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2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9451
Marouen Hamdi, Drew Manica, Hung-Jue Sue
Abstract Brightness, transparency, and color impact critically the aesthetics of polymeric surfaces. They can significantly change the perception of common damages such as scratch and mar. Particularly, subtle mar damage is more dependent on surface perceptual properties. In this study, we investigate the impact of these attributes on scratch and mar visibility resistance of commercialized polymeric model systems frequently used in automotive industry. Twenty subjects were involved in a psychophysical test based on pairwise comparison, and results were treated using multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. A tied ordinal weighted Euclidian MDS model was used to visualize the relational structures of mar perception space. Results show that scratch visibility resistance tends to decrease with dark, more transparent, and green surfaces. Mar perception was reasonably conceptualized by a two-dimensional MDS space.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9450
Ali Reza Taherkhani, Carl Gilkeson PhD, Philip Gaskell PhD, Rob Hewson PhD, Vassili Toropov PhD, Amin Rezaienia PhD, Harvey Thompson
Abstract This paper investigates the optimization of the aerodynamic design of a police car, BMW 5-series which is popular police force across the UK. A Bezier curve fitting approach is proposed as a tool to improve the existing design of the warning light cluster in order to reduce drag. A formal optimization technique based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and moving least squares (MLS) is used to determine the control points for the approximated curve to cover the light-bar and streamline the shape of the roof. The results clearly show that improving the aerodynamic design of the roofs will offer an important opportunity for reducing the fuel consumption and emissions for police vehicles. The optimized police car has 30% less drag than the non-optimized counter-part.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9075
Rami Abousleiman, Osamah Rawashdeh, Romi Boimer
Abstract Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and the unstable fuel prices have increased the sales of electric vehicles. Energy-efficient routing for electric vehicles requires novel algorithmic challenges because traditional routing algorithms are designed for fossil-fueled vehicles. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, alongside the uncertainty make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a solution to the energy-efficient routing problem for electric vehicles using ant colony optimization. Simulation and real-world test results demonstrate savings in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when driven on the generated routes. Real-world test results revealed more than 9% improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when driven on the recommended route rather than the routes proposed by Google Maps and MapQuest.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9625
Souhir Tounsi
Abstract In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0276
Lev Klyatis
This paper considers the situation in the laboratory testing: different stress types and accelerated testing, including accelerated reliability/durability testing, accelerated life testing, reliability testing, proving grounds, vibration, temperature, voltage, humidity, and others. In comparison with field situation, most of these testing simulate only one or part of the field input influences. One uses often not accurately the theory of physics-of-degradation process or failures for comparison of the field results with laboratory results. Thos situation will be considered with practical examples. It will be demonstrated that often used laboratory testing does not offer the possibility for successful prediction of product performance during service life As a result, there are many complaints, recalls, less profit than was predicted during design and manufacturing. It will be shown how one can improve this situation..
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0201
Tejas Janardan Sarang, Amar Phatak, Jay Bendkhale
Due to rapidly changing trends in the market, automotive manufacturers are always struggling to release new vehicles with drastically reduced timelines. Therefore, it is very important to constantly optimize the development phases, starting from concept initiation to the final testing of production ready vehicle. The real world tests conducted on vehicles take huge amount of time, since these tests are carried out for large kilometers to periodically analyze tire wear, clutch wear, brake failure etc. Collecting large kilometers of CAN data is also tedious and time consuming due to various unwanted variables which add up during real world tests. In this paper, a technique known as Rescale Range Analysis is adapted to abridge the collection of kilometers data from testing by nearly ten times. This analysis estimates a Hurst coefficient to correlate the entire data with its divided parts. The division factor of the entire data is very crucial for the analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0301
Lu Huang, Ming Shi
Forming limit curve (FLC) is a useful tool to characterize the formability of sheet metals. It can be used as a failure criterion in a laboratory setting or computer simulation for forming/stamping studies and in actual production in a press shop to assess the formability severity. Digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been proved as a potent tool to determine the FLC of sheet metals. Despite of its rising popularity, one of the major technical challenges using the DIC to generate FLC is to accurately pinpoint the onset of localized necking based on DIC data analysis. In addition to the commonly applied ISO 12004-2 standard, a plethora of DIC data analysis approaches have been developed. In this study, five different approaches have been practiced to determine the limit strains at the onset of localized necking, including: ISO12004-2 standard, second derivative, gliding correlation coefficient, linear best fit, and curvature assisted necking zone methods.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0305
