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2017-10-31
White Paper
WP-0003
Actuators are the key to sophisticated machines that can perform complex tasks previously done by humans.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2215
Mingming Ma
Abstract A lubricating system modeling method based on flight test data is proposed in this paper. ANN model based on a large number of flight test data is trained and validated, and models of 6 lubricating system parameters in all engine operation settings and whole flight envelope are established. Model results are in good agreement with flight test results, which shows feasibility and effectiveness of the presented modeling method. The model results are packaged in dynamic link library, and the coordination between calculating model and GDAS is accomplished. Comparison of model and flight test results in real-time monitoring of flight test comes true, thus on-line trend monitoring of oil parameters is implemented and applied. Additionally, input parameters are gradually decreased as new input parameter group of ANN structure. Oil parameter model is trained and validated again with the new group of parameters, until leading to unacceptable bias between model and flight test results.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2408
Lei Zhou, Hongxing Zhang, Zhenfeng Zhao, Fujun Zhang
Abstract The Opposed Piston Two-Stroke (OPTS) engine has many advantages on power density, fuel tolerance, fuel flexibility and package space. A type of self-balanced opposed-piston folded-crank train two-stroke engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was studied in this paper. AVL BOOST was used for the thermodynamic simulation. It was a quasi-steady, filling-and-emptying flow analysis -- no intake or exhaust dynamics were simulated. The results were validated against experimental data. The effects of high altitude environment on engine performance have been investigated. Moreover, the matching between the engine and turbocharger was designed and optimized for different altitude levels. The results indicated that, while the altitude is above 6000m, a multi-stage turbocharged engine system need to be considered and optimized for the UAV.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2293
Jim Barker, Jacqueline Reid, Sarah Angel Smith, Colin Snape, David Scurr, Graham Langley, Krina Patel, Anastarsia Carter, Cris Lapthorn, Frank Pullen
Abstract Studies of diesel system deposits continue to be the subject of interest and publications worldwide. The introduction of high pressure common rail systems resulting in high fuel temperatures in the system with the concomitant use of fuels of varying solubilizing ability (e.g. ULSD and FAME blends) have seen deposits formed at the tip of the injector and on various internal injector components. Though deposit control additives (DCAs) have been successfully deployed to mitigate the deposit formation, work is still required to understand the nature and composition of these deposits. The study of both tip and internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) has seen the development of a number of bench techniques in an attempt to mimic field injector deposits in the laboratory. One of the most used of these is the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester or JFTOT (ASTM D3241).
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2158
Fernando Stancato, Luis Carlos dos Santos, Marcelo Pustelnik
Abstract A problem of interest of the aeronautical industry is the positioning of electronic equipment in racks and the associated ventilation system project to guarantee the equipment operational conditions. The relevance of the proper operation of electronic equipment increases considerably when high economical costs, performance reduction and safety are involved. The appropriate operational conditions of the electronic components happen when the working temperature of the equipment installed in the rack is inside a safety project temperature margin. Therefore, the analysis and modelling of heat transfer processes for aircraft rack design becomes mandatory. This paper presents a parametric study considering volumetric and superficial heat generation in electronic equipment within racks in an aircraft. Simulations were performed using the commercial CFD Fluent code and results were compared to experimental data.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2159
Federico Cappuzzo, Olivier Broca, Jeremy Leboi
Abstract To allow greater confidence in an aircraft system design in an ever increasing complex set of requirements, it becomes important to assess the interactions among systems and sub-systems earlier and with higher confidence. This study presents the Virtual Integrated Aircraft (VIA) methodology, which allows the integration of aircraft systems with virtual means. It aims to complement and precede physical integration, which is usually completed at the end of the validation and integration phase. LMS Imagine.Lab platform provides a means for applying this methodology. A simulation architecture, integrating models from different platforms, is built and simulations are run on a High Performance Computing (HPC) machine to cover multiple scenarios and therefore validate the selected architecture and pre-design in the early system development phases. A balanced selection of equipment, systems and subsystems are essential for the performance, safety, reliability and comfort.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2144
Michele Trancossi, Mohammad Hussain, Sharma Shivesh, Jose Pascoa
