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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2860
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to power train calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive effect. The disruptive impact can be realized when AI application finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users. For example, automation of vehicle or machine operation can dramatically improve the efficiency. However, there is still a gap between the current technologies and the one that can fully enable the vehicle or machine intelligence including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2888
Devadatta Mukutmoni, Tristan Donley, Jaehoon Han, Karthik Mahadevan Muthuraman, P. David Campbell, Tom Mertz
Design and evaluation of construction equipments and vehicles constitute a very important but expensive and time consuming part of the engineering process. This is especially so because of the large number of variants and the relatively small production volume of each variant leading to large costs of engineering and design of vehicles as a proportion of total sales. A simulation based methodology could potentially reduce the cost and time of the entire design process. In this study, we look into an alternative simulation based approach to the design process. However, given the enormity of the task, we limit the scope of this investigation to design evaluation and improvement for thermal considerations only. In particular, thermal evaluation of the electronic control units are looked into.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2901
Shaoyun Sun, Genghua Liao, Qiang Fu, Kelong Lu, Jing Zhao, Zhengzheng Li, Jiaquan Chen, Guang Shi, Sacha Jelic, Bo Li
Trucks are designed to carry heavy load, which implies high demanding design criteria for save operation. Heavy load means a lot of energy is needed to displace the load. During a stop, the kinetic energy is transferred into heat, which can be problematic in case of excessive proportions and/or when the heat cannot be removed from the system properly. The brake system therefore needs to be designed such to be able to absorb large of amount of heat and transfer the heat out of its system by either convection, conduction and/or radiation. All three heat transfer modes play an important role since the drum brakes of trucks are not much exposed to external airflow, a significant difference from disk brakes of passenger cars analyzed in previous studies. This makes it a complex heat transfer problem which is not easy to understand. Numerical methods provide insight by visualization of the different heat transfer modes.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization. DivgiWarner has not only designed and developed but has also been practicing unique processes of cost-reduction utilizing various tools as, 1. Value Analysis and Value Engineering 2. Cost-reduction through productivity improvement 3. Supply Chain Management ( SCM) 4. Lean Manufacturing 5. Total Quality Management (TQM) 6. Control over fixed Costs 7.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2845
Qi Chen
Recent years have witnessed an increase in the number of electrical loads being driven by semiconductor devices in the body control module or BCM rather than by relays in a typical truck with a 24V vehicle power net. This paper presents the major challenges caused by the higher voltage class of the truck supply and the longer cables, followed by an analysis of some key issues related to the design of truck BCMs to drive different loads. It offers some general guidance on practical design issues to BCM designers, such as an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of different BCM architectural topologies, how to make a choice between a relay or a semiconductor driver, knowledge of the requirements of semiconductors used in truck applications etc.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2880
Fabio Luz Almeida, Philip Zoldak, Marcos de Mattos Pimenta, Pedro Teixeira Lacava
The use of numerical simulations in the development processes of engineering products has been more frequent, since it enables us to predict premature failures and to study new promising and valuable concepts. In industry, numerical simulation usually has the function of reducing the necessary number of validation tests before spending huge amount of resources on alternatives with less chance to succeed. In the context of an economically committed country, the matter of cargo transportation is of great importance, since it affects the trading of consumer goods between cities, states and their flow towards exportation. Thus, the internal combustion (ICE) Diesel cycle engines play an important role in Brazil, since they are extensively used in automotive applications and commercial cargo transportation, mainly due to their relevant advantage in fuel consumption and reliability.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2796
Tobias Gutjahr, Holger Kleinegraeber, Thorsten Huber, Thomas Kruse
The use of design of experiment (DoE) and data-driven simulation has become state-of-the-art in engine development and calibration to cope with the drastically increased complexity of today’s engine ECUs (electronic control units). Based on the representation of the engine behavior with a virtual plant model, offline optimizers can be used to find optimal settings for calibrating the engine controller’s calibration, e.g. with respect to fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. This increases the efficiency of the calibration process and reduces the need for expensive test stand runs. The present paper describes the application of Gaussian process regression, a statistical modeling approach that outperforms previous solutions based on polynomial models and artificial neural networks in terms of achievable model accuracy and usability. The implementation of the algorithms in a commercial tool framework allows for a broad use in series engine calibration.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2754