Liang Huang, Charles Yuan
This paper focus on the design approach of mapping the equivalent bead to the physical bead geometry. In principle, the physical character and geometry of equivalent bead is represented as restraining force (N/mm) and a line (bead center line). During draw development, the iterations are performed to conclude the combination of restraining force that obtains the desired strain state of a given panel. The objective of physical bead design to determine a bead geometry that has the capacity to generate the same force as specified in 2D plane strain condition. The software package ABAQUS/CAE/iSight is utilized as primary tool. In the approach, the bead geometry is sketched and parameterized in ABAQUS/CAE and optimized with iSight to finalize the bead geometry. This paper also discuss the special consideration of lock bead design.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0311
Pedro Stemler, Anoop Samant, Dennis Hofmann, Taylan Altan
The capabilities of the servo press for varying the ram speed during stroke and for adjusting the stroke length are well known. Also during the blanking operation, the servo can help to slow down the press at the critical moment of blanking without losing overall productivity. The overall objective of this study is to determine, for a selected sheet material and hole diameter, the servo press motion that possibly could provide the “Best” possible blanked/sheared edge quality to improve the Hole Expansion Ratio (HER) in hole flanging. The specific objectives are to determine the effect of ram (blanking) speed upon the edge quality, and the effect of multiple step blanking (as much as possible with the servo press available) using several punch motions, during one blanking stroke. The material used in these studies was 1.4 mm thick 780 MPa TRIP steel and the blanked hole had a diameter of 75 mm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0829
Gina M. Magnotti, Caroline L. Genzale
The atomization and initial spray formation processes in direct injection engines are not well understood due to the experimental and computational challenges associated with resolving these processes. Although different physical mechanisms, such as aerodynamic-induced instabilities and nozzle-generated turbulence and cavitation, have been proposed in the literature to describe these processes, direct validation of the theoretical basis of these models under engine-relevant conditions has not been possible to date. Recent developments in droplet sizing measurement techniques offer a new opportunity to evaluate droplet size distributions formed in the central and peripheral regions of the spray. There is therefore a need to understand how these measurements might be utilized to validate unobservable physics in the near nozzle-region.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1665
Qigui Wang, Peggy Jones, Yucong Wang, Dale Gerard
With the increasing use of aluminum shape castings in structural applications in the automotive and aerospace industries, assurance of cast product integrity and performance has become critical in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, the latest understanding of the relationship between casting quality and mechanical properties of aluminum castings is summarized. Newly developed technologies for alloy design, melting and melt treatment, casting and heat treatment processes in aluminum casting are reviewed. Robust design and development of high integrity aluminum castings through Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) approach is also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0314
Lu Huang, Ming Shi, Patrick Russell
Fracture strain data provide essential information for material selection and serve as an important failure criterion in the computer simulations of crash events. Traditionally, the fracture strain was measured by evaluating the thinning at fracture using tools such as microscopes or a point micrometer. In the recent decades, digital image correlation (DIC) has evolved as a state-of-the-art optical system to record full-field strain history of materials. Using this method, a complete set of the fracture strains (including major, minor, and thinning strains) can be approximated for the material with the recorded data prior to a visible crack. However, results directly obtained with DIC can be dependent on experimental setup and evaluation parameters, which potentially introduce errors to the reported results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0849
Chao Gong, Roland Baar
The present work has its technical background in the field of Diesel injection systems of combustion engines and compares the effects of two kinds of remedies (re-meshing technique and linear interpolation technique) on mesh deformation. Mathematical formulation of moving grids has been proposed to guide the change of cell volume before. In this study, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis was mainly involved to study the internal nozzle behaviours and spray characteristics. An external library concept was introduced to couple the internal nozzle injection process with spray formation. In addition, all dynamic simulations were performed under a double-axis system. The comparison between simulation and experimental results shows that the integration of the traditional mesh deformation technique with the re-meshing or linear interpolation technique can repair mesh deformation and further contribute to better simulation results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0060
