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2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0031
Paul W. Rieger, Christian Zinner, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger
The release of the “Regulation Nr.168/2013”, for the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel motorcycles and quadricycles, of the European Union started a new challenge for the motorcycle industry. One goal of the European Union is to achieve emission parity between passenger cars (Euro 6) and motorcycles (Euro 5) in 2020. The hybridization of motorcycle powertrains is one way to achieve these strict legislation limits. In the automotive sector hybridization is well investigated and has already shown improvements of fuel consumption, efficiency and emission behavior. Equally, motorcycle applications have a high potential to improve efficiency and to meet customer needs as fun to drive as well. Within the development phase the selection of a useful hybridization-level is a very essential part. CAx methods and numerical simulation methods are useful tools during the research and development phase of motorcycles.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0033
Tiago J. COSTA, Mark Nickerson, Daniele Littera, Jorge Martins, Alexander Shkolnik, Nikolay Shkolnik, F. P. Brito
This paper describes the method used for heat transfer measurement and prediction on the LiquidPiston XMv3 small rotary engine at its current state of development. A 1D engine model (GT-POWER) and a 3D CFD model (CONVERGE), were coupled together with the objective of quantifying the engine heat transfer losses inside the combustion chamber. Experimental data was used to validate and calibrate the 1D engine model. Parameters used in calibration include heat transfer constants, and equivalent critical orifice for “atmospheric” and “inter-chamber” leak areas. These parameters were calibrated to match experimental motoring traces, and then lumped in with heat release parameters while fitting firing traces. The GT-Power model results were used as boundary conditions for the CFD modelling. A detailed chemistry combustion model (SAGE) was used to better calculate flame front propagation and flame quenching at the engine walls, relevant for a predictive heat transfer modelling.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0035
Anil Singanamalli, Uday Somani, Rajasekaran T, Bapanna Dora Karedla
The performance of an internal combustion engine is significantly affected by its valve train system design. As frictional losses are present at its various interfaces, it consumes considerable amount of energy to overcome these losses. These losses can be determined through simulation models and/or experimental testing. However, the simulations models are prone to error due to definition of boundary conditions and assumptions. Hence experimental determination of frictional losses in valve train system becomes very critical. In general, the valve train friction is estimated using motoring test rigs, where the test specimen is driven by an electric motor. However, in this case the actual dynamics of the engine and combustion related events will not get captured. Also, the lubrication and engine oil temperatures cannot be exactly simulated in a motored friction test bed. This necessitates measurement of dynamic valve train frictional torque in actual engine running condition.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0036
Takamori Shirasuna, Ryoh Hatakeyama, Yukio Sakai
In recent years, the need is growing for a fuel efficiency enhancement of motorcycles equipped with Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT), of which the vehicle sales volume is rapidly increasing in developing countries. To develop a vehicle with excellent fuel efficiency, a precise estimation of fuel economy is required at the beginning stage of a vehicle development. One of the indices that are used for evaluation of fuel economy of a vehicle is fuel economy to a predetermined test mode of driving (mode fuel consumption). One of the parameters that plays an important role for the mode fuel consumption calculations is pulley ratio of CVT. In rubber belt CVTs for motorcycles, their pulley ratio varies at every moment depending on the balance between the traveling resistance and thrust force applied to the sidewall of the belt. The state of this pulley ratio variation differs among vehicles and/or among CVT specifications.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0034
Stephan Jandl, Stephan Schmidt, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Ute Dawin, Armin Kölmel, Stefan Leiber
The worldwide increasing energy consumption, the decreasing energy resources and the continuous restriction of emission legislation cause a rethinking in the development of internal combustion engines and fuels. Alternative renewable fuels, so called bio-fuels, have the potential to counteract these problems. This study concentrates on the usage of alcohol fuels like Ethanol, Methanol and Butanol in non-automotive high power engines, handheld power tools and garden equipment with the focus on mixture formation and cold start capability. Although bio-fuels have been investigated intensely for the use in automotive applications, the different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of non-automotive applications raise the need for specific research. Therefore, a zero dimensional vaporization model was set up to illustrate the connections between physical properties and mixture formation.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0032
Andrew Bejcek
In the process of developing a new general purpose engine, it was necessary to obtain high accuracy engine usage information. Commercially available measurement systems for this purpose have unfavorable characteristics including limited flexibility and large physical size. A compact data logging device was developed to avoid these limitations. An Arduino Mega 2560 controls the data logger and acquires data. The data logger also includes a vacuum pressure sensor, tachometer input, thermocouple inputs, and a GPS module. The GPS module is used to provide machine position and velocity data which is synchronized with the other measurements. The housing is compact (54mm x 124mm x 100mm), so it can be mounted on most small engine powered products. Setup of the data logger requires no significant engine or machine modification, which reduces the time required to instrument a product for testing.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0027
