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2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2385
Guillaume Alix, Jean-Charles Dabadie, Gregory Font
Legal constraints concerning CO2 emissions have made the improvement of light duty vehicle efficiency mandatory. In result, vehicle powertrain and its development have become increasingly complex, requiring the ability to assess rapidly the effect of several technological solutions, such as hybridization or internal combustion engine (or ICE) downsizing, on vehicle CO2 emissions. In this respect, simulation is nowadays a common way to estimate a vehicle’s fuel consumption on a given driving cycle. This estimation can be done with the knowledge of vehicle main characteristics, its transmission ratio and efficiency and its internal combustion engine (ICE) fuel consumption map. While vehicle and transmission parameters are relatively easy to know, the ICE consumption map has to be obtained through either test bench measurements or computation.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2387
Emiliano Vitaliani, Daniele Di Rocco, Martin Sopouch
The aim of this paper is the study of the Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorber (CPVA) dynamic behaviour, with the background of improved vibration isolation and damping quality through a wide range of operating speeds. The CPVAs are passive devices, which are used in rotating machinery to reduce the torsional vibration without decreasing performance. After a first use of these damping systems in the field of aeronautics, nowadays CPVAs are employed also in railway and automotive applications. In principle, the CPVA is a mass, mounted on a rotor, which moves along a defined path relative to the rotor itself, driven by centrifugal effects and by the rotor torsional vibrations. The advantage that such absorbers provide is the capability to counteract torsional vibrations arising with frequencies proportional to the mean operating speed. This is in particular the case with Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) where the induced vibrations are caused by the combustions process.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2390
Shashi Aithal, Stefan Wild
Design and optimization of automotive engines present unique challenges on account of the large design space and conflicting constraints. Optimizing the fuel consumption and reducing emissions over a driving cycle is a good example. Inlet pressure, equivalence ratio, humidity, EGR fraction, inlet air temperature, ignition timing, engine load, engine speed (RPM) etc. each impact fuel consumption and emissions and thus represent a vast parametric space to conduct de sign and global optimization studies. This large parametric space is further increased when one has to consider newer fuels and fuel-blends (varying ratios of fuel-additive mixtures) further complicating the design-optimization problem. The large design parameter space precludes the use of detailed numerical or experimental investigations. Physics-based reduced-order models (quasi-dimensional models) can be used effectively in the design and global optimization of such problems.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2392
Vincenzo De Bellis, Luigi Teodosio, Daniela Siano, Fabrizio Minarelli, Diego Cacciatore
In this paper, a high performance V12 spark-ignition engine is experimentally investigated at test-bench in order to fully characterize its behavior in terms of both average and cycle-by-cycle performance parameters, for different operating conditions. In particular, for each considered point, a spark advance sweep is actuated, starting from a knock-free calibration, up to intense knock operation. Trains of 300 consecutive pressure cycles are acquired for each of the 12 cylinders, together with the main overall engine performance, including air flow, fuel flow, torque, pollutant emissions, and fuel consumption. Acquired data are statistically analyzed to derive the distributions of main indicated parameters (combustion phasing and duration, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure - IMEP, etc.) in order to find proper correlation with averaged quantities, collecting the findings of all the considered operating points and all the cylinders.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2410
Stefania Falfari, Claudio Forte, Gian Bianchi, Giulio Cazzoli, Cristian Catellani, Lucio Postrioti, Fabrizio Ottobre
In the next incoming future the necessity of reducing the raw emissions leads to the challenge of an increment of the thermal engine efficiency. In particular it is necessary to increase the engine efficiency not only at full load but also at partial load conditions. In the open literature very few technical papers are available on the partial load conditions analysis. In the present paper the analysis of the effect of the throttle valve rotational direction on the mixture formation is analyzed. The engine was a PFI 4-valves motorcycle engine. The engine geometry was formed by the intake duct and the cylinder. The throttle valve opening angle was 17.2 deg, which lays between the very partial load and the partial load condition. The CFD code adopted for the analysis was the FIRE AVL code v. 2013.2. The intake and the compression phases till TDC were simulated: inlet boundary conditions from 1D simulations were imposed.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2402