Heiko Doerr, Thomas End, Lena Kaland
The release of the ISO 26262 in November 2011 was a major milestone for the safeguarding of safety-related systems that include one or more electrical and / or electronic (E/E) systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars. Although no specific requirements exist for a model-based software development process, ISO 26262 compiles general requirements and recommendations that need to be interpreted for model-based development. The second edition of the ISO 26262 is about to be released. This revised edition not only integrates the experiences of the last few years but also extends the overall scope of safety-related systems. In order to determine the necessary adaptions for already existing software development processes, a detailed analysis of this revision is necessary. In this work, we focus on an analysis and the impact on model-based software development of safety-related systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0254
Sudeep Chavare, Kevin Thomson, Nitin Sharma
Adopting parametric approach to optimize CAE models for various objectives is a common practice these days. Connection entities such as welds and adhesive play a very important role in overall performance matrix and hence adding them to the pool of design variables during an optimization exercise provides additional design space. This paper evaluates the possibility to use structural adhesives as patches rather than continuous lines. The method presented in this paper offers unique approach to parameterize adhesive lines. The paper discusses an optimization study with structural adhesives patches along with spot weld pitch as design variables. Body in White (BiW) and Trimmed Body in White (TBiW) models are used for analysis .The goal of the study is to reduce total length of structural adhesive as well as number of welds while maintaining baseline NVH performance as constraints.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0054
Daniel Kaestner, Antoine Miné, André Schmidt, Heinz Hille, Laurent Mauborgne, Stephan Wilhelm, Xavier Rival, Jérôme Feret, Patrick Cousot, Christian Ferdinand
Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. All contemporary safety standards require evidence that no data races and no critical run-time errors occur, such as invalid pointer accesses, buffer overflows, or arithmetic overflows. Such errors can cause software crashes, invalidate separation mechanisms in mixed-criticality software, and are a frequent cause of errors in concurrent and multi-core applications. In the past stablished semantics-based static analysis tools could not handle concurrent programs with the same level of soundness, coverage, and automation as sequential programs. Typically they didn't cover all potential process interleavings, required extensive user interaction, had limited support for concurrency primitives and failed to detect all potential concurrency-specific hazards such as data races. We present an extension of the static analyzer Astrée to soundly and automatically analyze concurrent software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0227
Omar Al-Shebeeb, Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan
Process planning, whether generative or variant, can be used effectively as through the incorporation of computer aided tools that enhance the evaluator impact of the dialogue between the design and manufacturing functions. Expert systems and algorithms are inherently incorporated into the software tools used herein. This paper examines the materials related implications that influence design for manufacturing issues. Generative process planning software tools are utilized to analyze the sensitivity of the effectiveness of the process plans with respect to changing attributes of material properties. The shift that occurs with respect to cost and production rates of process plans with respect to variations in specific material properties are explored. The research will be analyzing the effect of changes in material properties with respect to the design of a specific product that is prismatic and is produced exclusively by machining processes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0321
Silvio César Bastos
This case study describes improvements to the pin grinding and superfinishing processes for a 900 mm long, 60 kg forged crankshaft used in a six cylinder diesel engine. Machining vibrations caused by the eccentricity of the mass of the pins in relation to the journals increase the difficulty of achieving a stable and capable process. Through analysis of the crankshaft and connecting rod assembly, an opportunity was identified to improve the pin profile along its 30 mm length. Based on measurements, it was found that, due to variations on the order of five microns, the pin profile (nominally linear) may vary between concave or convex shape. Process improvements were focused on the form grinding profile. The amplitude of the grinding profile was established between zero and five microns tending to convex shape.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0134
Jan Eller, Heinrich Reister, Thomas Binner, Nils Widdecke, Jochen Wiedemann
