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2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0077
Roland Baar, Valerius Boxberger, Maike Sophie Gern
On a worldwide scale, turbocharged four-cylinder engines are the most used ones in automotive industries. Three-cylinder engine is a technical alternative because of its higher thermodynamic potential that is due to higher cylinder displacement. Following this trend, the interest in two-cylinder engines is growing. These do have special demands concerning uniformity and dynamics of oscillating masses and firing order, but also very different conditions for the turbocharger. With two-cylinder engines, the pulsating influence grows and changes the operation of the turbine. In this paper different boosting technologies are compared in small engine applications. Besides of turbochargers the potentials and limits of superchargers and electric chargers as well as their combinations are compared. These technologies show dissimilarities concerning power supply, operation range and efficiency, and these effects have different meaning in small engines.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0046
Stephan Schneider, Marco Chiodi, Horst Friedrich, Michael Bargende
The proposed paper deals with the development process and initial measurement results of an opposed piston engine for the use in a Free Piston Linear Generator (FPLG). The FPLG, which is being developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is an innovative internal combustion engine for the generation of electrical power. With its arrangement, the piston freely oscillates between the compression chamber of the combustion unit and a gas spring with no mechanical coupling like a crank shaft. A linear alternator converts the kinetic energy of the moving piston into electric energy. The virtual development of the novel combustion system is divided into two stages: One the one hand, the combustion system including e.g. a cylinder liner, pistons, cooling and lubrication concepts has to be developed.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0025
Govardan Daggupati, Bapanna Dora Karedla, Chandan Bansilal Chavan, Gagandeep Singh Risam
In two wheelers the front suspension system is mounted on chassis by two steering bearings which are lubricated ball type angular contact bearings with significant radial force components. These bearings are designed to withstand maximum vehicle loads for target durability. Maximum load carrying capacity depends on the number and size of the balls, bearing size and material. For target durability with designed load carrying capacity, the ball contact pressure, bearing preload plays a major role as compared to other design parameters. Geometry parameters and maximum load defines contact pressure for given bearing design. But in two wheelers due to nature of usage and road conditions, the peak loads are dynamic and geometry based design calculations may not yield the most optimal bearing design. In this work the bearing ball race profile design is optimized by using dynamic bearing contact profiles by using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0026
Meichun Peng, Jiahao Wang, Jiaru li
In order to reduce fuel consumption of the HONDA Energy Saving Race car, by analyzing the driving characteristics, the road condition of track and racing rules, a fuel consumption model of racing car was developed based on automobile kinematics theory. The model was applied to study the eco-driving scheme which was mainly focused on optimizing design of throttle opening and the speed range of acceleration and deceleration based on the racing track condition. Several eco-driving schemes ware proposed, and it is gotten the optimum results which is the engine throttle opening is controlled at 60% to 80%, and the vehicle speed is remained in 5 to 65km/h when acceleration and deceleration. In addition, the racing car should coast in neutral fully within the allowable running time by the racing rules. The eco-driving scheme was described in driving cycle and input into the vehicle fuel consumption simulation model developed, and calculated the average fuel consumption.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0029
Shohei Suzuki
In the development of motocrosser, the parts which compose the vehicle body especially in the frame receive the heavy loads when it lands on the ground, and high stress generate. Therefore, some problems such as deformation, crack emanating, brocken damage, etc occur occasionally. It took times and costs to take measures for these problems. To solve these problems and to reduce the development term and costs, we developed the method of Jump Landing Simulation. This Jump Landing Simulation enables to measure the vehicle position, which is moving momentarily, easily with high accuracy by introducing "Image Position Measureing Method.". Also, it succeeded to predict the occuring stress with high accuracy.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0030
Takahiro Tsuchiyama, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Toshiro Kiura, Hibiki Koga, Takayuki Aoki
In recent years, an improvement of fuel economy and exhaust emission performance of internal combustion engines has been strongly required. The one of the important problems for general purpose engines is a larger amount of CO emission compared to that of automobile engines. To reduce CO and other exhaust emissions while keeping fuel efficiency high, optimization of total engine system including various design parameters is essential. In the engine system optimization process, cycle simulation using 0-D and 1-D engine model is significantly useful. The model used in the cycle simulation to define optimum design has to be capable of predicting the effect of various parameters on the engine performances. In this study, a prediction model of performance of general purpose SI engine is developed based on a commercially available engine simulation software, GT-POWER. The developed 1-D engine model was validated using 3-D CFD simulation and experimental results.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0031