Irufan Ahmed, Golnoush Ghiasi, A. Gnana Sagaya Raj, Nedunchezhian Swaminathan, Jann Koch, Karel Steurs, Yuri M. Wright
Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become an integral part in analyzing engine in-cylinder processes since it provides detailed information on flow and combustion inside internal combustion engines, hence allowing for improvements during the development of modern engine concepts. The predictive capability of simulation tools depends largely on the accuracy, fidelity and robustness of the various model used, in particular concerning turbulence and combustion, and, in some cases, two-phase flow. Almost all combustion models currently used in engine design require some level of parameter tuning to obtain a reasonable match between measured and computed in-cylinder pressure evolution. However, if the model parameters are closely tied to the physics of the problem then one might be able to eliminate this model tuning, specifically for the combustion sub-modeling part.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2406
Gyujin Kim, Kyoungdoug Min
Development of injection technologies such as common-rail direct injection allows multiple injection strategy in Diesel Engine, which can reduce emissions, noises and vibrations. Meanwhile, three dimensional combustion model using CFD can be a good apparatus to visualize the in-cylinder phenomena. RIF (Representative Interactive Flamelet) model shows a good prediction of non-premixed combustion. In RIF model, chemical time scales are considered to be smaller than those of turbulence, which can decouple the equations of heat and mass transfer from flow equations. Furthermore, theses governing equations can be described by one conserved scalar which is called mixture fraction by using the assumption that the flame is sufficient to thin in the direction orthogonal to the flame surface. However, its dependency on the mixture fraction set a limit on the combustion analysis for the single injection.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2421
Federico Stola, Domenico Paolino, Marco Parotto, Fabio Troina
Current market drivers for automotive and light commercial engines and powertrain systems are mainly the new CO2 emission regulations all over the world and the pollutant emission reduction in the emerging markets, at minimal system cost. For both reasons, the adoption of a regulated electric low pressure fuel pump is very advantageous for electronically controlled diesel systems, customized for the emerging markets. Usually, the fuel delivery is performed at the maximum flow rate and a pressure regulator discharges the exceeding fuel amount from the rail or upstream the high pressure pump. At part load, the electric feed pump flow is higher than the request for engine power generation. For the purpose of this paper, the low pressure fuel pump is controlled for fuel delivery according to the engine request (reduced fuel consumption), thus avoiding the use of a pressure regulator valve (reduced cost).
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2467
Alessandro Ferrari, Federica Paolicelli
The modal analysis of a Common Rail fuel injection system equipped with solenoid injectors of the latest generation has been performed in the frequency domain. A complete lumped parameter model of the high-pressure hydraulic circuit from the pump delivery to the injector nozzles has been realized and validated by comparison with the frequency modal values obtained by applying a peak-picking technique to the measured pressure time history. Three main modal motions have been identified in the considered injection apparatus and the possible resonances with the external forcing terms, i.e., pump delivered flow-rate, pressure control valve discharged flow-rate and flow-rates expelled by the solenoid injector, have been highlighted and discussed. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis of the frequency domain performance to key geometrical features of the high-pressure system layout has been carried out.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2466
Tim Lackmann, Alan kerstein, Michael Oevermann
To further improve engines in terms of both efficiency and emissions many new combustion concepts are currently being investigated. Examples include homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), stratified charge compression ignition (SCCI), lean stratified premixed combustion, and high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines. All of these combustion concepts have in common that the typical combustion temperatures are lower than in traditional spark ignition or diesel engines. To further improve and to develop combustion concepts for clean and high efficient engines, it is necessary to develop new computational tools and combustion models which can be used under non-standard conditions such as low temperature combustion. In this study a regime-independent combustion modeling strategy for non-premixed combustion is used to simulate a spray combustion process. The name of the recently developed model is RILEM (Representative Interactive Linear Eddy Model).