Deepak Anand Subramanian, Natarajan Siva Kumar, Abdul Rahim
The commercial vehicle industry is evolving faster with the rise in multifarious aspects deciding a company's progress. In the current scenario, vehicle performance and its reliability in the areas of payload, fuel economy, etc. play vital roles in determining its sustenance in the industry in addition to reducing driver fatigue and improving comfort levels. Test quality and time is the key to assure and affirm, smooth and quick launch of the product into the market. This paper details on the design of Multi-Axis road data simulator which entails realistic loads onto the components for capturing meaningful information on behavior of the product and recreate the field failure modes. The design was conceptualized keeping in mind both cost (for initial installation and running cost) and time for testing without a loss in the correlation factor.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2902
Songzhi Yang, Dong Wang, Yan Dang, Liguang Li
Based on the real driving condition, this paper investigated the underhood flow field and temperature distribution of a heavy commercial vehicle by utilizing CFD commercial code FLUENT. To guarantee the authenticity of simulation , three kinds of driving conditions namely idling,peak torque, rated power were considered ,detailed computational model including front bumper, grill, cabin, all the underhood and underbody components, taking into account all heat transfer phenomenon including conduction, convection ,radiation in the engine compartment. By analyzing the velocity contour in different sections, underhood temperature field distribution and inlet temperature of condenser, intercooler and radiator, we found that serious air-recirculation existed in engine compartment under idling and peak torque conditions and the temperature of some components have exceeded its normal range in peak torque condition.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2733
Samraj Benedicts, Vivek Seshan
This paper is a study of reaction forces and its effects on the chassis due to rear idler position. Rubber Track layouts and traction have been focus of most research work, here we study the effect of Rear Idler position on layout and chassis structure through simulated analysis. An agriculture paddy combine harvester with rubber track is considered for the purpose of this work. Firstly the complete undercarriage is modeled in 3D using Creo and exported to Pro Mechanica for simulation. The real time forces, constraints were applied and the results were correlated to actual field results. The simulations were optimized through several iterations to match the field test results. The simulation and field test results show good agreement to the forces and constrains applied for simulation. Secondly the model was simplified for relative analysis and simulated for different rear idler positions with alternate tensioning methods.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2794
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
The diesel exhaust aftertreatment using injection, such as urea – SCR and lean NOx trap systems, could effectively reduce the emission NOx level, and has been commonly used in various industrial applications. The performance of the injector is crucial for successfully utilizing this type of technology, and simulation tools are playing an important role in virtual design, which could evaluate performance and optimize the design. The virtual test methodology using CFD that is able to capture the fluid dynamics of injector internal nozzle flow has been developed to sever for this purpose to quantify the water or urea dosing rate of the test injector, and the computational results were validated with the test data measured in the Tenneco Injector Flow Lab. Later, the capability of the virtual test methodology was extended to quantify the spray angle of the test injector with test fluid of water or urea.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2861
Burcu Guleryuz, Martin Raper, Cagkan Kocabas
Dimensional Variation Analysis (DVA) is a decision-making methodology for tolerance analysis, and is employed to evaluate assembly variations and identify problems in manufacturing assembly processes at early stages of design. In this study, the impact of component tolerances on manufacturing and assembly process variations is presented on a case study. The case study includes the alignment analysis between crankshaft and input shaft for clutch systems. The impact of component tolerances on axial alignment measurements in regard to these applications is discussed. The study shows that when combined with effective tolerance combinations, Variation Simulation Analysis (VSA) facilitate operational visibility; thus improve quality, reduce manufacturing cost, and enable reduction of production release time. The case study presents the impact of component tolerances at two levels: 1. Pre-Design, 2. Optimized Design
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2863
Yogesh Sharma, Rohit Kumar Garg, Rishabh Raj Bhargava, Aadityeshwar Saran Singh Deo, Aditya Krishna, Shubham Garg, Rahul Mehendiratta, Ankit Goila
ABSTRACT