Paul W. Rieger, Christian Zinner, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger
The release of the “Regulation Nr.168/2013”, for the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel motorcycles and quadricycles, of the European Union started a new challenge for the motorcycle industry. One goal of the European Union is to achieve emission parity between passenger cars (Euro 6) and motorcycles (Euro 5) in 2020. The hybridization of motorcycle powertrains is one way to achieve these strict legislation limits. In the automotive sector hybridization is well investigated and has already shown improvements of fuel consumption, efficiency and emission behavior. Equally, motorcycle applications have a high potential to improve efficiency and to meet customer needs as fun to drive as well. Within the development phase the selection of a useful hybridization-level is a very essential part. CAx methods and numerical simulation methods are useful tools during the research and development phase of motorcycles.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0032
Andrew Bejcek
In the process of developing small general purpose engines, it is necessary to obtain accurate engine usage information. Commercially available measurement systems created for this purpose have unfavorable characteristics, including limited flexibility and large physical size. A compact data logging device was developed to overcome these limitations, and it was used on several lawn mowers. A microcontroller controls the data logger and acquires data. The data logger also includes a vacuum pressure sensor, tachometer input, thermocouple inputs, and a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver. The GPS receiver is used to provide machine position and velocity data, which is synchronized with the other measurements. The housing is compact (54mm x 124mm x 100mm), so it can be mounted on most small engine-powered products. Setup of the data logger requires no significant engine or machine modifications, which reduces the time required to instrument a product for testing.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0037
Christian Zinner, Stephan Jandl, Stephan Schmidt
The internal combustion engine is still the most important propulsion system for the individual mobility. Especially for the application of motorcycles and recreational vehicles is the extra ordinary high power density crucial. Today, these engines are mainly 4-stroke natural aspirated MPFI engines. The main difference to the automotive sector is the abandonment of all cost intensive technologies, like variable valve timing, intake air charging or gasoline direct injection. The need for further investigations and implementation of new technologies is given due to the very high share of total road transport emissions of motorcycles and the introduction of the emission limits of EURO5 in 2020. One possibility to reach the future emission limits is the downsizing strategy. For this the potential for emission and fuel consumption reduction is well known.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0039
Andrea Fioravanti, Giovanni Vichi, Isacco Stiaccini, Giovanni Ferrara, Lorenzo Ferrari
In recent years, the motorcycle muffler design are moving to dissipative silencer architectures. Indeed due to the increase of restrictions on noise emissions both dissipative and coupled reactive-dissipative mufflers, thanks to their higher noise efficiency coupled with a size reduction, have substituted the reactive silencers. A dissipative muffler is composed by a perforated pipe that crosses a cavity volume that is usually filled by a fibrous porous material. The acoustic performance of this kind of muffler are strictly dependent on the porosity of the perforated pipe and the flow resistivity of the porous material. The interaction between these elements and the mass flow rate of gas passing through the silencer influences the muffler performance.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0081
Giovanni Vichi, Michele Becciani, Isacco Stiaccini, Giovanni Ferrara, Lorenzo Ferrari, Alessandro Bellissima, Go Asai
For the development of a very high efficiency engine, the continuous monitoring of the engine operating conditions is needed. Moreover, early detection of engine faults is fundamental in order to take appropriate corrective actions and avoid malfunctioning and failures. The in-cylinder pressure is the most direct parameter associated to the engine thermodynamic cycle. Unfortunately, the cost and the intrusiveness of the sensor and the harsh operating condition that limits its life-time, make it not suitable for mass production applications. Consequently, research is oriented on the measurement of physical phenomena linked to the thermodynamic cycle to obtain useful information for the ICE control. For turbocharger engine application, the direct connection between the thermo-dynamic and fluid-dynamic conditions at the engine cylinder exit and the turbocharger behavior suggests that its instantaneous speed could give useful information about the engine cycle.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0086
Tobias Gutjahr
Data-driven plant models are well established in engine base calibration to cope with the ever increasing complexity of today’s electronic control units (ECUs). The engine, drive train, or entire vehicle is replaced with a behavioral model learned from a provided training data set. The model is used for offline simulations and virtual calibration of ECU control parameters, but its application is often limited beyond these use cases. Depending on the underlying regression algorithm, limiting factors include computationally expensive calculations and a high memory demand. However, development and testing of new control strategies would benefit from the ability to execute such high fidelity plant models directly in real-time environments. For instance, map-based ECU functions could be replaced or enhanced by more accurate behavioral models, with the implementation of virtual sensors or online monitoring functions.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0085