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2400
Andrea Matrisciano, Anders Borg, Cathleen Perlman, Harry Lehtiniemi, Michal Pasternak, Fabian Mauss
In this work we present a soot source term tabulation strategy for soot predictions under Diesel engine conditions within the zero-dimensional Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) framework. The DI-SRM accounts for detailed chemistry, in-homogeneities in the combustion chamber and turbulence-chemistry interactions. The previously developed method [1] was extended with a framework facilitating the use of tabulated soot source terms. The implementation allows for using soot source terms provided by an online chemistry calculation, and for the use of a pre-calculated flamelet soot source term library. Diesel engine calculations were performed using the same detailed kinetic soot model in both configurations. The chemical mechanism for n-heptane used in this work is taken from Zeuch et al. [2] and consists of 121 species and 973 reactions including PAH and thermal NO chemistry. The engine case presented in [1] is used also for this work.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2506
Paolo Iodice, Adolfo Senatore
Nowadays, due to catalyst improvements and electronic mixture control of last generation vehicles equipped with internal combustion engine, the most significant part of the total emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons takes place during the cold phase, if compared with those exhausted in hot conditions, with a clear consequence on air quality of urban contexts. The purpose of this research, developed by the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Naples Federico II with reference to an European background, is a deeper analysis of the engine and after-treatment system behaviour within the cold start transient and the evaluation of cold start additional emissions: a methodology was developed and optimized to evaluate the cold transient duration, the emitted quantities during the cold phase and the relevant time-dependence function.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2515
Christophe Barro, Sushant Pandurangi, Philipp Meyer, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Philipp Elbert, Yuri M. Wright
Past research has shown that post injections have the potential to reduce Diesel engine exhaust PM concentration without any significant influence in NOx emissions. However, an accurate, widely applicable rule of how to parameterize a post injection such that it provides a maximum reduction of PM emissions does not exist. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms are not thoroughly understood. In past research, the underlying mechanisms have been investigated in engine experiments, in constant volume chambers and also using detailed 3D CFD-CMC simulations. It has been observed that soot reduction due to a post injection is mainly due to two reasons: increased turbulence from the post injection during soot oxidation and lower soot formation due to lower amount of fuel in the main combustion at similar load conditions. Those studies do not show a significant temperature rise caused by the post injection.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2519
Richard Cornwell, Huntly Thomas, Joshua Dalby, Phil Carden, Brian Knight, Andrew Ward, Grace Carr
Fuel consumption, and the physical behaviours behind it, have never been of greater interest to the automotive engineering community. The enormous design, development and infrastructure investment involved with a new engine family which will be in production for many years demands significant review of the base engine fundamental architecture. Future CO2 challenges are pushing car manufacturers to consider alternative engine configurations. As a result, a wide range of diesel engine architectures are available in production particularly in the 1.4 to 1.6L passenger car market, including cylinder size, number of valves per cylinder, and bore:stroke ratio. In addition, the 3 cylinder engine has recently entered the market, despite its historic NVH concerns. Ricardo has performed a generic architecture study for a midsize displacement engine in order to assess the pros and cons of each engine configuration.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2535
Andreas Behn, Matthias Feindt, Gerhard Matz, Sven Krause, Marcus Gohl
The limitation of fuel ingress into the oil sump of an internal combustion engine during operation is important to preserve the tribological properties of the lubricant and limit component wear. On one side efficient simulation models are necessary to estimate the fuel ingress in an early stage of the development process. On the other side application and test engineers require effective tools to optimize the injection rates at the test cell. A sensitive and versatile measurement system is essential for this process. Important sampling positions for fuel concentration measurements while using a late post injection are the injector target, the cylinder liner below, the oil sump as well as the crankcase ventilation. While oil sampling from the sump and laboratory analysis is a common procedure, there is no system for automatic sampling of all the positions and fast online analysis of the samples.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2543