Abstract This paper is a preliminary step in the direction of the definition of a radically new wing concept that has been conceived to maximize the lift even at low speeds. It is expected to equip new aerial vehicle concepts that aim to compete against helicopters and tilt rotors. They aim achieving very good performance at very low speed (5 to 30 m/s) by mean of an innovative concept of morphing ducted-fan propelled wing that has been designed to maximize the lift force. This paper presents an effective bibliographic analysis of the problem that is a preliminary necessary step in the direction of the preliminary design of the wing. A preliminary CFD evaluation allows demonstrating that the claimed results are in line with the initial expectations. According to the CFD, results it has been produced a preliminary energetic evaluation of the vehicle in a flying car configuration by EMIPS method.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2017
Catherine Ninah, Brian Strevens, Cole Barcia, Isabelle Labbe, Michael Frenna, Austin Faulconer, Keon Habbaba, Katherine Loundy, Louis Schaefer, Alexa Frost, Andrew Foran, Robert Brown, Luis Rabelo
Abstract The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing for a manned mission to Mars to test the sustainment of civilization on the planet Mars. This research explores the requirements and feasibility of autonomously producing fuel on Mars for a return trip back to Earth. As a part of NASA’s initiative for a manned trip to Mars, our team’s work creates and analyzes the allocation of resources necessary in deploying a fuel station on this foreign soil. Previous research has addressed concerns with a number individual components of this mission such as power required for fuel station and tools; however, the interactions between these components and the effects they would have on the overall requirements for the fuel station are still unknown to NASA. By creating a baseline discrete-event simulation model in a simulation software environment, the research team has been able to simulate the fuel production process on Mars.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2018
Won Il Jung, Larry Lowe, Luis Rabelo, Gene Lee, Ojeong Kwon
Abstract Operator training using a weapon in a real-world environment is risky, expensive, time-consuming, and restricted to the given environment. In addition, governments are under intense scrutiny to provide security, yet they must also strive for efficiency and reduce spending. In other words, they must do more with less. Virtual simulation, is usually employed to solve these limitations. As the operator is trained to maximize weapon effectiveness, the effectiveness-focused training can be completed in an economical manner. Unfortunately, the training is completed in limited scenarios without objective levels of training factors for an individual operator to optimize the weapon effectiveness. Thus, the training will not be effective. For overcoming this problem, we suggest a methodology on guiding effectiveness-focused training of the weapon operator through usability assessments, big data, and Virtual and Constructive (VC) simulations.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2028
Steven Nolan, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt, Catherine Jones
Abstract Turbo-electric distributed propulsion (TeDP) for aircraft allows for the complete redesign of the airframe so that greater overall fuel burn and emissions benefits can be achieved. Whilst conventional electrical power systems may be used for smaller aircraft, large aircraft (~300 pax) are likely to require the use of superconducting electrical power systems to enable the required whole system power density and efficiency levels to be achieved. The TeDP concept requires an effective electrical fault management and protection system. However, the fault response of a superconducting TeDP power system and its components has not been well studied to date, limiting the effective capture of associated protection requirements. For example, with superconducting systems it is possible that a hotspot is formed on one of the components, such as a cable. This can result in one subsection, rather than all, of a cable quenching.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2024
Natasha L. Schatzman, Narayanan Komerath, Ethan A. Romander
Abstract The blade crossing event of a coaxial counter-rotating rotor is a potential source of noise and impulsive blade loads. Blade crossings occur many times during each rotor revolution. In previous research by the authors, this phenomenon was analyzed by simulating two airfoils passing each other at specified speeds and vertical separation distances, using the compressible Navier-Stokes solver OVERFLOW. The simulations explored mutual aerodynamic interactions associated with thickness, circulation, and compressibility effects. Results revealed the complex nature of the aerodynamic impulses generated by upper/lower airfoil interactions. In this paper, the coaxial rotor system is simulated using two trains of airfoils, vertically offset, and traveling in opposite directions. The simulation represents multiple blade crossings in a rotor revolution by specifying horizontal distances between each airfoil in the train based on the circumferential distance between blade tips.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2022
Katherine Loundy, Louis Schaefer, Andrew Foran, Catherine Ninah, Khristopher Bandong, Robert Brown, Hunter Heston, John-Paul Steed, William Young, Mark Heinrich, Luis Rabelo
Abstract The future of human exploration in the solar system is contingent on the ability to exploit resources in-situ to produce mission consumables. Specifically, it has become clear that the success of a manned mission to Mars will likely depend on fuel components created on the Martian surface. While several architectures for an unmanned fuel production surface facility on Mars exist in theory, a simulation of the performance and operation of these architectures has not been created. In this paper, the framework describing a simulation of one such architecture is defined. Within this architecture, each component of the base is implemented as a state machine, with the ability to communicate with other base elements as well as a supervisor. An environment supervisor is also created which governs low level aspects of the simulation such as movement and resource distribution, in addition to higher-level aspects such as location selection with respect to operations specific behavior.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2021