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2742
Linlin Wang, Hongyu Zheng, Changfu Zong, Yuchao Chen
Combining with the practical development of heavy duty vehicle, it is playing a more and more crucial role in the transportation industry due to its high fleet efficiency and fuel economy. The heavy duty vehicle’s mass varies significantly from trip to trip. The mass nonlinear fluctuation would worsen the brake performance, as the same brake pedal stroke produces larger and smaller acceleration than the ideal value, making it difficult for the unexperienced drivers to manipulate vehicles especially on the critical maneuver such as sideslip, rollover and swing etc. Accurate mass information is instrumental when designing electronic brake system controller to optimize the relevant braking force distribution. Directing at the above arguments, the paper proposes two approaches to estimate vehicle mass. One is estimating vehicle mass during braking process, the other is estimating the vehicle mass during acceleration.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2841
Hongyu Zheng, Shenao Ma
In order to adapt to the quickening rhythm of the society and satisfy human's higher performance requirements of comfort and safety, the kinds of brake assist system has become more and more, smooth transformation of man-machine control is very important for the driver assistance system. At the same time, Brake-by-wire cancels the traditional mechanical connection of the system, the ECU to perceive the driver’s braking intention and send the instructions to the corresponding actuator. Thus, it is necessary to identify the driver's braking intention for Brake-By-wire system and the smooth transition of man-machine mode. This paper establishes recognition model for the driver’s braking intention recognition, which is based on analyzing and summarizing existing research of driver intention recognition.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2842
Hongyu Zheng, Jinghuan Hu, Shenao Ma
By reviewing the previous research, we put the stability of tractor trailer into two categories, roll stability and yaw stability, and identify the indicators of two kinds of stability. Further we came up with three normal stability loss situations. They are roll-over, jack-knife and trailer swing. This work extends previous tractor trailer stability research from roll stability to roll/yaw stability; moreover, we set up the object of our investigation, that is enhance the tractor-trailer stability by reducing the occurrence of three stability loss. Based on the tractor semi-trailer model built in MATLAB, we made research on how the vehicle parameters affect the entire vehicle dynamic stability. In this section, we modified the model by changing a more sophisticated tire model. This work will benefit the commercial vehicle designer in the early stage of vehicle designing.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2736
T.E. Harikrishna, P Murali, M Mufti
Vehicle handling is an important attribute that is directly related to vehicle safety. The rapid development of road infrastructure has resulted in a greater focus on safety and stability. Commercial vehicle stability and safety assumes higher significance because of high center of gravity (CG) and heavier loads. A gamut of parameters influence vehicle handling directly and indirectly. However, it is quite difficult to gauge through physical testing, the extent of each parameter’s influence on handling. Therefore, this paper examines vehicle handling by way of a sensitivity analysis through numerical simulation. A prototype vehicle is also instrumented and tested to confirm and validate the results of the suspension.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2835
Sughosh J. Rao, Mohamed Kamel Salaani, Devin Elsasser, Frank Barickman, Joshua L. Every, Dennis A. Guenther
This study was performed to showcase the possible applications of the Hardware in the Loop (HIL) simulation environment developed at The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) research lab, to test heavy truck Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems. In this study, the HIL simulation environment was used to recreate (an interpretation of) an actual accident scenario involving a single tractor-trailer. The scenario was then simulated with and without an ESC system to investigate the advantages afforded by the ESC system, if any. An acutal crash scenario reported in the Large Truck Crash Causation Survey (LTCCS), involving a single tractor-trailer was chosen. The crash scenario was interpretted as a path following problem and three possible driver intended paths were developed from the accident scene data. A path following algorithm was implemented in Simulink to simulate these paths.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2889
R. Saravana Venkatesh, Sunil Pandey, Sathyanandan Mahadevan
In heavy duty diesel engines, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is often preferred choice to contain NOx emissions. Critical to such EGR fitted engines is the design of air intake pipe and intake manifold combination in view of proper EGR gas mixing with intake air. The variation in EGR mass fraction at each intake ports should be as minimal as possible and this variation must be contained within +/- 10% band to have a minimal cylinder to cylinder variation of pollutants. EGR homogeneity for various intake configurations were studied using 3D CFD for a 4 cylinder 3.8 L diesel fuel, common rail system, turbocharged and intercooled heavy duty engine. Flow field was studied in the computational domain from the point before EGR mixing till all the four intake ports. EGR mass fraction variation at each intake port was calculated from this analysis after carrying out an experimental validation of the CFD model.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2873