Damien Maroteaux, Damien Le Guen, Eric Chauvelier
The worldwide trends for future CO2 regulation standards will push car manufacturers for more and more development of Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Many different configurations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles exist, including parallel hybrid, series hybrid, plug-in hybrids, Battery Electric Vehicles with Range Extender, etc. The choice of the optimal architecture depends on many different parameters, and is a key issue to be solved at the beginning of vehicle development. In order to help decision making in the early phase of projects, simulation tools are essential. A specific simulation platform for simulation of fuel economy and CO2 emissions for hybrid electric vehicles has been developed by Renault.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2391
Dimitris Tsokolis, Stefanos Tsiakmakis, Georgios Triantafyllopoulos, Anastasios Kontses, Zisis Toumasatos, Georgios Fontaras, Athanasios Dimaratos, Biagio Ciuffo, Jelica Pavlovic, Alessandro Marotta, Zissis Samaras
The present paper describes the development of a standardized modelling approach to simulate the effect of the new Worldwide harmonised Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP) on the certified CO2 emissions of light duty vehicles. The European fleet has been divided into a number of representative segments based on specific vehicle characteristics and technologies. Representative vehicles for each segment were chosen. A test protocol has been developed in order to generate the necessary validation data for the simulation models which were developed subsequently. A standardized modelling procedure was adopted, in order to minimize the flexibilities and sources of uncertainty, which was based on the development of a reference "template model" to be used in the study. Subsequently, vehicle models were developed using AVL Cruise simulation software based on the abovementioned template model.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2409
Lorenzo Bartolucci, Stefano Cordiner, Vincenzo Mulone, Vittorio Rocco, Edward Chan
Predictive modeling of the premixed turbulent combustion process has become key to design advanced strategies for novel internal combustion engine solutions. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based combustion models are assessed but are unable to capture transient phenomena such combustion instabilities, self-ignition and other aspects related to the coupling between turbulence and chemistry. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based combustion models have demonstrated in several studies better capabilities to capturing those phenomena and, hence, present in general much higher accuracy. The aim of this work is to carry out a statistical analysis of numerical results obtained with a LES approach to describe a partially premixed natural gas spark ignition combustion process in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber (CVCC). The OpenFOAM based solver has been already validated in a previous paper by comparing results data experimentally gathered at the University of British Columbia.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2499
Fabio Berni, Sebastiano Breda, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cantore
A new generation of highly downsized SI engines with specific power outputs around or above 150 HP/liter is emerging in the sport car market sector. Technologies such as high-boosting, direct injection and downsizing are adopted to increase power density and reduce fuel consumption. To counterbalance the increased risks of pre-ignition, knock or mega-knock, currently made turbocharged SI engines usually operate with high fuel enrichments and delayed (sometimes negative) spark advances. The former is responsible for high fuel consumption levels, while the latter induce an even lower A/F ratio (below 11), to limit the turbine inlet temperature, with huge negative effects on BSFC. A possible solution to increase knock resistance is investigated in the paper by means of 3D-CFD analyses: water/methanol emulsion is port-fuel injected to replace mixture enrichment while preserving, if not improving, indicated mean effective pressure and knock safety margins.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2545
Florian Winke, Hans-Juergen Berner, Michael Bargende
Due to the increased complexity of hybrid vehicle technology, development of powertrains for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can only be performed efficiently by using modern simu-lation technologies. The dimensioning of drivetrain components has to be addressed in a very early phase of the development process, which is why predictive models are of particular importance. This study presents a comparison of different approaches for the simulation of HEV fuel consumption. For this purpose, “traditional” mapped combustion engine models are com-pared to different types of 1D-CFD engine models (GT-Power), paired with a quasi dimen-sional, predictive combustion model (FKFS User Cylinder). To ensure an efficient devel-opment process, simplified engine models are used, which are able to reduce computing time significantly while generally remaining the complete potential of the model.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2399