Giovanni Vichi, Michele Becciani, Isacco Stiaccini, Giovanni Ferrara, Lorenzo Ferrari, Alessandro Bellissima, Go Asai
For the development of a very high efficiency engine, the continuous monitoring of the engine operating conditions is needed. Moreover, early detection of engine faults is fundamental in order to take appropriate corrective actions and avoid malfunctioning and failures. The in-cylinder pressure is the most direct parameter associated to the engine thermodynamic cycle. Unfortunately, the cost and the intrusiveness of the sensor and the harsh operating condition that limits its life-time, make it not suitable for mass production applications. Consequently, research is oriented on the measurement of physical phenomena linked to the thermodynamic cycle to obtain useful information for the ICE control. For turbocharger engine application, the direct connection between the thermo-dynamic and fluid-dynamic conditions at the engine cylinder exit and the turbocharger behavior suggests that its instantaneous speed could give useful information about the engine cycle.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0090
Vikram Mittal
Small internal combustion engines (ICEs) outperform batteries and fuel cells in regards to weight and cost for a range of applications, including consumer products, small manned vehicles, unmanned vehicles, and auxiliary power supplies. The power ranges for these applications are typically less than 10 kW. There are numerous technical challenges associated with ICEs producing power in this range, namely high heat transfer losses, which results in decreased engine efficiency and durability. Regardless, there is still a large and highly variable set of ICE solutions that are commercially available in this power range. A market survey was conducted of commercially available ICEs with power outputs less than 10 kW. This analysis uses the market data to highlight the trade-offs between power output, engine weight, and specific fuel consumption.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0060
Ashish Jain, Sahil Kapahi
A Formula SAE competition is characterized by typical track layouts having slaloms, tight corners and short straights, which favor a particular range of engine speed for a given set of gear ratios. Therefore, it is imperative that the powertrain is optimized for the corresponding engine rpm band. This paper describes the process of designing, simulating and validating an air intake manifold for an inline four cylinder four-stroke internal combustion gasoline engine based on analysis of required vehicle performance. The requirements for the design of subject intake were set considering the rules of FSAE competitions and analysis of engine performance patterns for typical competition scenarios, carried out using OPTIMUM Lap software. Manifold geometry was optimized using results of air flow simulations performed on ANSYS CFX, and subsequent effect of this geometry on the engine was modelled using 1D simulation on RICARDO Wave.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0010
Kei Yoshimura, Shunichi Mori, Kenjiro Nakama, Jin Kusaka
This paper presents the effect of in-cylinder charge stratification on high load homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion by 3 dimensional CFD coupled with a chemical reaction calculation. The first study with a simple engine model which has no gas exchange cycle reveals that thermal stratification is more effective to prolong combustion duration, which is a key factor for a high load limit of HCCI combustion, than equivalent ratio stratification. And, thermal stratification enables to maintain combustion efficiency, which would be a difficulty to relief HCCI combustion by in-cylinder charge stratification, compared to equivalent ratio stratification. In addition, the first study also reveals the effect of the direction of stratification in the cylinder.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0028
Pascal Piecha, Philipp Bruckner, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Florian Schumann, Stephan Meyer, Tim Gegg, Stefan Leiber
Two-stroke engines with small displacement are used in many cases as affordable and low-maintenance propulsion for motorcycles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. In recent years considerable progress regarding reductions of emissions have been reached. But nevertheless, a further improvement of two-stroke engines is necessary to cover protection of health and environment. In addition, the shortage of fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate change call for a sensual use of natural resources and therefore the fuel consumption and engine efficiency needs to be improved. A common method for improving the working processes of these engines is the application of suitable analysis methods. The thermodynamic loss analysis is a frequently applied method to examine the working process and is universally adaptable.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0050
Francesco Testa, Vincenzo Gagliardi, Marco Ferrari, Stefano Fontanesi, Andrea Bertani
It is well known that 3D CFD simulation can give detailed information about fluid and flow properties in complex 3D domains and that1D CFD simulation can give important information at a system level, i.e. about the performance of the entire engine. The drawbacks of the two simulation methods are that the former requires high computational cost while the latter is not able to capture complex local 3D features of the flow. Therefore, the two simulation methods are to be seen as complementary, indeed a coupling of the two approaches can benefit from the pros of the two methods while minimizing the cons. In particular, with a multi-scale modeling approach (1D-3D) it is possible to simulate large and complex domains by modeling the complex part with a 3D approach and the rest of the domain with 1D approach.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0067