There is a growing need for life-cycle data – so-called collectives – when developing components like elastomer engine mounts. Current standardized extreme load cases are not sufficient for establishing such collectives. Instead of using endurance testing data – which necessitates full vehicle on-road tests – a prediction methodology for component temperature collectives utilizing existing 3D CFD simulation models is presented. The method uses support points to approximate the full collective. Each support point is defined by a component temperature and a position on the time axis of the collective. Since it is the only currently available source for component temperature data, endurance testing data is used to develop the new method. The component temperature range in this data set is divided in temperature bands. Groups of driving states are determined which are each representative of an individual band.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0847
Ming Ge, Xingyu Liang, Hanzhengnan Yu, Yuesen Wang, Hongsheng Zhang
Spray impacting on a lube oil film with a finite thickness is a common phenomenon in IC engines and plays a critical role in the fuel-air mixture process and combustion. With the use of early injection strategy to achieve HCCI combustion mode in diesel engines, this phenomenon becomes more and more prominent. In addition, oxygenated fuels such as methanol and ethanol are regarded as alternative fuel and additives to improve the overall performance of HCCI engine. Therefore, a better understanding about the role of lube oil film thickness in methanol-diesel and ethanol-diesel blended fuels spray/wall impingement is helpful for accumulating experimental data to establish a more accurate spray/wall impingement model and optimize the combustion in HCCI engines. In this paper, the effect of lube oil film thickness on the characteristics of spray/wall impingement of different fuels are investigated in a constant volume bomb test system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0964
Jakob Heide, Mikael Karlsson, Mireia Altimira
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx through injection of Urea-Water-Solution (UWS) into the hot exhaust gas stream is an effective and extensively used strategy in internal combustion engines. Even though actual SCR systems have 95-96% de-NOx efficiency over test cycles, real driving emissions of NOx are much higher, hence proving that there is room for improvement. The efficiency of the NOx conversion is highly dependent on the size of UWS droplets and their spatial distribution. These factors are, in turn, mainly determined by the spray characteristics and its interaction with the exhaust gas flow. The main purpose of this study is to numerically investigate the sensitivity to the modelling framework of the evaporation and mixing of the spray upstream of the catalyst. The dynamics of discrete droplets is handled through the Lagrangian Particle Tracking framework, with models that account for droplet breakup and coalescence, turbulence effects, and water evaporation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0713
Håkan Persson, Aristotelis Babajimopoulos, Arjan Helmantel, Fredrik Holst, Elin Stenmark
To fulfill the demands for a future diesel engine in terms of Emission compliance, CO2 emissions, performance and cost effectiveness also sets new requirements for the development process. This paper focuses on the development of the diesel combustion system to comply with Euro 6d including real driving conditions (RDE) with emphasis on the novel methods applied throughout the process. The foundation of a high performing system is formed by first determining the requirements for the system, after which the key factors that affect system performance are selected. Based on the requirements a robust charge motion with desired flow characteristics is defined. Then, a new effective automated direct driven Combustion CFD optimization for combustion chamber and spray is developed. From the simulation pareto fronts, the best hardware solutions are selected. These candidates are selected with different attributes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1263
Dennis Kibalama, Andrew Huster, Arjun Khanna, Aditya Modak, Margaret Yatsko, Gregory Jankord, Shawn Midlam-Mohler
The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team is building a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of improving fuel economy and reducing tail pipe emissions, the Ohio State Camaro has been fitted with a 32 kW alternator-starter belt coupled to a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85). The Belted Alternator Starter (BAS), which aids engine start-stop operation, series mode, and torque assist, is powered by an 18.9 kWh Lithium Iron Phosphate energy storage system, and controlled by a DC-AC inverter/controller. This report details the modeling, calibration, testing, and validation work done by the Ohio State team to fast track development of the BAS system in Year 2 of the competition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1555
Mirosław Jan Gidlewski, Krystof JANKOWSKI, Andrzej MUSZYŃSKI, Dariusz ŻARDECKI
Lane change automation appears to be a fundamental problem of vehicle automated control, especially when the vehicle is driven at high speed. Selected relevant parts of the recent research project are reported in this paper, including literature review, the developed models and control systems, as well as crucial simulation results. In the project, two original models describing the dynamics of the controlled motion of the vehicle were used, verified during the road tests and in the laboratory environment. The first model – fully developed (multi-mass, 3D, nonlinear) – was used in simulations as a virtual plant to be controlled. The second model – a simplified reference model of the lateral dynamics of the vehicle (single-mass, 2D, linearized) – formed the basis for theoretical analysis, including the synthesis of the algorithm for automatic control. That algorithm was based on the optimal control theory.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0308
Hyunok Kim, Jianhui Shang, James Dykeman, Anoop Samant, Clifford Hoschouer