Christina Nikita, Yannis Hardalupas, Alexander Taylor
The aim of this paper is to evaluate how adequately pressure loss coefficients models, broadly used in 1D engine simulation tools, perform over typical, engine-like exhaust pulses propagating in manifolds formed of three-branch junctions. These coefficient models have been developed over the years to match experimental data of steady flow measurements or shock tube tests usually targeting the mean pressure levels of the pipes comprising the manifold. However, engine exhaust flow is highly unsteady and manifolds are nowadays of a complex shape which aggregates the 3D structure of the flow. Usually these features lead to significant pressure losses than what 1D models are capable to artificially recreate with the use of existing coefficients. For this purpose, a comparison is made between loss coefficients analytical calculations and CFD simulations using the OpenFOAM software.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2411
Carmelina Abagnale, Maria Cristina Cameretti, Umberto Ciaravola, Raffaele Tuccillo, Sabato Iannaccone
The dual-fuel (diesel/natural gas, NG) concept represents a viable solution to reduce emissions from diesel engines by using natural gas as an alternative fuel. The dual fuel operation is characterized by a diesel pilot injection to activate the combustion of NG that has been premixed with air in the intake port. As well known, the dual-fuel technology has the potential to offer significant improvements in the emissions of carbon dioxide from light-duty compression ignition engines. In these small-displacement high-speed engines, where the combustion event can be temporally shorter, the injection timing can exert an important effect on the performance and emissions of the engine. A further important requirement of the DF operation in automotive engines is a satisfactory response in a wide range of load levels. In particular, the part-load levels could present more challenging conditions for an efficient combustion development, due to the poor fuel/air ratio.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2386
Farouq Meddahi, Christian Fleck, Stefan Grodde, Alain Charlet, Yann Chamaillard
The paper presents a comparative study of various models used to estimate gas dynamics in internal combustion engine ducts (ICE). 1D modellings provide a sufficient accuracy, but they are still not implementable on current ECUs. On the other hand, low order models can be real-time but their lack of accuracy and high calibration cost are still a challenging problem. This work aims at presenting a comparison of currently used gas dynamics models to predict transient phenomena in engine ducts. It emphasizes on 1D and low order models. To test under engine-like conditions, the intake path of a virtual engine implemented under GT-Power is used. For comparison, several criteria are considered such as: physical relevance of the parameters and states, accuracy, computational power, stability…etc. Results show a contrast in the performance of the different models, which gives the possibility to evaluate the various approaches.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2544
Fernando Ortenzi, Giovanni Pede, Pierluigi Antonini
Within the “Industria 2015” Italian framework program, the HI-ZEV project has the aim to develop two high performance vehicles: one full electric and one hybrid. The hybrid vehicle is a sport car with an internal combustion engine with a maximum power of 300 kW and an electric motor with a maximum power of 150 kW. It is equipped with a 400 V, 15 Ah storage system. Special batteries are required due to the high values of discharge current needed to supply the electric subsystem (up to 25 times the nominal current). Also a dedicated cooling system has been designed, to avoid a dangerous rising temperature, due to such high currents. The cells used have been the Demon 5Ah OCCL (Oxygen-Cobalt-Carbon-Li-Ion technology). Every single module is composed by 6 cells in series with 22.5V of nominal voltage, while the battery pack is made with 18 modules in series and 3 in parallel.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2432
Michela Costa, Paolo Sementa, Ugo Sorge, Francesco Catapano, Guido Marseglia, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Knocking combustion in spark ignition engines is an abnormal combustion phenomenon strongly affecting performance and thermal efficiency. The possibility to have abnormal combustions in a GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine is linked to the outcome of the mixture formation process. Present work explores possible advantages deriving from the use of split injections in increasing the engine power output and reducing the tendency to knock. Due to the recent development of gasoline injection systems, multiple injections are today regarded as a valuable tool to improve the in-chamber evaporation process and simultaneously reduce undesired effects deriving from an excessive spray impact over walls. Combustion stability is enhanced, unburned hydrocarbons and soot emissions are limited.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2471