Alexander Winkler, Gernot Grabmair
Vehicle dynamics control (VDC) for motorcycles had a fast growth during the last 10 years. The available technologies comprise curve-safe ABS and traction control (TC) systems, anti-wheelie control right up to comprehensive motorcycle stability systems including even more control functions. VDC systems rely on real-time information about the current motorcycle dynamic state. Thus motorcycles are equipped with additional sensor units, namely MEMS inertial measurement devices, capable of gathering accelerations and angular rates. Utilizing model-based estimation theory enables the determination of the necessary information about the in-plane and out-of-plane motion, e.g. the motorcycle lean angle. The consumer market MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes features include low-cost and small footprint, however there are considerable sensor errors to bear with, e.g. noise and bias.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0030
Takahiro Tsuchiyama, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi
In recent years, an improvement of fuel economy and exhaust emission performance of internal combustion engines has been strongly required. The one of the important problems for general purpose engines is a larger amount of CO emission compared to that of automobile engines. To reduce CO and other exhaust emissions while keeping fuel efficiency high, optimization of total engine system including various design parameters is essential. In the engine system optimization process, cycle simulation using 0-D and 1-D engine model is significantly useful. The model used in the cycle simulation to define optimum design has to be capable of predicting the effect of various parameters on the engine performances. In this study, a prediction model of performance of general purpose SI engine is developed based on a commercially available engine simulation software, GT-POWER. The developed 1-D engine model was validated using 3-D CFD simulation and experimental results.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0037
Christian Zinner, Reinhard Stelzl
The internal combustion engine is still the most important propulsion system for the individual mobility. Especially for the application of motorcycles and recreational vehicles is the extra ordinary high power density crucial. Today, these engines are mainly 4-stroke natural aspirated MPFI engines. The main difference to the automotive sector is the abandonment of all cost intensive technologies, like variable valve timing, intake air charging or gasoline direct injection. The need for further investigations and implementation of new technologies is given due to the very high share of total road transport emissions of motorcycles and the introduction of the emission limits of EURO5 in 2020. One possibility to reach the future emission limits is the downsizing strategy. For this the potential for emission and fuel consumption reduction is well known.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0029
Shohei Suzuki
In the development of motocrosser, the parts which compose the vehicle body especially in the frame receive the heavy loads when it lands on the ground, and high stress generate. Therefore, some problems such as deformation, crack emanating, brocken damage, etc occur occasionally. It took times and costs to take measures for these problems. To solve these problems and to reduce the development term and costs, we developed the method of Jump Landing Simulation. This Jump Landing Simulation enables to measure the vehicle position, which is moving momentarily, easily with high accuracy by introducing "Image Position Measureing Method.". Also, it succeeded to predict the occuring stress with high accuracy.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0025
Govardan Daggupati, Bapanna Dora Karedla, Chandan Bansilal Chavan, Gagandeep Singh Risam
In two wheelers the front suspension system is mounted on chassis by two steering bearings which are lubricated ball type angular contact bearings with significant radial force components. These bearings are designed to withstand maximum vehicle loads for target durability. Maximum load carrying capacity depends on the number and size of the balls, bearing size and material. For target durability with designed load carrying capacity, the ball contact pressure, bearing preload plays a major role as compared to other design parameters. Geometry parameters and maximum load defines contact pressure for given bearing design. But in two wheelers due to nature of usage and road conditions, the peak loads are dynamic and geometry based design calculations may not yield the most optimal bearing design. In this work the bearing ball race profile design is optimized by using dynamic bearing contact profiles by using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0026
Meichun Peng, Jiahao Wang, jiaru li
In order to reduce fuel consumption of the HONDA Energy Saving Race car, by analyzing the driving characteristics, the road condition of track and racing rules, a fuel consumption model of racing car was developed based on automobile kinematics theory. The model was applied to study the eco-driving scheme which was mainly focused on optimizing design of throttle opening and the speed range of acceleration and deceleration based on the racing track condition. Several eco-driving schemes ware proposed, and it is gotten the optimum results which is the engine throttle opening is controlled at 60% to 80%, and the vehicle speed is remained in 5 to 65km/h when acceleration and deceleration. In addition, the racing car should coast in neutral fully within the allowable running time by the racing rules. The eco-driving scheme was described in driving cycle and input into the vehicle fuel consumption simulation model developed, and calculated the average fuel consumption.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0028
