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2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0076
Adyati Yudison, Driejana, Iman K. Reksowardojo, Aminudin Sulaeman
Motorcycles account for almost 80% of private vehicles in Indonesia, with an annual growth rate of 12% per year. This paper aims to investigate the emission profiles of CO2, CO, HC and NOx based on typical fuel and motorcycle types in Indonesia. Questionnaire surveys were undertaken to gather fuel type, engine technology and capacity representing the motorcycle population in Bandung City, Indonesia. Emissions were measured based on six-speed variations on a chassis dynamometer. Questionnaire surveys from 290 respondent show that EURO II and EURO III technology with engine capacity less than 150cc is the most utilized type of motorcycle in Bandung. Most of the users’ chose RON 90 and RON 92 gasoline. Based on the results, four groups of 5 motorcycle of EUROII-RON90, EUROII-RON92, EUROIII-RON90, and EUROIII-RON92 were tested. Emission data showed that the higher the speed, the lower the emission, except for CO and NOx which have a different pattern.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2352
Gongde Liu, Li Wang, Runxiang Zhang, Chao Yang, Tengfei Shao
Abstract Fuel economy, Emission regulation and extended oil drain intervals (ODI) are the three key driving forces for engine oil development. More and more attentions have been focused on long ODI diesel engine oil both from the domestic OEMs and oil suppliers, and the ODI was being periodically improved from a normal mileage of about 1×104 kilometers to 6/8/10×104 km or even 12×104 km just within several years on China market. Lots and lots of factors may affect the oil life including oil properties, engine technologies, after-treatment devices and engine working conditions and so on. While from the oil side, the main factors contribute to the oil drain intervals may be the oil nitration and oxidation, soot contamination, base number deterioration and sludge accumulation and etc. There are two strategies to extend the oil longevity applied currently.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2425
Ramit Verma, Ramdas R Ugale
Abstract On two wheelers, magneto/alternator generates either single/three phase AC power and Regulator Rectifier Unit (RRU) does regulated rectification to charge the battery. In order to face the requirements of 2-wheeler engine with respect to upcoming stringent regulations like electronic fuel injection (EFI), anti-lock braking system (ABS), automatic headlamp on (AHO) in emerging markets like India; vehicles demand more electrical power from batteries. This demands higher power from alternator and consequently from RRU. Requirement of higher output power presents challenges on regulator rectifier unit in terms of size, power dissipation management and reliability. In this paper, improved performance of MOSFET based RRU is discussed in comparison to Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) based RRU. The motivation/benefits of MOSFET based design is described along with the thermal behavior and temperature coefficient performance of RRU with test results.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2401
Elana Chapman, Pat Geng, Yaowei Zhao, Susan Zhang, JunJun Ma, Jianqiang Gong
Abstract The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2011
Suyash Singh, Ankur Mathur, Sandeep Das, Purnendu Sinha, Vinay Singh
Abstract In the Smart Cities, main objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. The process said for utilization of available resources is the best fit for our concept. Our concept is to convert and refurbish the old and scrap vehicles which will increase their longevity and can be used in any smart city in India or abroad. The ultimate aim to provide this technology for the development of any new smart city in India is the utilization of available resources and reduction in the junk materials and environmental pollution. Refurbishing the old and scrap vehicles with replacement of IC engines doesn’t mean that they will be kept as a scrap and be thrown away, our idea is to utilize maximum of all the available resources. The IC engines taken out of these vehicles will be re-used appropriately.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2009
Kuiyuan Guo, Yan Yan, Juan Shi, Runqing Guo, Yuguang Liu