Federico Pellegrino, Alessio Dulbecco, Denis Veynante
One of the major objectives of today’s automotive industry is the reduction of pollutant emissions and the increase of the overall efficiency of the powertrain, leading to the development of new concepts of internal combustion engine. The well-known advantages of charge stratification in ultra-lean gasoline engines and engine downsizing suggest that an increase in the diffusion of Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DI-SI) engines is foreseeable in the near future. System simulation is a powerful tool to reproduce the behaviour of the powertrain as a whole, since it allows to investigate the interactions between the different components in both stable and transient conditions. Such a global approach can be exploited effectively only if the relevant physical phenomena are correctly reproduced.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2498
Markku Aaro Kuronen, Ulla Kiiski, Kalle Lehto
Sulphur level of diesel fuel started to be limited in Europe at the end the 19th century. Quite soon it was noticed that the processes for removing sulphur also removed other polar material and the natural lubricity of the diesel fuel was lost. Lubricity additives were introduced to bring the lubricity back to a certain level. Also, a rapid laboratory method was developed to measure lubricity i.e. High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). The method (HFRR) ISO 12156-1 was introduced in 1997. In recent years purely paraffinic diesel fuels, such as GTL (Gas To Liquid) and renewable HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil), have been introduced to the market. Unlike traditional biodiesel (FAME, Fatty Acid Methyl Ester), paraffinic diesel fuels require the use of lubricity additives to reach a sufficient level of lubricity. The aim of this study was to investigate how the current lubricity additives work as a function of aromatic content in diesel.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2480
Lucio Postrioti, Maurizio Bosi, Andrea Cavicchi, Fakhry AbuZahra, Rita Di Gioia, Giovanni Bonandrini
Direct Injection technology for Spark Ignition engines is currently undergoing a significant development process in order to achieve its complete potential in terms of fuel conversion efficiency while preserving the achievement of future, stringent emission limits. In this process, improving the fuel spray analysis capabilities is of primary importance. Among the available experimental techniques, the momentum flux measurement is one of the most interesting approaches as it allows a direct measurement of the spray-air mixing potential and hence it is currently considered an interesting complement to spray imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the fuel spray evolution when it undergoes flash boiling, a peculiar flow condition occurring when the ambient pressure in which the spray evolves is below the saturation pressure of the injected fluid.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2505
Maria Rosaria Gaballo, Maria Giodice, Alberto Diano, Fabio Fersini, Francesco Miccolis, Soenke Mannal, Stefan Motz
World of diesel becomes technically more and more complex due to the increasingly restrictive legislation e.g. with respect to emissions, fuel consumption and RDE (real driving emissions evaluations). Simulation provides a mechanism for the investigation and optimization of diesel engine performances, evaluation and investigation of innovative new engine concepts, RDE evaluation, after-treatment design and optimization, by that contributing to solve above mentioned challenges. Besides these generally valid capabilities of simulations our model development is focused additionally on the mission to use right sized models to reduce usage of resources and by that making simulation an even more rapid and cost effective method In this contribution we present our approach for simulation as an advanced integrated tool capable to answer challenging questions towards emission and fuel consumption reduction in future legislation frameworks.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2501
Thomas Laible, Stefan Pischinger, Bastian Holderbaum
Today’s and future stringent emission limits require the use of exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies. In terms of legislation, the emissions at low engine load and at the cold start increasingly gain attention. At the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines RWTH Aachen University, different measures for rising the temperature concerning exhaust gas aftertreatment components on both the passenger car and the industrial / commercial vehicle engine. The proposed study of the passenger car diesel engine has shown the potential of internal and external heating measures. The configuration consisting of NSC and DPF, illustrates the potential of electrically heated NSC, including solutions on how the emission limit for EU6 can be achieved.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 30221