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2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9625
Souhir Tounsi
Abstract In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0242
Yakov Fradkin, Michel Cordonnier, Andrew Henry, David Newton
Ford Motor Company’s assembly plants build vehicles in a certain sequence. The planned sequence for the plant’s trim and final assembly area is developed centrally and is sent to the plant several days in advance. In this talk we present the study of two cases where the plant changes the planned sequence to cope with production constraints. In one case, a plant pulls ahead two-tone orders that require two passes through the paint shop. This is further complicated by presence in the body shop area of a unidirectional rotating tool that allows efficient build of a sequence “A-B-C” but heavily penalizes a sequence “C-B-A”. The plant changes the original planned sequence in the body shop area to the one that satisfies both pull-ahead and rotating tool requirements. In the other case, a plant runs on lean inventories. Material consumption is tightly controlled down to the hour to match with planned material deliveries.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0243
Zhenghui Sha, Veronica Saeger, Mingxian Wang, Yan Fu, Wei Chen
For achieving viable mass customization of products, product configuration is often performed that requires deep understanding on the impact of product features and feature combinations on customers’ purchasing behaviors. Existing literature has been traditionally focused on analyzing the impact of common customer demographics and engineering attributes with discrete choice modeling approaches. This paper aims to expand discrete choice modeling through the incorporation of optional product features, such as customers’ positive or negative comments and their satisfaction ratings of their purchased products, beyond those commonly used attributes. The paper utilizes vehicle as an example to highlight the range of optional features currently underutilized in existing models. First, data analysis techniques are used to identify areas of particular consumer interest in regards to vehicle selection. 
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0312
ZiQiang Sheng, Pankaj Mallick
For many reasons, the well-known Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) is still widely used by sheet metal forming industry and academia to identify stretching failure. Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. Under proportion strain path assumption, a method to calculate Forming Limit Curve (FLC) by using tension test only is derived from this DFC. The method was validated by calculating FLCs for several sheet metal materials different in grades and initial sheet thickness. The calculated FLCs are further used to predict failure in drawing processe. Comparison shows that the prediction by using those calculated FLCs matches quite well with experimental observations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0316
Kiran Mallela, Andrey Ilinich, S Luckey, Danielle Zeng, Yuan Gan
Aluminum extrusions are used in the automotive industry for body structure applications requiring cross-section design flexibility, high section stiffness, and high strength. Heat-treatable 6xxx series extrusion alloys have typically been used in automotive due to commercial availability, competitive cost, high strength, and impact performance. This paper presents a characterization study of mechanical properties of 6xxx series aluminum extrusions using digital image correlation (DIC). DIC has been used to capture spatial strain distribution and its evolution in time during material deformation. The materials of study were seamless and structural 6061 and 6082 extrusions. The alloys have been tensile tested using an MTS load frame with a dual optical camera system to capture the stereoscopic digital images. Notable results include the differing anisotropy of seamless and structural extrusions, as well as the influence of artificial aging on anisotropy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0371
Raju Gandikota, Amit Nair, Kurt Miller
Testing elastomeric materials that undergo large strains pose challenges especially when establishing failure criteria. The failure criterion for composites and polymers based on finite elasticity published byFeng (1) requires testing under uni-axial and bi-axial stretching modes. The classic inflation of a circular disk for bi-axial stretch mode poses stability and safety challenges. The test can also be sensitive to end constraints resulting in failure of materials at the constraints. Bi-axial stretching with a hemispherical punch is explored in this work. The bi-axial stretching allows controlled and repeatabletesting. It establishes clear and reliable failure mechanism of the material at the poles. Through a combination of testing and numerical methods, the stretch ratios and its relation to failure has been established.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0364
Hiroko Ohtani, Kevin Ellwood, Gustavo Pereira, Thiago Chinen, Siddharthan Selvasekar
A variety of performance fluids and lubricants are used in automobiles and in automotive manufacturing processes. These include engine oils, driveline fluids, paints, forming lubricants, and many others. Controlling the rheological properties of these fluids is crucial to achieve desired performance and product qualities. In this study, we have applied Extensional Rheometry to gain a new insight on the performance of automotive fluids. Traditionally, rheological experiments focused on the study under shearing flow. However, the real operations contain both shear and ‘extensional’ (or ‘elongational’) flow components. In this paper, we have investigated the extensional behavior of automotive fluids using a Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometer. (The extensional viscosity express how “sticky” the fluid is, whereas shear viscosity means how “slimy” the fluid is.)