Numair Mazgaonkar, Andrew Stankovich
Abstract For large aerospace assemblies in finite element (FE) analysis problems, contact interaction between the surrounding bodies has to be established to simulate the load transferred between the components, like aircraft engine carrying bracket assemblies, spigots assemblies etc., and understand the effects of interaction between respective parts. In some cases, depending upon geometry of the assembly, the region of study may not be contact area but the stresses acting within the parts themselves. If there is no geometric or material non-linearity in such problems, a new contact formulation method known as Fast Contact can be used in these contact regions. In this method, contact non-linearity could be introduced to simulate the problem but friction between the contacting parts should not be present. Currently, there is a scope for applying this method for solving FE problems in the aerospace and rail industry.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2019
Rakshath G Poojary, Mohammed Ali Jouhar, Abubakar K
Abstract Human Powered Helicopter which uses man power to operate. The main aim of this paper is to design commercially available vehicle for an Adventure Sporting under 5-6 lakh Indian Rupees. This structural design is extremely lightweight and strong. The product is designed in such a way that it can be easily assembled and dismantled for transportability and storage. We developed an aero-structural optimization scheme for rotor design, including an aerodynamic model with included ground effect prediction, finite-element analysis and integrated composite failure analysis, and a detailed weight estimation scheme. This was solely build on computer CAD models. This design includes the use of gear box to increase the output. The Aerodynamic analysis was done using CFD and BET (blade element theory-Bhramwell) in MATLAB.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2036
William Schley
Abstract Of all aircraft power and thermal loads, flight controls can be the most challenging to quantify because they are highly variable. Unlike constant or impulsive loads, actuator power demands more closely resemble random processes. Some inherent nonlinearities complicate this even further. Actuation power consumption and waste heat generation are both sensitive to input history. But control activity varies considerably with mission segment, turbulence and vehicle state. Flight control is a major power consumer at times, so quantifying power demand and waste heat is important for sizing power and thermal management system components. However, many designers sidestep the stochastic aspects of the problem initially, leading to overly conservative system sizing. The overdesign becomes apparent only after detailed flight simulations become available. These considerations are particularly relevant in trade studies comparing electric versus hydraulic actuation.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2034
Bailey Hall, Benjamin Palmer, Tyler Milburn, Luis Herrera, Bang Tsao, Joseph Weimer
Abstract Future aircraft will demand a significant amount of electrical power to drive primary flight control surfaces. The electrical system architecture needed to source these flight critical loads will have to be resilient, autonomous, and fast. Designing and ensuring that a power system architecture can meet the load requirements and provide power to the flight critical buses at all times is fundamental. In this paper, formal methods and linear temporal logic are used to develop a contactor control strategy to meet the given specifications. The resulting strategy is able to manage multiple contactors during different types of generator failures. In order to verify the feasibility of the control strategy, a real-time simulation platform is developed to simulate the electrical power system. The platform has the capability to test an external controller through Hardware in the Loop (HIL).
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2033
Minh-khoa. Lam, Christopher Buterhaugh, Luis Herrera, Bang Tsao
Abstract The amount of electrical power required for future aircraft is increasing significantly. In this paper, a comprehensive model of a drive shaft with multiple degrees of freedom was developed and integrated to detailed engine and electrical network models to study the impact of higher electrical loads. The overall system model is composed of the engine, shafts, gearbox, and the electric network. The Dynamic Dual Spool High Bypass JT9D engine was chosen for this study. The engine was modeled using NASA’s T-MATS (Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems) software. In the electrical side, one generator was connected to the Low Pressure (LP) shaft and the other to the High Pressure (HP) shaft. A modified model of the shafts between the engine and the accessory gearbox was created.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2029
Thibaut BILLARD, Cedric Abadie, Bouazza Taghia
Abstract The present paper reports non-electrically intrusive partial discharge investigations on aeronautic and electric vehicle motors fed by SiC inverter drive under variable environmental conditions. A representative test procedure and experimental set-up based on operating aeronautic conditions are essential to ensure the accuracy and reliability of partial discharge test on aircraft systems to make informed decisions on insulation system design choice. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of partial discharge test of the insulation system on a different type of motor under such conditions, both electrically and environmentally. To do so, the paper will start by detailing the innovative experimental set-up to be used in the study. It mainly consists in a high-voltage (1000V) inverter drive using SiC components to provide fast rise time surges.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2052