Abstract In order to speed up the development of vehicle active safety technology in China, C-NCAP plans to add AEB and AEB VRU system as assessment items in 2018. With the purpose of studying the assessment protocol of AEB system, we have carried out 400,000 km road information collection and then we acquired the statistics of the operation conditions of dangerous situations. Combined with the traffic accident data collected by CIDAS, we found that the dangerous situations that we usually met were mainly three types, that was CCRs, CCRm and CCRb. Based on what we mentioned above, we analyzed the three kinds of working conditions and gave the corresponding evaluation method. In addition, combined with the actual situation of China, we added two tests of error function. And then we took the actual road experiment of many models of vehicles.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2019
Rakshath G Poojary, Mohammed Ali Jouhar, Abubakar K
Abstract Human Powered Helicopter which uses man power to operate. The main aim of this paper is to design commercially available vehicle for an Adventure Sporting under 5-6 lakh Indian Rupees. This structural design is extremely lightweight and strong. The product is designed in such a way that it can be easily assembled and dismantled for transportability and storage. We developed an aero-structural optimization scheme for rotor design, including an aerodynamic model with included ground effect prediction, finite-element analysis and integrated composite failure analysis, and a detailed weight estimation scheme. This was solely build on computer CAD models. This design includes the use of gear box to increase the output. The Aerodynamic analysis was done using CFD and BET (blade element theory-Bhramwell) in MATLAB.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0135
Shuxia Miao, Lin Luo, Yan Liu, Zhangsong Zhan
New emissions regulations of light-duty vehicles (China 6) will be implemented in China from July 1, 2020. This standard includes two stages, China 6a and China 6(b), in which the PM limits of 4.5 mg/km and 3.0 mg/km are introduced respectively; the PN limit is set to be 6×1011 #/km for both stages. The WLTC testing cycle will be implemented in China 6 regulation as well. In this study a light-duty vehicle satisfying China 6(b) emission standards was developed by improving the engine raw emissions, optimizing the calibration and adding a coated GPF to the after-treatment system. The impacts of ash content and consumption of engine oil and the fast ash accumulation to vehicle emissions and backpressure were analyzed through dynamometer testing. The vehicle after-treatment system was then designed and developed to meet China 6(b) emission standards. The characteristics of soot accumulated through mimicking routine driving under cold environments were tested.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1930
Anil Kumar Jaswal, Pradeep Chandrasekaran, Surendran Ramadoss
Abstract Indian Automobile Industry has started using Six Sigma for Vehicle Design and process improvement to compete with Global competition. This Paper describes how the Tools of Six Sigma shall be used as an Effective Tool for both redefining the Design and the Process Improvement. This Paper talks on the evolution of DMADV approach in Indian Automobile Industry compared to the related Trends in Other Manufacturing Sectors. The Author describes how the warranty failures in Commercial Segment Vehicle Category which was the selling talk for the Competition was addressed in Leading Indian Automobile OEM. As this Failure was adversely impacting customer satisfaction and no solution seemed forthcoming, top Management indicated to use a radically different approach to solve the problem within a years’ time.
2017-05-24
Technical Paper
2017-36-0001
Luís Fernando Nuss de Souza, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira, Narã Vieira Vetter
Abstract After the anti-skid brake system (ABS) introduction, mandatory for all vehicles in the Brazilian market, manufacturers have given increasing attention to optimized systems which meet legal and safety requirements. For commercial vehicles, an alternative for the ABS, which presents feasibility, is the configuration 4S/3M (4 wheel-speed sensors and 3 modulator valves) in substitution to the configuration 4S/4M. In other words, application of just one modulator valve to control the brakes of the same axle, front or rear, instead of independent control per each brake of the vehicle. The aim of this paper is to present a performance comparison between a brake system fitted with ABS configuration 4S/3M and an ABS configuration 4S/4M. To this end, both configurations were tested on the same vehicle application in accordance with the Brazilian legislation, CONTRAN 519/15.