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep Sharma, Sanjay Tiwari, Umashanker Gupta
Years ago the main purpose of heavy duty truck is to carrying the loads, in the current scenario cabin comfort and safety is also equally important. With the improved infrastructure quality the average speed of these types of vehicle has also been increased. With the higher average speed, the chances of getting crash have also been increased. In order to provide safety to the driver, all the safety parameters should be considered in advance at the time of design and development of cabin. Sufficient survival space must be present at the time of crash. In order to provide optimum ride comfort, fully suspended cab was designed. The main aim of this study is to develop detailed 3D finite element (FE) model of fully suspended heavy duty truck cabin with detailed suspensions system and simulate crash test scenario presented in regulation ECE-R29 using LS-Dyna explicit solver.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2869
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep Sharma, Umashanker Gupta, Ravi Joshi, Shailesh Pawar
Buses are one of the main and favorite sources of public transit in India. Thousands of people die or injure severely every year due to Bus accidents. Passenger injury in Bus accidents can be due to high stiff seat structures. Most of the occupants seated in the second row or further back were injured by hitting the seat back in the row in front of them. AIS023 (AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY STANDARDS) is one of the several mandatory standards from CMVR (CENTRAL MOTOR VEHICLES RULES) to ensure the safety during crash. As per AIS-023 passenger seat of bus should not cause injury because of high stiffness, on the other hand seat should also be able to carry the passenger force during accidents. With this mechanism AIS023 specifies minimum and maximum range deformations of seat back to minimize the passenger injury. This study includes the FE (Finite Element) analysis and design of Bus seat as per AIS023 test setup with LS-Dyna explicit tool.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2774
Hoon Lee, Hoimyung Choi, Minje Park, Kyoungdoug Min, Nankyu Lee, Jinil Park, Jong-Hwa Lee
To properly responding to the demand of reducing national energy consumption and meet greenhouse gas emission target based on environment policy, the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy of Korea formed a research consortium consisting of government agency, industry, academy, and research institution to support establishing the first fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty (MHD) vehicles. The standards are expected to be introduced in 2017 as the basic plan and will regulate MHD trucks with a gross vehicle weight in excess of 3.5 ton and buses with a carrying capacity above 16 persons. Most MHD vehicles are custom-made, manufactured under diversified small quantity batch production system for commercial or public use, resulting difficulties in utilizing mandatory vehicle tests for fuel efficiency evaluation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2830
Shashank Agarwal, Michael Olson, Tim Meehan, Nachiket Wadwankar
Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyses three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque converter transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid system (Eaton architecture) are compared for their performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two configurations. Improved performance is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2829
Antti Lajunen
Improving the energy efficiency of heavy non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) has become more and more important in order to reduce their energy consumption and CO2 emissions. At the same time, tightening emission standards for machinery encourage manufactures to develop advanced and alternative powertrain systems that can reduce the pollutant emissions and increase energy efficiency. Electrification has been considered as a sustainable approach to improve energy efficiency and reduce emission in transportation. Hybrid and electric powertrains have been successfully adopted for passenger vehicles and some heavy vehicle applications such as city buses. Electrification of heavy machinery is in its early phase but it is likely to increase in coming years. As there are not many studies published about the electrification of heavy mobile machinery, more research is needed to be done, especially in comparison of different powertrain technologies.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2893
Ashok Patidar, Umashanker Gupta, Ankur Bansal
Market driven competition in global trade and urgency for controlling the atmospheric air pollution are the twin forces, which have urged Indian automobile industries to catch up with the international emission norms. Improvement in the fuel efficiency of the vehicles is one way to bind to these stringent norms. It is experimentally proven that almost 45% of the engine power is being consumed to overcome the drag resistance and around 40% to overcome the tire rolling resistance of the vehicle. This as evidence provides a huge scope to investigate the influence of aerodynamic drag and rolling resistances on the fuel consumption of a commercial vehicle. The present work is a numerical study on the influence of aerodynamic drag resistance on the fuel consumption of a commercial passenger bus. The commercial CFD code FLUENT is used as a solver to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. Around 35% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2894