Pascal Piecha, Philipp Bruckner, Roland Kirchberger, Florian Schumann, Stephan Meyer PhD, Tim Gegg, Stefan Leiber
Two-stroke engines with small displacement are used in many cases as affordable and low-maintenance propulsion for motorcycles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. In recent years considerable progress regarding reductions of emissions have been reached. But nevertheless, a further improvement of two-stroke engines is necessary to cover protection of health and environment. In addition, the shortage of fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate change call for a sensual use of natural resources and therefore the fuel consumption and engine efficiency needs to be improved. A common method for improving the working processes of these engines is the application of suitable analysis methods. The thermodynamic loss analysis is a frequently applied method to examine the working process and is universally adaptable.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0060
Ashish Jain, Sahil Kapahi
A Formula SAE competition is characterized by typical track layouts having slaloms, tight corners and short straights, which favor a particular range of engine speed for a given set of gear ratios. Therefore, it is imperative that the powertrain is optimized for the corresponding engine rpm band. This paper describes the process of designing, simulating and validating an air intake manifold for an inline four cylinder four-stroke internal combustion gasoline engine based on analysis of required vehicle performance. The requirements for the design of subject intake were set considering the rules of FSAE competitions and analysis of engine performance patterns for typical competition scenarios, carried out using OPTIMUM Lap software. Manifold geometry was optimized using results of air flow simulations performed on ANSYS CFX, and subsequent effect of this geometry on the engine was modelled using 1D simulation on RICARDO Wave.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2231
Aras Mirfendreski, Andreas Schmid, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende
Longitudinal models are used to evaluate different vehicle-engine concepts with respect to driving behavior and emissions. The engine is generally map-based. An explicit calculation of both fluid dynamics inside the engine air path and cylinder combustion is not considered due to long computing times. Particularly for dynamic certification cycles (WLTC, US06 etc.), dynamic engine effects severely influence the quality of results. Hence, an evaluation of transient engine behavior with map-based engine models is restricted to a certain extent. The coupling of detailed 1D-engine models is an alternative, which rapidly increases the model computation time to approximately 300 times higher than that of real time In many technical areas, the Fourier Transformation (FT) method is applied, which makes it possible to represent superimposed oscillations by their sinusoidal harmonic oscillations of different orders.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2158
Jian Gao, Giacomo Cuneo
In small and compact class vehicles equipped with diesel engines, the 2-valve-per-cylinder design still holds a significant share of the market, notably for European traditional diesel-oriented OEMs. Such engines are very efficient and reasonably fun-to-drive, while being complaint to the increasingly stringent emission regulations, showing the technical and commercial potential of 2-valve engine is far from exhausted. The current work describes the numerical simulation of port-valve-cylinder flow in a 1.2L 2-valve-per-cylinder diesel engine to characterize the performance of its manifold and intake ports at rated power conditions as part of the development activities for this new diesel engine architecture. First, evaluation metrics were defined and analysis procedure was established for CFD assessment of intake manifold performance in multi-cylinder engines.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2160
Alexander Bech, Paul J. Shayler, Michael McGhee
The application of cylinder deactivation technology to small, three cylinder spark ignition engines has the potential to further improve the part load fuel economy of these downsized engines. Although the technology is well established and proven for larger multi-cylinder engines, this is not the case for the class of 1.0litre, three cylinder engines produced by several OEM’s for use in small cars. Deactivating one cylinder by leaving the intake and exhaust valves closed and cutting fuelling requires the other two cylinders to produce more work output to compensate. This changes the distribution of heat rejection to the engine structure. The resulting increases in temperature gradients within the engine structure, and transient response times for thermal adjustments following deactivation or reactivation are examples of the uncertainties which the work reported addresses.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2196
Stefan Stojanovic, Andrew Tebbs, Stephen Samuel, John Durodola
With a push to continuously develop traditional engine technology efficiencies and meet stringent emissions requirements, there is a need to improve the precision of injection rate measurement used to characterise the performance of the fuel injectors. New challenges in precisely characterising injection rate present themselves to the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), with the additional requirements to measure multiple injection strategies, increased injection pressure and rate features. One commonly used method of measurement is the rate tube injection analyser; it measures the pressure wave caused by the injection within a column of stationary fluid. In a rate tube, one of the significant sources of signal distortion is a result of the injected fluid pressure waves reflected back from the tube termination.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2340