2017-05-24
Technical Paper
2017-36-0021
Jean Cory de Souza Silva, Juan Carlos Horta Gutierrez
Abstract This work consists in a study about regulations for brake system in Brazil, which aims to show the current scenario, as well as the evolution of the resolutions and technologies. Within the last few years Brazil had a considerable evolution in terms of safety requirements for brake systems. In 2009 an important step was taken when Brazilian Traffic National Consil (Conselho Nacional de Trânsito - CONTRAN), the agency responsible for traffic regulations in Brazil, emitted the resolution N° 312, which established the mandatory use of Anti-lock Brake System (ABS). This obligatoriness was introduced gradually, beginning by passengers cars in 2010, when 8% of the automobiles manufactured in that year should have the system installed as standard item. This percentage would increase until reaching 100% of vehicle production in 2014.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1732
Payodh Dwivedi
Abstract The conventional hybrid engine faces one major problem i.e. high cost of production. Although hybrid engines, in many sense proved to be highly efficient and environmental friendly, but high cost of production makes them less feasible and limits their applications. This problem is overcome by a new design in which instead of having Internal Combustion(IC) engine and electric motor separately, these two are incorporated under same housing. This involves a different working mechanism of electric motor which is as described below- This mechanism is applied to a normal engine which has two or more than two cylinders in any configuration or orientation. Taking example of In-line four cylinder engines as it is most widely used. In this the two cylinders work on conventional internal combustion mechanism, but the other two cylinders are electric cylinder and works on electricity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1012
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In developing countries like India, large numbers of portable gensets are used as a power source due to the scarcity of grid power supply. The portable gensets, ranging from 0.5 kW to 5 kW are very popular in the residential areas, for example, small restaurants, and shopping complexes, etc. These gensets are using various fuels like gasoline, diesel, LPG, and kerosene in small internal combustion engines. Such engines are the significant source of air pollution, as these are running in the vicinity of populated areas and higher human exposure to these pollutants.Theses gensets are regulated by exhaust and noise emissions norms, set by statutory bodies like the ministry of environment and forest and central pollution control board of India.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0650
Xinyu Li, Xinyu Ge, Ying Wang
Abstract The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Many automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) proposed new prototype models or concept vehicles to promote a green vehicle image. Non-traditional players bring many latest technologies in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of vehicles a decade ago, and they include not only a driving range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility. Consumers expect the latest technology features in vehicles as they enjoy in using digital applications in laptops and mobile phones. These features create a huge challenge for a design of a new vehicle, especially for a human-machine-interface (HMI) system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0268
Ashit Kumar, Amarjeet Singh, Dinesh S Dhankhar, Felix Regin
Abstract Recent automotive trend shows that customer demand is moving towards bigger size vehicle with more comfort, space, safety, feature and technology. Global market of SUV is projected to surpass 21 million units by 2020. Despite economic slowdown and weak new car sales worldwide, India and China will continue to be primary market for SUV due to sheer size of population, urban expanding middle class and larger untapped rural market. However, stricter emission norms push for clean and green technology and unfavorable policy towards use of diesel vehicle has made the SUV design very challenging due to conflicting needs. Due to bigger size of vehicle, aerodynamic design plays an important role in achieving emission targets and higher fuel efficiency. This paper highlights the aerodynamic development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza, which is an entry level SUV vehicle with high ground clearance of 198 mm and best in class fuel economy of 24.3 kmpl.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0179
Murugesan Venkatesan, VE Annamalai
Abstract The Indian Economy is becoming significant in the late years. There will be more middle class individuals in the coming years having higher purchasing power, bringing about sharp increment in the ownership of vehicles. The quantity of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) in 2015 is evaluated at 8.7 million and by 2025, this figure is assessed to ascend to 21.8 million. Car breaking yards' ELV recycling practices result in inadequate resource recovery and various forms of pollution. 75-80% of the ELV constitutes of metal and recycled due to its economic benefits. The rest of the 25-30% comprises of plastics, rubber, glass and operating fluids which are mostly disposed off in land or water. Existing international literature has analyzed ELV recycling and remanufacturing practices in India as separate topics.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0001
Kuldeep Singh, Anoop Chawla, Sudipto Mukherjee, Pradeep Agrawal
Abstract The importance of on-site, in-depth accident research studies has been recognized internationally especially in developed countries. In order to address problems related to road safety, it is important to understand the epidemiology and causation of crashes. For this an in-depth investigation of the crash site, vehicles involved and injury details is required. Detailed crash information helps in analysing the events leading to crash and developing safety measures and/or intervention to reduce crashes. In order to pilot such an activity in India, an in-depth accident data collection activity had been carried out on national highway connecting Delhi to Jaipur (NH-8) for a duration of over a year by a joint team of IIT-Delhi and NATRiP. A total of 1220 road traffic accidents (RTA) notifications were received by the team, of which 186 cases were attended and detailed data was collected in a pre-decided format.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0137