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Mithun Shetty
The performance of several aerodynamic technologies and approaches, such as trailer skirts, trailer boat tails, gap deflectors and gap reduction, was evaluated using track testing, model wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation, in order to assess the influence of the design, position and combination of various aerodynamic devices. Scale model wind tunnel tests were conducted to have the best direct performance comparisons between several possible configurations. The track test procedure followed the SAE J1321 SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedure - Type II. The wind tunnel tests were conducted on a 1/8 scale model of a tractor in combination with a 53-foot semi-trailer. The tests consisted of two phases: setting the initial baseline, and component testing of various configurations.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2731
Xingjian Gu, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
As a new form of electric vehicle, four-wheel-independent electric vehicle inherits a large number of advantages of in-wheel motor drive electric vehicle for the huge difference from the traditional vehicle in mechanical structure. The vehicle is driven by four in-wheel motors and the steering system is controlled by X-By-Wire (XBW). Steering system is liberated from traditional mechanical steering mechanism and forms an advanced vehicle with all-wheel independent driving, braking and steering. Compared with conventional vehicles, it has more controllable degrees of freedom. The integrated vehicle dynamics control systems help to achieve the steering, driving and braking coordinated control and improve the vehicle’s handling stability and safety. In order to solve the problem of lacking of vehicle state information in the integrated control, some methods are used to estimate the vehicle state of four-wheel-independent electric vehicles with XBW.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2777
Gary Salemme, Erik Dykes, Daniel Kieffer, Michael Howenstein, Matthew Hunkler, Manik Narula
Simulations used to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel consumption of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles over prescribed drive cycles often employ engine fuel maps consisting of engine measurements at numerous steady-state operating conditions. However, simulating the engine in this way has limitations as engine controls become more complex, particularly when attempting to use steady-state measurements to represent transient operation. This paper explores an alternative approach to vehicle simulation that uses a “cycle average” engine map rather than a steady state engine fuel map. The map contains engine CO2 values measured on an engine dynamometer on cycles derived from vehicle drive cycles for a range of generic vehicles. A similar cycle average mapping approach is developed for a powertrain (engine and transmission) in order to show the specific CO2 improvements due to powertrain optimization that would not be recognized in other approaches.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2890
Felix Hoffmann, Hanns-Joachim Schmidt, Christian Nayeri, Oliver Paschereit
The potential of drag reduction on a generic model of a heavy vehicle using base flaps operated in combination with passive and active flow control devices is investigated experimentally. Base flaps are well known as drag reduction devices for bluff bodies and heavy road vehicles. However, for optimal performance their deflection angle should typically not exceed 12°. The primary goal of ongoing investigations is to increase the usable range of the deflection angles by applying flow control. The secondary goal is to find the most suitable method for flow control. In this paper we compare triangular vortex generators and fluidic oscillators as passive and active flow control methods, respectively. These methods are used on declined surfaces or airfoils for shifting flow separation towards higher deflection angles. Vortex generators have the advantage of being very simple devices but produce drag. Fluidic oscillators are also quite simple devices but require additional air supply.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2761
Boris Belousov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Sergei Naumov, Vitalii Stepnov, Anna Klimachkova
An electro-hydraulic servo system makes the basis for a mechatronic locomotion module (LM) and for a complex comprising an LM and an undercarriage of a vehicle. The servo system of the wheel module/LM complex is a combination of the information and power channels of the electro-hydraulic wheel drive within the steering system. A combination of the servo systems makes up a complex of servo systems of the steering system of the multi axis wheel mover of the vehicle. Theoretical and experimental studies of the functioning all-wheel steering were aimed on substantiation the rational algorithmic maintenance of the automatic control system. The results of the study allowed formulating the basic principles of designing and calculating the functionality algorithms for the steering system of the complex of mechatronic modules of the multi-axis vehicle.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 30379