K Friedman, G Mattos, K Bui, J Hutchinson, A Jafri, J Paver PhD
Abstract Aircraft seating systems are evaluated utilizing a variety of impact conditions and selected injury measures. Injury measures like the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) are evaluated under standardized conditions using anthropomorphic dummies such as those outlined in 14 CFR part 25. An example test involves decelerating one or more rows of seats and allowing a lap-belted dummy to impact components in front of it, which typically include the seatback and its integrated features. Examples of head contact surfaces include video monitors, a wide range of seat back materials, and airbags. The HIC, and other injury measures such as Nij, can be calculated during such impacts. A minimum test pulse, with minimum allowable acceleration vs time boundaries, is defined as part of the regulations for a frontal impact. In this study the effects of variations in decelerations that meet the requirements are considered.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2039
Michael Sielemann, Changsoo Lee, Victor-Marie LeBrun, Chiwoo Ahn, Arnaud Colleoni, Dongkyu Lee, JeongSeok Lee, Anh Nguyen, Katrin Proelss, Hyon Min Yoon
Abstract Thermal management on aircraft has been an important discipline for several decades. However, with the recent generations of high performance aircraft, thermal management has evolved more and more into a critical performance and capability constraint on the whole aircraft level. Fuel continues to be the most important heat sink on high performance aircraft, and consequently the requirements on thermal models of fuel systems are expanding. As the scope of modeling and simulation is widened in general, it is not meaningful to introduce a new isolated modeling and simulation capability. Instead, thermal models must be derived from existing model assets and eventually enable integration across several physical domains. This paper describes such an integrated approach based on the Modelica Fuel System Library and the 3DExperience Platform.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2070
Nicholas Anderson, Joseph Gao, Eric Whitman, Srikanth Gururajan
Abstract Recent advances in Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS) or drone technologies has resulted in their widespread use in a number of civilian applications, such as aerial imaging, infrastructure inspection, precision agriculture, among others. While this technology is accessible for everyone, it still requires a highly skilled operator to be able to successfully operate these drones in a safe and efficient manner. At the same time, developments in Virtual/Augmented Reality (V/AR) technologies present opportunities for combining the two into novel applications and use cases by providing an intuitive interface for interacting with the drones - opening up possibilities for safe and effective use of drones by relatively untrained operators.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2071
Keith Miazgowicz
The advent of turbochargers and the Eco-Boost technology at Ford in gasoline engines creates new challenges that need to be addressed with innovative designs. One of them is flow induced noise caused by airflow entering the turbocharger during off design operation. At certain vehicle operation conditions, the mass flow rate and pressure ratio are such that compressor wheel can generate a wide range of acoustic frequencies. Characterization of ‘whistles’ or pure tonal noises, ‘whoosh’ or broad band frequency noise caused by flow separation from the blade surfaces, and chirps, where the frequency increases or decreases with time are a few of the common error states. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of such noise generation is necessary for developing effective countermeasures for the noise source generation. Computational Aero-Acoustic (CAA) analyses are performed to study the effects of inlet and outlet conditions to find the source of the noise.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2058
Francesco Noziglia, Paolo Rigato, Enrico Cestino, Giacomo Frulla, Alfredo Arias-Montano
Abstract Innovative aircraft design studies have noted that uncertainty effects could become significant and greatly emphasized during the conceptual design phases due to the scarcity of information about the new aero-structure being designed. The introduction of these effects in design methodologies are strongly recommended in order to perform a consistent evaluation of structural integrity. The benefit to run a Robust Optimization is the opportunity to take into account uncertainties inside the optimization process obtaining a set of robust solutions. A major drawback of performing Robust Multi-Objective Optimization is the computational time required. The proposed research focus on the reduction of the computational time using mathematic and computational techniques. In the paper, a generalized approach to operate a Robust Multi-Objective Optimization (RMOO) for Aerospace structure using MSC software Patran/Nastran to evaluate the Objectives Function, is proposed.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2110
Ashutosh Kumar Jha, Prakash Choudhary
Abstract The complexity of software development is increasing unprecedentedly with every next generation of aircraft systems. This requires to adopt new techniques of software design and verification that could optimize the time and cost of software development. At the same time these techniques need to ensure high quality of software design and safety compliance to regulatory guidelines like DO-178C [1] and its supplements DO-330[2] and DO-331[3]. To arrive at new technologies one has to evaluate the alternate methods available for software design by developing models, integration of models, auto-code generation, auto test generation and also the performance parameters like time, effort, reuse and presentation needs to be evaluated. We have made an attempt to present summary of alternate design concept study, and edge of MBD over other design techniques.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2108