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0852
Sathya prasad Potham, Le Zhao, Seong-Young Lee
This paper aims to present the results of numerical modeling and simulation of evaporation of single and multiple spherical n-heptane droplets impinging on a hot wall at a temperature above the Leidenfrost temperature at atmospheric pressure. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is chosen for tracking the liquid gas interface and an open source CFD software, OpenFOAM, is chosen for modeling and simulations. The capability of VOF method implemented in interDyMFoam solver of OpenFOAM to simulate hydrodynamics during droplet-droplet interaction and droplet-film interaction is explored. The in-built solver is used to simulate problems in isothermal conditions and the simulation results are compared qualitatively with the published results to validate the solver. A numerical method for modeling heat and mass transfer during evaporation is implemented in conjunction with the VOF.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0112
Mingming Zhao, Hongyan Wang, Xiao Xu, Yutong He
Rear-end accident is one of the most important collision modes in China, which often leads to severe accident consequences due to the high collision velocity. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) System could perform emergency brake automatically in dangerous situation and mitigate the consequence. This study focused on the analysis of the rear-end accidents in China in order to discuss about the parameters of Time-to-Collision (TTC) of AEB and the potential effectiveness. A sample of 84 accidents was in-depth investigated and reconstructed, providing a comprehensive set of data describing the pre-crash matrix. Each accident in this sample is reconstructed and modeled numerically by the simulation tool PC-Crash. In parallel, a model representing the function of an AEB system has been established. This AEB system applies partial braking when the TTC ≤ TTC1 and full braking when the TTC ≤ TTC2.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0246
Sentao Miao, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo
Most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States come from the transportation and electricity generation sectors. In this paper, we analyzed the possibility of cross-sector cooperation to cost-efficiently reduce these emissions. Specifically, we built a bi-level optimization model with renewable energy certificate (REC) purchasing to evaluate the effectiveness of the REC purchasing policy. This policy allows the transportation sector to purchase RECs, which are created by renewable generators built by the electricity generation sector, in order to gain extra emission allowance. We conclude from simulations that REC purchasing policy helps to lower the total cost to society while reducing GHG emissions significantly. Simulation results also show that REC purchasing policy can create electricity capacity beyond demand, which can potentially be used to make clean fuel and further cut emissions from existing fossil fuel powered vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0463
T Venkatesan, R. Rajendran, Rajaganesh Ramamoorthy
Machining of materials has received significant consideration due to the increasing use of machining processes in various industrial applications. In machining, the heat generated in the cutting zone during machining is critical in deciding the work piece quality. Lubricants are widely used to reduce the heat generation. Their usage poses threat to environment and health hazards. Hence, there is a need to identify eco-friendly and user-friendly alternatives to conventional cutting fluids. Modern tribology has facilitated the use of solid lubricants such as graphite, calcium fluoride, molybdenum disulphide, and boric acid as an alternative to cutting fluids in machining. Solid lubricant assisted machining is an environmental friendly clean technology for improving the surface quality of the machined work piece.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0836
Hongjiang Li, Christopher Rutland
Large eddy simulations coupled with two uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods, latin-hypercube sampling and polynomial chaos expansion, were carried out to quantify the effects of model parameters and spray initial and boundary conditions on spray development. Evaporating, non-reacting n-dodecane and iso-octane experimental spray data under typical diesel and gasoline engine-like conditions was used to compare penetration lengths and probability contours. Five spray initial and boundary conditions were used for single-hole n-dodecane sprays. The Morris one-step-at-a-time method was used to identify parameters with the highest impacts for multi-hole iso-octane sprays. The resulting four most important parameters, including two model parameters and two spray boundary conditions, were chosen for further study. Penetration lengths and corresponding standard deviations derived from both UQ methods were found to be quite similar with experiments.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1636
Lukas Preusser
Problem Already in the initial design failure mode analysis of this relatively young feature it became clear that an accurate sensor reading is critical to the performance of the heated steering wheel system. As the temperature reception capability of the human palm is very distinct, small deviations [≤0.1°??/??] from the targeted wheel temperature may be registered as "getting too hot" or "remaining too cold". As per industry standard, heated wheels only utilize a single sensor input to the temperature control circuitry, making it even more important for the sensor to reflect the current surface temperature. Certainly the sensor must be placed where it neither can be seen nor felt, decoupling surface from the sensor's temperature. Production tolerances for sensor placement on the heater mat along with heater mat placement tolerances relative to the armature's position add to the decoupling issue, causing unacceptably high or low steering wheel surface temperatures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1604
