message broadcasts, reporting diagnostic readiness, monitoring engine parametric data, etc. California, EPA, or EU regulated OBD requirements are satisfied with a subset of the specified connector and the defined messages.
2013-11-01
Book
Ian K. Jennions
Although the concept of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) can be complex in its implementation, it is essentially based upon a simple idea: the more you know about a particular machine’s ability to function, the quicker you can act to prevent malfunctioning. This rapidly developing area of engineering seeks to enable better management of both the vehicle and vehicle fleet health. Use of IVHM can improve vehicle reliability, safety, and reduce unnecessary, unscheduled maintenance through the use of diagnostic and prognosis systems that monitor data and overall vehicle health. From an initial idea by the SAE IVHM Steering Group, these books have been collaboratively written by experts from academia, research and industry, and represent the collective voice of the most qualified authorities in the field. This groundbreaking set addresses both basic and advanced concepts critical for the understanding of IVHM, along with the commercial justification for the adoption of a new modus operandi in asset health management, and its impact on business strategy and technology.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2544
Chao Liu, Changfu Zong, Lei He, Chunshan Li, Minghui Liu
A fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) algorithm of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles has been proposed in this study aiming to find the actuator faults. The 4WID/4WIS EV is one of the promising architectures for electric vehicle designs which is driven independently by four in-wheel motors and steered independently by four steering motors. The 4WID/4WIS EVs have many potential abilities in advanced vehicle control technologies, but diagnosis and accommodation of the actuator faults becomes a significant issue. The proposed FDD approach is an important part of the active fault tolerant control (AFTC) algorithm. The main objective of the FDD approach is to monitor vehicle states, find the faulty driving motor and then feedback fault information to the controller which would adopt appropriate control laws to accommodate the post-fault vehicle control system. The unique character of the proposed FDD approach is that it is a system-level method, namely it tries to locate the faulty motor and motor driver systems, while it does not need to identify which part of the motor and motor driver systems has a failure.
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