Denis Buzdalov, Alexey Khoroshilov
Different modelling techniques intended to deal with complexity of modern IMA systems are widely used now. Models can be used to help developers to lay out relevant information structurally. They can also be used to perform different formal analyses on machine-readable models like schedulability analysis, network load checks, WCET for software parts, FTA and FMEA and etc. For some kinds of analyses, special models are created on different stages of development. We suppose that reuse of models for different aspects and development stages is generally a good thing. In some cases it allows to reduce costs on development process; also it allows to make preservation of consistency between models more automatic. We are aware that using the same model for different stages or aspects can cause additional cost in the model maintenance. In this paper we are trying to make a step to further (including practical) research on this topic.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2113
Michael Schultz
Abstract Passenger boarding is always part of the critical path of the aircraft turnaround: both efficient boarding and online prediction of the boarding progress are essential for a reliable turnaround progress. However, the boarding progress is mainly controlled by the passenger behavior. A fundamental scientific approach for aircraft boarding enables the consideration of individual passenger behaviors and operational constraints in order to develop a sustainable concept for enabling a prediction of the boarding progress. A reliable microscopic simulation approach is used to model the passenger behavior, where the individual movement is defined as a one-dimensional, stochastic, and time/space discrete transition process. The simulation covers a broad range of behaviors and boarding strategies as well as the integration of new technologies and procedures.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2107
Thorsten Kiehl, Jan Philip Speichert, Ethan Higgins, Ralf God
Abstract For an “end-to-end passenger experience that is secure, seamless and efficient” the International Air Transport Association (IATA) proposes Near Field Communication (NFC) and a single token concept to be enablers for future digital travel. NFC is a wireless technology commonly utilized in Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) and contactless smart cards. It is characterized by the following two attributes: a tangible user interface and secured short range communication. While manufacturers are currently adapting PED settings to enable NFC in the flight mode, the integration and use of this technology in aircraft cabins still remains a challenge. There are no explicit qualification guidelines for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing in an aircraft environment available and there is a lack of a detailed characterization of NFC equipped PEDs.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2125
Mohammad Barkat, Vivek Karan, Pradeep N
Abstract The exponential increase in the number of aircrafts and air travelers has triggered new innovations which aim to make airline services more reliable and consumer friendly. Quick and efficient maintenance actions with minimum downtime are the need of the hour. Areas that have a large potential for improvement in this regard are the real time use of diagnostic data, filtering/elimination of nuisance faults and machine learning capabilities with respect to maintenance actions. Although, numerous LRUs installed on the aircraft generate massive amounts of diagnostic data to detect any possible issue or LRU failure, it is seldom used in real time. The turnaround time for LRU maintenance can be greatly reduced if the results of the diagnostics conducted during LRU normal operation is relayed to ground stations in real-time. This enables the maintenance engineers to plan ahead and initiate maintenance actions well before the aircraft lands and becomes available for maintenance.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2124
Violet Leavers
Abstract Within the aviation industry analysis of wear debris particles recovered from magnetic plugs and lubricating fluids is an essential condition monitoring tool. However, in large organisations, high staff turnover in remote work environments often leaves dangerous gaps in on-site support and background knowledge. The current work develops interactive software for wear debris particle classification, root cause diagnosis and serviceability prognostics. During the research several hundred wear debris particle images were collected, analysed and classified by a number of experts. At each stage of the analysis the experts were questioned about the knowledge and experience used to make their diagnoses and prognoses. The end result is an extensive knowledge base representing the combined expertise of a number of highly trained engineers, each with decades of hands-on experience.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2118
Prashant S Vadgaonkar, Diptar banik
Abstract Avionics industry is moving towards more electric & lightweight aircrafts. Electromagnetic effects becomes significantly challenging as materials starts moving towards composite type. Traditional methods for controlling EMC will not be sufficient. This shift increases the complexity of in-flight hardware elements for EMI/EMC control. This paper discusses the need for EMI/EMC Control and brings out the analysis & applicability of various EMI/EMC standards in aerospace, commercial and industrial electronic products, provides comparative study with respect to levels. The study include various sections of DO-160 and applicable guidelines for controlling EMI/EMC with respect to LRU (Line Replaceable Unit) & wire/cable harnesses. Also presents guidelines with respect to shielding of components, selection of components, grounding schemes, filter topologies and layout considerations.
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