Christina Michael, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez PhD, Sabah Abro, Craig Zinser, Dave Guidos
The objective of this research is to develop a component based enhanced production process after End of Line (EOL) testing. This process will add more quality validation evaluations, but will not require any disassembling of the parts or damage to them. It will help the suppliers to avoid scrap and rework parts as well as General Motors (GM) to reduce warranty and recalls. An Enhanced Production Process was implemented in March, 2016 at a supplier in Mexico. The Enhanced Audit Station implementation is to ensure that the supplier is satisfying the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) requirements. The most important four components are: Touch Appearance Lighting and Color (TALC), Appearance Approval Report (AAR), Dimensional Checks, and Function Testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1611
Elankathiravan Mathivanan, David Gasior, Liping Liu, Kingman Yee, Yawen Li
In the present work, the effect of nanofluids on convective heat transfer performance in a radiator will be experimentally analyzed. Results of property measurements and numerical predictions suggested that water based nanofluids have the potential to provide enhanced cooling performance compared to pure water being used in the automotive engine cooling system. Based on literature review, there is lack of experimental data in this area, which is of importance for validation and analysis. Therefore the present study aims to fill this gap by experimentally investigating the heat transfer performance of TiO2-, SiO2- and Al2O3-water nanofluids on engine cooling system, at volume concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1%. The experimental setup includes an Aprilia RXV 450 engine and a radiator. Thermocouples and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are placed at the inlet and outlet of the radiator in order to monitor the air and coolant temperatures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0079
Hao Liu
The tunnel exit is easily blocked with a large traffic. One reason is that when the driver out of the tunnel, the added ramp resistance leads to the speed drop, but the driver is imperceptible. The present solutions are more concentrated in the transport sector, regulations are applied to all vehicles through the tunnel, easily distract the driver attention and disturb the operator accelerating away from the tunnel. In this paper, when the system judges the speed drop is due to driver's unconscious behavior through the road and external illumination changes ,then the system gives the driver accelerated reminder. Firstly, establish the vehicle driving dynamic model. With the road tunnel design standards for a reference, build the tunnel road model. Secondly, based on the dynamic model and the tunnel model, study the relationship between the throttle opening and the duration with the speed change and study the relationship between the engine braking with the speed and the ramp change.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0084
Jiantao Wang
Studies show that driving in foggy environment is a security risk, and when driving in foggy environment, the drivers are easy to accelerate unconsciously. The safety information prompted to the driver is mainly from fog lights, road warning signs and the traffic radio. In order to increase the quality of the safety tips to prevent drivers from unintended acceleration and ensure the security of driving in foggy environment, the study proposes a safety speed assessment method for driving in foggy environment, combining the information of driving environment, vehicle’s speed and the multimedia system.The method uses camera which is installed on the front windshield pillar to collect the image about the environment, and uses the dark channel prior theory to calculate the visibility. And by using the environment visibility, the safety speed can be calculated based on the kinematics theory. And it is appropriate for vehicles which have different braking performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0085
Gangfeng Tan
Typical vehicle speed deceleration occurs at the highway exit due to the driving direction change. Well conducting the driver to control the velocity could enhance the vehicle maneuverability and give drivers more responsible time when running into potential dangerous conditions. The highway exit speed limit sigh (ESLS) is an effect reminder for the driver to slow down the vehicle. The ESLS visibility is significant to guarantee the driving safety. This research focuses on the Color Variable ESLS system, whose installation point is placed considering the vehicle dynamic difference, the traffic condition and the highway geometric design. With this system, the driver could receive the updated speed limit requirement in advance and without distraction produced by eyes contract change between the dashboard and the front sight. First, the mathematical model of the drivetrain and the engine brake is built for typical motor vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0101
Alexandru Gurghian, Francois Charette