Practical evaluation and accurate prediction of edge cracking are very challenging issues in stamping AHSS for automotive body structures. This paper introduces a new hole-expansion testing method that could be more relevant to the edge cracking problem observed in stamping AHSS. A new testing method adopted a large hole diameter of 75 mm compared to the ISO standard hole diameter of 10 mm. A larger hole diameter was determined to be sensitive to edge cracking using the finite element method (FEM) based sensitivity analyses with various hole sizes. A die punching tool was developed and used to obtain consistent sheared-edge quality. An inline monitoring system was developed to visually monitor the hole edge cracking during the test and synchronize with the load-displacement data. Two AHSS materials (i.e. DP980 and TRIP780) and an aluminum alloy, A1 5182-O were experimentally evaluated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0309
Mitchell Rencheck, Paul Zelenak, Jianhui Shang, Hyunok Kim
Aluminum alloys are increasingly utilized in automotive body panels and crash components to reduce weight. Accurately assessing formability of the sheet metal can reduce design iteration and tooling tryouts to obtain the desired geometry in aluminum stampings. The current ISO forming limit curve (FLC) procedure is a position dependent technique which produces the FLC based on extrapolation at the crack location. As aluminum sheet metal use increases in manufacturing, accurate determination of the forming limits of this material will be a necessity prior to production. New time dependent methods using digital imaging correlation (DIC) account for variations in deformation behavior by continuously collecting strain data through the material necking point. This allows more accurate FLC determination that is necessary for efficient design in the automotive stamping industry.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1640
Peng Liu, Liyun Fan, Wenbo Peng, Xiuzhen Ma, Enzhe Song
A novel high-speed electromagnetic actuator for electronic fuel injection system of diesel engine is proposed in this paper. By using permanent magnet and annular flange, the design of novel actuator aims to overcome the inherent drawbacks of the conventional solenoid electromagnetic actuator, such as high power consumption and so on. The finite element model (FEM) of novel actuator is developed. Combined with design of experiments and finite element analysis, the second order polynomial response surface models (RSM) of electromagnetic force of novel actuator are produced by the least square principle. Then the influence mechanisms and interaction effects of key design variables on the electromagnetic characteristics of novel actuator are revealed by RSM.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0050
Mario Berk, Hans-Martin Kroll, Olaf Schubert, Boris Buschardt, Daniel Straub
With increasing levels of driving automation, the information provided by automotive environment sensors becomes highly safety relevant. A correct assessment of the sensor’s reliability is therefore crucial for ensuring the safety of the customer functions. There are currently no standardized procedures or guidelines for demonstrating the reliability of the sensor information. Engineers are faced with setting up test procedures and estimating efforts. Statistical hypothesis tests are commonly employed in this context. In this contribution, we present an alternative method based on Bayesian parameter inference, which is easy to implement and whose interpretation is more intuitive for engineers without a profound statistical education. It also enables a more realistic representation of dependencies among errors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0363
Karthik Ramaswamy, Vinay L. Virupaksha, Jeanne Polan, Biswajit Tripathy
EPP foams are most commonly used in automotive applications for pedestrian protection and to meet low speed bumper regulatory requirements. In today’s automotive world the design of vehicles are predominantly driven by CAE. This makes it necessary to have validated material model for EPP foams in order to simulate and predict performance under various loading conditions. Since most of the automotive OEMs depend on local material suppliers for their global vehicle applications it is necessary to understand the variation in mechanical properties of the EPP foams and their effect on performance predictions. In this paper, EPP foams from three suppliers across global regions are characterized to study the inter-supplier variation in mechanical properties. In order to understand the effect of inter-supplier variation on vehicle performance, LSDYNA rate dependent material model is developed and validated for low speed and pedestrian protection load cases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1603
Ashish Naidu, Peter Brittle, Xiaoyu Ma, Brian Rutter
Automotive product engineering is highly complex. Understanding the implications and opportunities of introducing new technology needs to be identified as early as possible in the vehicle design process. This will deliver right first time designs, maximize integration opportunities resulting in efficient and effective competitive holistic design solutions Integrating new technology into existing vehicle architectures with a lateral thinking framework encourages innovative mind-set, this opens the opportunity to identify greater overall product deliverables, new architectural constructs and the development of intellectual property (IP). A structured approach to cascade functions, requirements, constraints (legal and legislative) and target values is required, these attributes form the basis of an engineering problem for engineers to solve.
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