Akira Miyamoto, Kenji Inaba, Yukie Ishizawa, Manami Sato, Rei Komuro, Masashi Sato, Ryo Sato, Patrick Bonnaud, Ryuji Miura, Ai Suzuki, Naoto Miyamoto, Nozomu Hatakeyama, Masanori Hariyama
On the basis of extensive experimental works about heterogeneous catalysts, the authors have tried to develop a variety of software for the design of automotive catalysts such as ultra-accelerated quantum molecular dynamics (UA-QCMD) which is 10,000,000 times faster than the conventional first principles molecular dynamics(1-3), mesoscopic modeling software for supported catalysts(POCO2), and mesoscopic sintering simulator SINTA(4,5) to calculate sintering behavior of both precious metal such as Pt, Pd, Rh and support such as Al2O3, ZrO2, CeO2, or CeO2-ZrO2 We also have integrated these softwares to develop multiscale, multiphysics simulator for the design of automotive catalysts. The method was confirmed to be effective for a variety of important catalytic reactions in the automotive emission control.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0033
Tiago J. Costa, Mark Nickerson, Daniele Littera, Jorge Martins, Alexander Shkolnik, Nikolay Shkolnik, Francisco Brito
This paper describes the method used for heat transfer measurement and prediction on the LiquidPiston XMv3 small rotary engine at its current state of development. A 1D engine model (GT-POWER) and a 3D CFD model (CONVERGE), were coupled together with the objective of quantifying the engine heat transfer losses inside the combustion chamber. Experimental data was used to validate and calibrate the 1D engine model. Parameters used in calibration include heat transfer constants, and equivalent critical orifice for “atmospheric” and “inter-chamber” leak areas. These parameters were calibrated to match experimental motoring traces, and then lumped in with heat release parameters while fitting firing traces. The GT-Power model results were used as boundary conditions for the CFD modelling. A detailed chemistry combustion model (SAGE) was used to better calculate flame front propagation and flame quenching at the engine walls, relevant for a predictive heat transfer modelling.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0043
Bernhard J. Graf, Christian Hubmann, Markus Resch, Mehdi Mehrgou
Beside hard facts as performance, emissions and fuel consumption especially the brand specific attributes such as styling and sound are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To develop these emotional characters, within the given boundary conditions of the future pass-by regulation, it is necessary to define them at the very beginning of the project and to follow a consequent development process. The following paper shows examples of motorcycle NVH development work on noise cleaning and sound engineering using a hybrid development process combining front loading, simulation and testing. One of the discussed solutions is the investigation of a piston pin offset in combination with a crankshaft offset for the reduction of friction. The optimization of piston slap noise as a result of the piston secondary motion was performed by simulation. As another example a simulation based development was performed for the exhaust system layout.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2297
Takeaki Kudo, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Toshio Yamada, Kei-ichi Koseki, Yoichi Akiyama
Abstract An improvement of thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines is strongly required. Meanwhile, from the viewpoint of refinery, CO2 emissions and gasoline price decrease when lower octane gasoline can be used for vehicles. If lower octane gasoline is used for current vehicles, fuel consumption rate would increase due to abnormal combustion. However, if a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine were to be used, the effect of octane number on engine performance would be relatively small and it has been revealed that the thermal efficiency is almost unchanged. In this study, the engine performance estimation of HCCI combustion using lower octane gasoline as a vision of the future engine was achieved. To quantitatively investigate the fuel consumption performance of a gasoline HCCI engine using lower octane fuel, the estimation of fuel consumption under different driving test cycles with different transmissions is carried out using 1D engine simulation code.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2274
Paul V. Harvath, Shaelah Reidy, Jonathan Byer
Abstract The amount of acidic material in used engine oil is considered an indicator of the remaining useful life of the oil. Total acid number, determined by titration, is the most widely accepted method for determining acidic content but the method is not capable of speciation of individual acids. In this work, high molecular weight residue was isolated from used engine oil by dialysis in heptane. This residue was then analyzed using pyrolysis-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Carboxylic acids from C2-C18 were identified in the samples with acetic acid found to be the most abundant. This identification provides new information that may be used to improve the current acid detection methodologies for used engine oils.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2331
Ken Naitoh, Jumpei Tsuchiya, Daiki Ikoma, Takuya Nakai, Susumu Oyanagi, Takuto Kanase, Takuma Okamoto, Yoshiaki Tanaka, Ken Ayukawa, Remi Konagaya
In recent years, we proposed a new type of engine (Fugine) based on supermulti-jets colliding with pulse, which indicates a potential of very high thermal efficiencies and also less combustion noise. (Naitoh et al, SAE papers 2012-2015, and AIAApapers 2011-2015) Then, one of the three prototype engines developed uses a cheap injector of gasoline injected in suction port (Injection pressure = 0.35 MPa) and a double piston system. Combustion experiments obtained for the prototype engine of gasoline show a high thermal efficiency comparable to that of Diesel engine and also less combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines. (submitted as an abstract for SAE Baltimore, 2016).