Marco Schöggl, Ernst-Georg Lorinser
Abstract With the official publication of the “RDE package 1” on 31st March 2016 the long awaited start of RDE testing is now fixed. This event marks a milestone in the emission legislation for passenger cars and is the first of a series of four RDE packages to fade-in real world testing of passenger cars in Europe. During the same time India announced in the Gazette of India on 19th February, 2016 - G.S.R. 187(E). - the draft of introduction of Bharat VI by April 1st 2020 [5] which also should include the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) on-road certification as per procedure laid down in AIS137 and as amended from time to time. As European RDE legislation will be the baseline for Indian RDE legislation rules this paper will highlight the differences and challenges expected between the requirements in Europe compared to India during the first tests done by AVL Technical Center Private Limited located in Gurgaon.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0144
Dominik Lamotte, Peter Neumann, Klaus Schrewe
Abstract Emissions of diesel engine are considered to be harmful to health especially particulate emissions. Therefore, the introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPF) were successively forced by government due to reducing the emission limits to a level where inner engine measures are not sufficient anymore. To limit additional fuel consumption by increasing backpressure over the DPF, the collected soot has to be regenerated continuously or discrete by active regeneration. Active regeneration is usually realized by injecting additional fuel either due to the engines injection system into the combustion chamber (late post injection) or via an additional fuel injection device in the exhaust line. This enables increasing exhaust temperature and / or an exothermic reaction in the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) of the aftertreatment system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0145
Benjamin Rodriguez Sharpe, Oscar Delgado, Mehul Garg
Abstract This analysis is a comprehensive assessment of the fuel-saving technologies and technology packages for three representative diesel HDV types in India: a 40-tonne Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and a 16-tonne transit bus. These representative vehicle types are modeled after top-selling models in the Indian market based on sales data from fiscal year 2013-14. To model these vehicle types are accurately as possible, the study team acquired detailed engine maps that match the engine models in the respective vehicles and sought input on other vehicle systems from some of the leading Indian HDV manufacturers and suppliers. Using Autonomie as the vehicle simulation platform, the authors investigate the fuel consumption impacts of both individual technologies and combinations of technologies in the following areas: engine, transmission, driveline, aerodynamics, tires, material substitution (i.e., curb weight reduction), and hybridization.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0409
Fatih Unal, Cem Sorusbay
Abstract In an effort to support design and testing activities at product development lifecycle of the engine, proper duty cycle is required. However, to collect data and develop accurate duty cycles, there are not any vehicles equipped with prototype engines at customers. Therefore, in this paper, discrete duty cycle development methodology is studied to generate trailer truck engine usage profile which represents driving conditions in Turkey for engines in development phase. Cycles are generated using several vehicles equipped with prototype engines and professional drivers that can mimic customer usage. Methodology is based on defining real-world customer driving profile, discretizing real-world drives into separate events, collecting vehicle data from each discrete drive, determining the weight of events by conducting customer surveys and creating a representative reference usage profile with data analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0171
Xunzhe Zhang, Richard Stobart, Ran Bao
Abstract China is the world’s largest automotive producer and has the world’s biggest automobile market. However, in the past decades, the development of China’s automotive industry has depended primarily on the foreign direct investment; domestic automakers have struggled in the lower ranks of car producers. In recent years, China’s automotive industry, supported by government policies, has been improving their Research and Development (R&D) capacity, to compete with their international peers. Against this background, China’s automotive industry requires a large number of R&D professionals who have not only a higher degree but also the applied and practical knowledge and skills of research. For the purpose of meeting the industry’s needs, a new Professional Automotive Engineering Masters Programme was launched in 2009, which aims to deliver the Masters to be the R&D professionals in the future.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0341
Jan-Friedrich Brand, Patrick Garcia, Laxman Nalage, Pradip Ithape
Abstract Several factors influence a company working culture including its industry, its geographical region, as well as the cultural and the educational background of its employees. Despite these, Japanese companies have successfully transferred a company’s working culture from Japan to other countries [2], so that only minor regional differences in productivity remain. Such transfer is possible with a strong process oriented mind set and working style. This paper examines the change in a working culture associated with the prototyping of exhaust systems in India. That change required a shift from a reactive “firefighting” mode of working to a structured, projectable and reliable working environment. The goal was to achieve increased in-time delivery, higher quality, greater flexibility, more innovation and reduced cost. The same process approach may be transferred from India to other parts of the world, while allowing for country-specific influences on a company’s working culture.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1285
Xiang Cheng, Han Hao, Zongwei Liu, Fuquan Zhao