This paper presents the implementation of a 1/10th scale track with multiple vehicles that serves as a framework used for introducing new employees, interns or groups of student to autonomous vehicle and ADAS technologies. The framework allows new generations of potential engineers to experience software development at the intersection between computer science and engineering. Additionally, the framework can serve as a gentle and exciting introduction to automotive software development. The proposed system is based on an off the shelf 1/10th scale remote controlled car and is equipped with an Intel NUC, a full-fledged computer powered by an Intel i7 processor, providing sufficient compute power for computationally expensive perception and control algorithm. Steering and throttle actuators are accessible through a microcontroller connected to the Intel NUC via USB, which also acts as a safety controller that allows to override control signals with a remote control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0247
N. Khalid Ahmed, Jimmy Kapadia
Electrified vehicles including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) made by Ford Motor Company are fitted with a telematics modem to provide customers with the means to communicate with their vehicles and, at the same time, receive insight on their vehicle usage. These services are provided through the “MyFord Mobile” website and phone applications, simultaneously collecting information from the vehicle for different event triggers. In this work, we study this data by using Big Data Methodologies including a Hadoop Database for storing data and HiveQL and Pig Latin scripts to perform analytics. We present electrified vehicle customer behaviors including geographical distribution, trip distances, daily distances and annual usage factor. We also compare temperature distribution of trips with the EPA-MOVES database. We discuss the process of extracting information from this data that can be used to further refine future design.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0258
Mark Brudnak, James Walsh, Igor Baseski, Bryan LaRose
Laboratory based durability simulation has become an increasingly important component of vehicle system design validation and production release. It offers several advantages over field testing which has driven its adoption in the automotive and military sectors. Among these advantages are 1) repeatability, 2) earlier testing, 3) isolation of subsystems or components and 4) ability to compress and/or accelerate the testing. In this paper we present time-domain methods and techniques adapted, implemented and used at TARDEC to reduce the time required to perform a laboratory durability test of a full vehicle system, subsystem or component. Specifically, these methods approach a durability schedule holistically by considering all events/surfaces, repeats and channels of interest. It employs standard Generic Stress Life (GSL) approach, utilizing rain flow cycle counting and a minimum-average method of identifying portions of the events which are less severe.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0826
Russell P. Fitzgerald, Christopher Gehrke, Kenth Svensson, Glen Martin
The performance of five positive k-factor injector tips has been assessed in this work by analyzing a comprehensive set of injected mass, momentum, and spray measurements. Using high speed shadowgraphs of the injected diesel plumes, the sensitivities of measured vapor penetration and dispersion to injection pressure (100-250MPa) and ambient density (20-52 kg/m3) have been compared with the Naber-Siebers empirical spray model to gain understanding of second order effects of orifice diameter. Varying in size from 137 to 353µm, the orifice diameters and corresponding injector tips are appropriate for a relatively wide range of engine cylinder sizes (from 0.5 to 5L). In this regime, decreasing the orifice exit diameter was found to reduce spray penetration sensitivity to differential injection pressure. The cone angle and k-factored orifice exit diameter were found to be uncorrelated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1666
David Weiss, Orlando Rios
Aluminum alloys containing cerium have excellent castability and retain a substantial fraction of their room temperature strength at temperatures of 200°C and above. High temperature strength is maintained through a thermodynamically trapped, high surface energy intermetallic. Dynamic load partitioning between the aluminum and the intermetallic increases mechanical response. Complex castings have been produced in both permanent mold and sand castings. This versatile alloy system, using an abundant and inexpensive co-product of rare earth mining, is suitable for parts that need to maintain good properties when exposed to temperatures between 200 and 400°C.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1606
Sergey P. Gladyshev, Irina Okrainskaya PhD, Pavel Gladyshev
Synchronous motors are used in electric and hybrid cars as power drivers. The most often they are used with excitation by using super strong permanent magnets designed with rare earth elements technology. This permanent magnets are expensive. Excitation with permanent magnets do not allows change value of the motor flux excitation during the motor operation and do not allows the power factor control, which is one of the important property of synchronous motors. It is known, that synchronous motors have very high efficiency. Also, synchronous motors keeps constant rotor speed under external mechanical load. The regular synchronous motors, with electro magnet rotor on silicon steel cores, have rings and brushes for connection rotor coil excitation to direct current (DC) voltage source. This arrangement with rings and brushes decrease motors reliability and demands regular maintenance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1138
Gary Stevens, Martin Murtagh, Robert Kee, Juliana Early, Roy Douglas, Robert Best