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2337
Ken Naitoh, Ken Ayukawa, Daiki Ikoma, Takuya Nakai, Susumu Oyanagi, Takuto Kanase, Jumpei Tsuchiya
Computational and theoretical analyses for the new type of engine (Fugine), which we proposed based on supermulti-jets colliding with pulse, indicate a potential of very high thermal efficiencies and also less combustion noise. (Naitoh et al, SAE papers 2012-2015, and AIAA papers 2011-2015) Thus, we developed three types of prototype engines. One of the three has a cheap injector of gasoline injected in suction port (Injection pressure = 0.35 MPa) and a double piston system. Combustion experiments obtained for the prototype engine of gasoline show a high thermal efficiency comparable to that of Diesel engine and also less combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines. (submitted as an abstract for SAE Baltimore, 2016). Fuel injection in suction port of this prototype engine will bring relatively homogeneous charge of vapor fuel of gasoline, which will lead to low NOx and low Soot.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2334
Kan Yamagishi, Yuichi Onuma, Soichi Ohara, Kenya Hasegawa, Kentaro Kojima, Tomoya Shirai, Takahiro Kihara, Kota Tsuru, Ken Naitoh
Recently, we proposed a new engine concept based on supermulti-jets colliding with pulse (Fugine), which will lead to very high thermal efficiencies and also less combustion noise. (Naitoh et al, SAEpapers 2012-2015 and AIAApapers 2012-2015) Computational and theoretical analyses indicate a high potential on thermal efficiency and combustion noise. Thus, we developed three types of prototype engines. First prototype engine for air crafts and space crafts based only on supermulti-jets colliding with pulse has no piston compression, while the second one having a cheap injector of gasoline injected in suction port (Injection pressure = 0.35 MPa) include a double piston system. Combustion experiments obtained for the second prototype engine of gasoline show a high thermal efficiency comparable to that of Diesel engine and also less combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines. (submitted as an abstract for SAE Baltimore, 2016).
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2340
Bin Mao, Mingfa Yao, Zunqing Zheng, Haifeng Liu
An experimental study is carried out to investigate the effects of the proportion between high-pressure and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation on engine operation. The boosting system is a series 2-stage turbocharger with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) as the high-pressure stage. The HP-portion in dual loop EGR (DL-EGR) is swept from 0 to 1 while the intake pressure and EGR rate are fixed by adjusting the rack position of VGT. The results show that the HP-portion in DL-EGR and rack position of VGT both have great influence on the amount of exhaust enthalpy and the overall turbocharger efficiency which are critical in achieving an optimum trade-off in pumping losses and indicated thermal efficiency. For the conditions with insufficient exhaust enthalpy, pure HPL-EGR or pure LPL-EGR both have the potential to achieve satisfactory fuel efficiency.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2345
Guoyu Feng, Wenku Shi, Henghai Zhang
To study the static and dynamic characteristics of thrust rod, based on multi-body dynamics and finite element method for static and dynamic characteristics of the thrust rod were analyzed. The establishment of a dynamic simulation model of vehicle and the road, in the extreme conditions of the thrust rod loads were calculated. Thrust rod finite element model is established, according to the calculation result of the load and test data of rubber, stiffness, strength and modal analysis, and verified by test, gained its deformation, stress distribution and low-order natural frequency and mode shape. The results provide a theoretical basis for the design and optimization of the thrust rod.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2353
Kazunori Harima, Shinji Tsuchiya, Takuro Morino, Yuji Nagasawa
CVT belts are constructed with multiple elements and layered rings, and friction loss occurs between each parts. Due to belt geometry, a large belt friction loss occurs between the elements and the inner most ring. Therefore, to improve efficiency, it is effective to decrease the slip between the elements and the inner most ring. So, the torque transmitted is influenced by the slip between the elements and the inner most ring. When the slip is decreased, it is thought that the amount of torque transmitted by the ring change. For efficiency improvement, it is necessary to analyze the change of the torque transmitted by the ring due to the decrease of slip between the elements and the inner most ring, but to verify of the internal thrust force in the real load state is difficult because it is a phenomenon inside the belt.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2350
Zhien Liu, Jiangmi Chen, Sheng-hao Xiao
This paper combines fluid software STAR-CCM+ and finite element software ABAQUS to stimulate the internal field of this Gasoline engine exhaust manifold based on the theory of loose coupling. Through the simulation of car parking cooling - full load condition at full speed, we estimate thermal fatigue life of the exhaust manifold with the plastic strain increment as the evaluation parameters. Results shows that the manifold satisfies the target life performance. Here we also made a consideration about the how the bolt force affects the manifold elastic and plastic material behavior.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 31401