Bin Mao, Mingfa Yao, Zunqing Zheng, Haifeng Liu
An experimental study is carried out to investigate the effects of the proportion between high-pressure and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation on engine operation. The boosting system is a series 2-stage turbocharger with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) as the high-pressure stage. The HP-portion in dual loop EGR (DL-EGR) is swept from 0 to 1 while the intake pressure and EGR rate are fixed by adjusting the rack position of VGT. The results show that the HP-portion in DL-EGR and rack position of VGT both have great influence on the amount of exhaust enthalpy and the overall turbocharger efficiency which are critical in achieving an optimum trade-off in pumping losses and indicated thermal efficiency. For the conditions with insufficient exhaust enthalpy, pure HPL-EGR or pure LPL-EGR both have the potential to achieve satisfactory fuel efficiency.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2197
Chengjun Du, Mats Andersson, Sven Andersson
Effects of nozzle geometry on diesel spray characteristics were studied in a spray chamber using three single-hole nozzles, one cylindrical and two conical, designated N1 (outlet diameter 140 µm, k-factor 0), N2 (outlet diameter 140 µm, k-factor 2) and N3 (outlet diameter 136 µm, k-factor 2). To characterize the hydraulic properties of the nozzles, impingement measurements were carried out under ambient conditions and injection pressures ranging from 800 to 1600 bar. Spray experiments were performed with each of these nozzles at two constant gas densities (15 and 30 kg/m3), one temperature 673 K, at which evaporation occurs. A light absorption scattering technique using visible and UV light was implemented, and the liquid and vapor phase distributions were imaged. The data show that effects of nozzle geometry on the vapor phase penetration and local spray cone angle differ with gas density and injection pressure.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2191
Peter Deckelmann, Tina Dietrich
This paper will focus on a powertrain injector application (PIA) solution for R&D and production. PIA is a product for triggering and analyzing current and newly developed injection valves (both piezo and solenoid). The article examines an important obstacle of injection testing, which is creating realistic environmental conditions for injectors. It shows, how PIA realizes this through high-end ECU simulation for current and new generations, creating different operating conditions. Berghof Testing combined control, performance and measuring technology into PIA. The compact, intelligent and economical device can be integrated into all existing injector test systems. In addition to the standard version the application offers enhancements such as intelligent injections, injector calibration, polarity detection and image processing for spray analyses. This excludes evaluations based on erroneous fundamentals of the injection behavior to make sure injection can in fact get cleaner.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2198
Chikara Dodate, Sachio Mori, Masato Kawauchi, Rio Shimizu
In recent years, a lot of direct-injection gasoline engines are developed due to the high rated power, low end torque and fuel efficiency because of increased volumetric efficiency and reduced knocking. On the other hand, the measure for particular matters (PM) and the oil dilution become important. Therefore it is necessary to identify a spray behavior in cylinder with the combination of flow to design a direct injector. To identify the spray behavior, a CFD analysis has been utilized. However, before it was necessary to fit spray model constants and parameters based on measurement results including a penetration and SMD. Especially, in the case of the nozzle whose sectional area of exit is larger than that of inlet like a fan-shape spray nozzle, the fitting process is complicated, because of an inhomogeneity internal flow. In this study, new simulation method of spray is developed.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2193
Gen Shibata, Hideyuki Ogawa, Fukei Sha, Kota Tashiro
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) has become widely used in diesel engines, and regular regeneration is necessary to remove particulate matter accumulating on the DPF. This may be achieved with fuel injected after the main combustion is complete, so-called post fuel injection, and supplied to the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the DPF. This increases the exhaust gas temperature in the DOC and the DPF is regenerated with this high temperature gas flow. In most cases, the post fuel injection takes place at 30-90 CA ATDC, and the fuel may impinge on and adhere to the cylinder liner in some cases. The research group of Buddie and Pischinger have reported oil dilution with the post fuel injection by engine tests and simulations. Such adhering fuel is a cause of worsening fuel consumption.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2229
Alessio Dulbecco, Stephane Richard, Olivier Laget, Philippe Aubret
Turbulence is a crucial topic to account for when dealing with Spark Ignition (SI) engines. In fact, it is well known that combustion in SI engines strongly depends on in-cylinder turbulence characteristics. By definition turbulence presents three-dimensional features; accordingly, three dimensional approaches are mainly used to investigate the in-cylinder flow and assist the engine design process over a large range of operating conditions. However, SI engine architectures are becoming more and more complex and the generalization of technologies such as Variable Valve Timing (VVT) and Direct Injection (DI) considerably increase the number of degrees of freedom to account for. In this context, the resources demanded by 3D CFD codes hugely increase and car manufacturers privilege system simulation approaches, commonly based on models adopting 0D / 1D formalisms.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2349
