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Viewing 241 to 270 of 33250
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0085
Wanyang Xia, Yahui Wu, Gangfeng Tan, Xianyao Ping, Benlong Liu
Abstract Typical vehicle speed deceleration occurs at the freeway exit due to the driving direction change. Well conducting the driver to control the velocity could enhance the vehicle maneuverability and give drivers more response time when running into potential dangerous conditions. The freeway exit speed limit sign (ESLS) is an effect way to remind the driver to slow down the vehicle. The ESLS visibility is significant to guarantee the driving safety. This research focuses on the color variable ESLS system, which is placed at the same location with the traditional speed limit sign. With this system, the driver could receive the updated speed limit recommendation in advance and without distraction produced by eyes contract change over the dashboard and the front sight. First, the mathematical model of the drivetrain and the engine brake is built for typical motor vehicles. The vehicle braking characteristics with various initial speeds in the deceleration area are studied.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0084
Jiantao Wang, Bo Yang, Jialiang Liu, Kangping Ji, Qilu Wang
Abstract Studies show that driving in foggy environment is a security risk, and when driving in foggy environment, the drivers are easy to accelerate unconsciously. The safety information prompted to the driver is mainly from fog lights, road warning signs and the traffic radio. In order to increase the quality of the safety tips to prevent drivers from unintended acceleration and ensure the security of driving in foggy environment, the study proposes a safety speed assessment method for driving in foggy environment, combining the information of driving environment, vehicle’s speed and the multimedia system. The method uses camera which is installed on the front windshield pillar to collect the image about the environment, and uses the dark channel prior theory to calculate the visibility. And by using the environment visibility, the safety speed can be calculated based on the kinematics theory. And it is appropriate for vehicles which have different braking performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0090
Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Jaroslav Pekar, John Michelini, Junbo Jing, Steve Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Abstract Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0104
Maryam Moosaei, Yi Zhang, Ashley Micks, Simon Smith, Madeline J. Goh, Vidya Nariyambut Murali
Abstract In this work, we outline a process for traffic light detection in the context of autonomous vehicles and driver assistance technology features. For our approach, we leverage the automatic annotations from virtually generated data of road scenes. Using the automatically generated bounding boxes around the illuminated traffic lights themselves, we trained an 8-layer deep neural network, without pre-training, for classification of traffic light signals (green, amber, red). After training on virtual data, we tested the network on real world data collected from a forward facing camera on a vehicle. Our new region proposal technique uses color space conversion and contour extraction to identify candidate regions to feed to the deep neural network classifier. Depending on time of day, we convert our RGB images in order to more accurately extract the appropriate regions of interest and filter them based on color, shape and size.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0102
Mahdi Heydari, Feng Dang, Ankit Goila, Yang Wang, Hanlong Yang
In this paper, a sensor fusion approach is introduced to estimate lane departure. The proposed algorithm combines the camera, inertial navigation sensor, and GPS data with the vehicle dynamics to estimate the vehicle path and the lane departure time. The lane path and vehicle path are estimated by using Kalman filters. This algorithm can be used to provide early warning for lane departure in order to increase driving safety. By integrating inertial navigation sensor and GPS data, the inertial sensor biases can be estimated and the vehicle path can be estimated where the GPS data is not available or is poor. Additionally, the algorithm can be used to reduce the latency of information embedded in the controls, so that the vehicle lateral control performance can be significantly improved during lane keeping in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) or autonomous vehicles. Furthermore, it improves lane detection reliability in situations when camera fails to detect lanes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0107
Arvind Jayaraman, Ashley Micks, Ethan Gross
Abstract Recreating traffic scenarios for testing autonomous driving in the real world requires significant time, resources and expense, and can present a safety risk if hazardous scenarios are tested. Using a 3D virtual environment to enable testing of many of these traffic scenarios on the desktop or cluster significantly reduces the amount of required road tests. In order to facilitate the development of perception and control algorithms for level 4 autonomy, a shared memory interface between MATLAB, Simulink, and Unreal Engine 4 can send information (such as vehicle control signals) back to the virtual environment. The shared memory interface conveys arbitrary numerical data, RGB image data, and point cloud data for the simulation of LiDAR sensors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0114
Jorge De-J. Lozoya Santos, J. C. Tudon-Martinez
Abstract The project consists on the mechanical and electronic instrumentation of an existing vehicle (built at Universidad de Monterrey for the SAE Supermileage Competition) to be able to control its steering, braking and throttle systems “by wire”. Insight to the stages of turning the vehicle into an autonomous one is presented. This includes identification of the current mechanical properties, choosing adequate components and the use of a simulation to allow early work on the software involving cameras and motors to provide autonomy to the vehicle. Using software in the loop methodology mathematical models of the dynamics of the vehicle are run in Simulink and update the position and orientation of the 3D model of the vehicle in V-REP, a robot simulator.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0112