Abstract Compared with conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) offer the benefits of replacing petroleum consumption and reducing air pollutions. However, there have been controversies over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of EVs from the life-cycle perspective in China’s coal-dominated power generation context. Besides, it is in doubt whether the cost-effectiveness of EVs in China exceeds other fuel-efficient vehicles considering the high prices. In this study, we compared the life-cycle GHG emissions of existing vehicle models in the market. Afterwards, a cost model is established to compare the total costs of vehicles. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of different vehicle types are compared. It is concluded that the GHG emission intensity of EVs is lower than reference and hybrid vehicles currently and is expected to decrease with the improvement of the power grid.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0880
Carlos Alberto Romero, Ricardo Acosta, Juan Lopez
Abstract It is the aim of the present paper to communicate some preliminary results of the research in progress related to the introduction of LPG as a supplementing fuel for the Colombian power grid supply. Most of the power units operating in Colombian oil wells are running on Diesel fuel and natural gas. Other fuels like LPG, heavy and dual fuel have received attention in recent years, due partially to the necessity to relieve the national overall petroleum dependency problem, and also because of the availability of a sizable amount of LPG derived from natural gas purification. In an effort to assess the use of LPG as a fuel alternative to Diesel and natural gas in oil wells, a field study has been carried out.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0687
Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen, Kevin Hallstrom, Ansgar Wille
Nowadays the Chinese legislative development and the implementation of advanced technologies to curb HDD emissions have been a subject of worldwide attention. Currently China is warping its efforts to deploy and enforce the launch of nationwide Stage IV and is also preparing for the setup and implementation of future regulation standards. Focus discussion here is on the aftertreatment pathways to meet China current and future emissions standards, based on market uniqueness. This paper seeks to provide retrospectives of the adoption of V-SCR on China stage IV HDD vehicles, through presenting findings from two separate postmortem analyses of field returned catalyst parts and also through comparative study with local catalyst products. The paper also discusses the challenges and possible solutions meeting the WHTC requirement for Stage IV and V city vehicles.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0244
Kumaraswamy Udugu, Viswanatha Reddy Saddala, Sridhar Lingan
Abstract Traffic injuries are an important public health issue. To prevent these injuries, safety systems in a vehicle are recognized as valuable tools. These safety systems are active before and during a crash event. Passive safety is one such safety tool which comprises of occupant restraint systems to prevent fatal injuries during an event of a crash. To improve the real life safety further, active safety systems plays an important role in mitigating the real world accidents. Moreover, effective integration of active and passive safety systems has a potential to further reduce car occupant fatalities. However, in the recent developments in India towards road safety, vehicle safety standards are oriented more towards passive safety. In the present work, road accidents data from India between 2005 and 2014 are studied, to estimate the major mode of accidents and factors influencing the fatal injuries.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2774
Hoon Lee, Hoimyung Choi, Minje Park, Kyoungdoug Min, Nankyu Lee, Jinil Park, Jong-Hwa Lee
Abstract To properly respond to demands to reduce national energy consumption and meet greenhouse gas emission targets based on environment policy, the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy of Korea formed a research consortium consisting of government agencies and academic and research institutions to establish the first fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty (MHD) commercial vehicles. The standards are expected to be introduced in 2017 as Phase 1 of the plan and will regulate trucks with a gross vehicle weight in excess of 3.5 tons and buses with a carrying capacity of more than 16 persons. Most MHD commercial vehicles are custom-made and manufactured in diversified small-quantity batch production systems for commercial or public use, resulting in difficulties in utilizing mandatory vehicle tests for fuel efficiency evaluations.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0319
Rogerio da Silva Couto
Abstract Carbon canisters are used in gasoline passenger vehicle and light duty truck applications. The component is part of the vehicle emission control system. Activated carbon (also known as charcoal) traps hydrocarbon vapors from the fuel tank and vapors created during the fuel tank refueling and venting events. Canister design, charcoal type and performance have been driven by evaporative emission regulations around the world, and evaporative emission requirements have enhanced through the years. The trend of evaporative emission requirements in Brazil indicates the use of improved carbon canisters in the near future. Carbon canisters are needed to store hydrocarbons that would otherwise pollute the environment. Wood based activated carbon is manufactured from sawdust, which is a renewable resource. The result is a healthier earth on which we live. Figure 1 illustrates the activation process of carbon. Figure 1 Activation process of carbon.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0348
Rafael V. Fornari, Decio Yamada, Alexandre Suzuki
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to present the origins and the technology of the different types of non-manual transmissions systems currently available and the wide potential to incorporate such technologies to the vehicles made in Brazil. The Brazilian market is experiencing a huge increase in automated and automatic transmissions vehicles share, and the OEMs are adopting different strategies to offer competitive products with affordable prices to enter in this segment. Many different alternatives are available, and there is no obvious winner. This paper will describe the concepts, the architecture and the operations of such systems and point out the pros and cons of each one.
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