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Ram Krishna Kumar Singh, Jham Tikoliya
To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs. For Commercial Vehicles, an attempt is made to decrease weight of the current design without compromising its strength & stiffness, considering/bearing all the worst road/engine load cases and severe environmental conditions. The topic was chosen because of interest in higher payloads, lower weight, and higher efficiency. Automotive cylinder head must be lighter in weight, to meet increasingly demanding customer requirements. The design approach for cylinder head has made it difficult to achieve this target. A designer might make some judgment as to where ribs are required to provide stiffness, but this is based on engineering experience and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the stand-alone head.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2337
Ken Naitoh, Ken AYUKAWA, Daiki Ikoma, Takuya Nakai, Susumu OYANAGI, Takuto KANASE, Jumpei TSUCHIYA
Computational and theoretical analyses for the new type of engine (Fugine), which we proposed based on supermulti-jets colliding with pulse, indicate a potential of very high thermal efficiencies and also less combustion noise. (Naitoh et al, SAE papers 2012-2015, and AIAA papers 2011-2015) Thus, we developed three types of prototype engines. One of the three has a cheap injector of gasoline injected in suction port (Injection pressure = 0.35 MPa) and a double piston system. Combustion experiments obtained for the prototype engine of gasoline show a high thermal efficiency comparable to that of Diesel engine and also less combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines. (submitted as an abstract for SAE Baltimore, 2016). Fuel injection in suction port of this prototype engine will bring relatively homogeneous charge of vapor fuel of gasoline, which will lead to low NOx and low Soot.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2336
Ken Naitoh, Soichi OHARA, Yuichi ONUMA, Kentaro kojima, Kenya Hasegawa, Tomoya SHIRAI
Combustion experiments obtained for a small single-point auto-ignition gasoline engine having strongly-asymmetric double piston unit without poppet valves, in which multi-jets injected from eight suction nozzles with pulse collide around the combustion chamber center, showed both a high thermal efficiency comparable to that of today’s diesel engine and also a silent combustion comparable to that of today’s spark-ignition gasoline engines, at the condition of low road and 2000rpm. While this gasoline engine having a medium level of point compression generated by a negative pressure of about 0.04 MPa and also an additional mechanical homogeneous compression ratio of about 8:1 without throttle valves, steady-state experiments of combustion at air-fuel ratios between 20:1 and 40:1 (lean conditions) show apparent increase of exhaust temperature over 100 degrees and pressures over 1.5 MPa, even at the situations without any plugs.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2244
Ulrich Spicher, Max Magar, Jens Hadler
Today, most gasoline direct injection engines (DISI) are developed as downsizing concepts featuring homogeneous mixtures and boosting (turbocharging). These engines exhibit increased power output, improved torque behavior as well as lower fuel consumption in typical test cycles compared to conventional gasoline engines. Future emission legislations will focus on real driving conditions that generally result in increased fuel consumption and exhaust emissions compared to the present statutory testing conditions. Thus a considerable optimization of the combustion process has to be achieved in order to meet future emission standards under real driving conditions. In order to enable considerable improvements in engine efficiency and emissions mixture stratification in combination with boosting has to be implemented for part load conditions. However in high to full load operation a stoichiometric homogeneous mixture is still required.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2235
Prithwish Kundu, Riccardo Scarcelli, Sibendu Som, Andrew Ickes, Yan Wang, John Kiedaisch, M Rajkumar
Heat loss through wall boundaries play a dominant role in the overall performance and efficiency of internal combustion engines. Typical engine simulations use constant temperature wall boundary conditions. These boundary conditions cannot be estimated accurately from experiments due to the complexities involved with engine combustion. As a result they introduce a large uncertainty in engine simulations and serve as a tuning parameter. Modeling the process of heat transfer through the solid walls in an unsteady engine CFD simulation can lead to the development of higher fidelity engine simulation models. These models can be used to study the impact of heat loss on engine efficiency and explore new design methodologies that can reduce heat losses. In this work a single cylinder diesel engine is modeled along with the solid piston coupled to the fluid domain.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2236
Jann Koch, Guoqing XU, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Michele Schiliro
Three dimensional reactive CFD plays a crucial role in IC engine development tasks complementing experimental efforts by providing improved understanding of the combustion process. A widely adopted combustion model in the engine community for (partially) premixed combustion is the G-Equation where the flame front is represented by an iso-level of an arbitrary scalar G. A convective-reactive equation for this iso-surface is solved, for which the turbulent flame speed ST must be provided. In this study, the commonly used and well-established Damköhler correlation is compared to a novel, physically sound closure derived from an algebraic closure for the scalar dissipation of reaction progress as proposed by Kolla et al. [1].
Viewing 1 to 30 of 31389