In this paper a dynamic, modular, 1-D vehicle model architecture is presented that improves modelling flexibility and can be adapted rapidly to new advanced vehicle concepts, including hybrid vehicles. Interdependencies between model sub-systems are minimized, thereby improving model flexibility in the development of new vehicle concepts and architectures. Each subsystem of the vehicle model follows a standardized signal architecture, therefore subsystems can be developed, tested and validated separately from the main model and easily re-integrated. The model uses standard dynamic equations to calculate the rotational speed of the desired driveline component within each subsystem i.e. dynamic calculations are carried out with respect to the component of interest. Sample simulations are presented for isolated and integrated components to demonstrate flexibility. Two vehicle test cases are presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1144
Jongryeol JEONG, Ram Vijayagopal, Aymeric Rousseau
Building a vehicle model with an accuracy sufficient for fuel economy analysis is a time consuming job even with the modern day simulation tools. Getting the right kind of data for modelling a vehicle can itself be challenging. While OEMs advertise the power and torque capability of their engines, the efficiency data for the components or the control algorithms are not usually made available for independent verification. US DOE funds the testing of vehicles at Argonne national lab and this test data is publicly available. Argonne is also the premier DOE laboratory for modelling and simulation of vehicles. By combining these two unique capabilities, a process is developed to automatically develop a model for any conventional vehicle that is tested at Argonne. This paper explain the process of analyzing the publicly available test data and computing the various component parameters from that.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1142
Vanja Ranogajec, Josko Deur
The ever-present pressure on shortening the development cycles in automotive industry requires further development of numerical methods and software tools in support of those development processes. From the perspective of system dynamics analyses and control system designs, the development of methods that allow for automated generation of computationally efficient mathematical models is of a large interest. In the field of automatic transmissions (AT), automated modeling would ultimately include generation of a full-order, minimum-realization mathematical model directly from an AT schematics. Furthermore, it is of interest to derive a method/tool for automated generation of a reduced-order model for an arbitrary clutch state, which would account for the energy-dependent variables related to locked clutches.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0053
Wolfgang Granig, Friedrich Rasbornig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Mario Motz, Thomas Zettler, Michael Strasser, Alessandro Michelutti
Authors: DI(FH) Wolfgang Granig, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Friedrich Rasbornig, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Dirk Hammerschmidt, Infineon Technologies Austria AG DI Mario Motz, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Abstract: Functional safe products fulfilling the ISO26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications where additional redundant and diverse functionality is needed for higher rated ASIL levels. This can result in a very complex and expensive system setup. Here we show a two channel redundant and also diverse implemented magnetic field sensor concept on one silicon die, which is used for ASIL D applications like power-steering torque measurement. This solution is beneficial because of implementation on a single chip in one chip-package but anyway fulfilling ASIL D requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0066
Shogo nakao, Akihiko Hyodo, Masaki ITABASHI, Tomio Sakashita, Shingo Obara, Mitsuo Sasaki, Tetsuya Uno, Yasuo Sugure, Yoshinobu Fukano, Yoshihiro Miyazaki
This paper presents a high-fidelity electrical-failure simulation environment of belt drive electric power steering (BEPS) system based on our proposed “Virtual Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (vFMEA)” method. The vFMEA system is able to dynamically inject an analog fault into a circuit model of electrical control unit (ECU) of BEPS system, and analyze system-level failure effects and verify software-implemented safety mechanisms, which consequently reduces both cost and time of development. It consists of a cycle-accurate microcontroller model with mass-production software components in binary format implemented, analog and digital circuit models, mechanical models, and a dynamic fault –injection mechanism. In this paper, the vFMEA method was applied to the verification of the safety mechanisms implemented on the ECU of BEPS system, and accuracy of the simulation was evaluated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0571
Tim Lackmann, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Alan Kerstein, Michael Oevermann
Many new combustion concepts are currently being investigated to further improve engines in terms of both efficiency and emissions. Examples include homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), lean stratified premixed combustion, stratified charge compression ignition (SCCI), and high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines, known as low temperature combustion (LTC). Typical combustion temperatures in all of these combustion concepts have in common that the temperatures are lower than in traditional spark ignition or diesel engines. To further improve and develop combustion concepts for clean and highly efficient engines, it is necessary to develop new computational tools that can be used to describe and optimize processes in non-standard conditions, such as low temperature combustion.
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