Mingming Zhao, Hongyan Wang, Junyi Chen, Xiao Xu, Yutong He
Abstract Rear-end accident is one of the most important collision modes in China, which often leads to severe accident consequences due to the high collision velocity. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) system could perform emergency brake automatically in dangerous situation and mitigate the consequence. This study focused on the analysis of the rear-end accidents in China in order to discuss about the parameters of Time–to-Collision (TTC) and the comprehensive evaluation of typical AEB. A sample of 84 accidents was in-depth investigated and reconstructed, providing a comprehensive set of data describing the pre-crash matrix. Each accident in this sample is modeled numerically by the simulation tool PC-Crash. In parallel, a model representing the function of an AEB system has been established. This AEB system applies partial braking when the TTC ≤ TTC1 and full braking when the TTC ≤ TTC2.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0116
Ankit Goila, Ambarish Desai, Feng Dang, Jian Dong, Rahul Shetty, Rakesh Babu Kailasa, Mahdi Heydari, Yang Wang, Yue Sun, Manikanta Jonnalagadda, Mohammed Alhasan, Hanlong Yang, Katherine R. Lastoskie
ADAS features development involves multidisciplinary technical fields, as well as extensive variety of different sensors and actuators, therefore the early design process requires much more resources and time to collaborate and implement. This paper will demonstrate an alternative way of developing prototype ADAS concept features by using remote control car with low cost hobby type of controllers, such as Arduino Due and Raspberry Pi. Camera and a one-beam type Lidar are implemented together with Raspberry Pi. OpenCV free open source software is also used for developing lane detection and object recognition. In this paper, we demonstrate that low cost frame work can be used for the high level concept algorithm architecture, development, and potential operation, as well as high level base testing of various features and functionalities. The developed RC vehicle can be used as a prototype of the early design phase as well as a functional safety testing bench.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0052
Andre Kohn, Rolf Schneider, Antonio Vilela, Udo Dannebaum, Andreas Herkersdorf
Abstract A main challenge when developing next generation architectures for automated driving ECUs is to guarantee reliable functionality. Today’s fail safe systems will not be able to handle electronic failures due to the missing “mechanical” fallback or the intervening driver. This means, fail operational based on redundancy is an essential part for improving the functional safety, especially in safety-related braking and steering systems. The 2-out-of-2 Diagnostic Fail Safe (2oo2DFS) system is a promising approach to realize redundancy with manageable costs. In this contribution, we evaluate the reliability of this concept for a symmetric and an asymmetric Electronic Power Steering (EPS) ECU. For this, we use a Markov chain model as a typical method for analyzing the reliability and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) in majority redundancy approaches. As a basis, the failure rates of the used components and the microcontroller are considered.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0051
Jean Godot, Adil Alif, Sébastien Saudrais, Bertrand Barbedette, Cherif Larouci
Abstract The assessment of the safety and the reliability for embedded systems is mainly performed early in the design cycle, at system level. The objective is to detect the potential failures which could lead to an undesirable event. Given the increasing critical feature of the functions executed by the software in automotive and aeronautics, it becomes necessary to perform safety analysis at lower level of the design cycle such as at implementation stage. However, software models at this stage are complex and heterogeneous so the analyses are often manually realized. As the software models are also very large (thousands of basic software components), the analysis is labor-intensive and error-prone so it is not obvious to obtain relevant results. Therefore, the analysis on software models at implementation stage is often neglected.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0054
Daniel Kaestner, Antoine Miné, André Schmidt, Heinz Hille, Laurent Mauborgne, Stephan Wilhelm, Xavier Rival, Jérôme Feret, Patrick Cousot, Christian Ferdinand
Abstract Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. All contemporary safety standards require evidence that no data races and no critical run-time errors occur, such as invalid pointer accesses, buffer overflows, or arithmetic overflows. Such errors can cause software crashes, invalidate separation mechanisms in mixed-criticality software, and are a frequent cause of errors in concurrent and multi-core applications. The static analyzer Astrée has been extended to soundly and automatically analyze concurrent software. This novel extension employs a scalable abstraction which covers all possible thread interleavings, and reports all potential run-time errors, data races, deadlocks, and lock/unlock problems. When the analyzer does not report any alarm, the program is proven free from those classes of errors. Dedicated support for ARINC 653 and OSEK/AUTOSAR enables a fully automatic OS-aware analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0053
Wolfgang Granig, Friedrich Rasbornig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Mario Motz, Thomas Zettler, Michael Strasser, Alessandro Michelutti
Abstract Functional safe systems fulfilling the ISO 26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications where additional redundant and diverse functionality is needed for higher rated ASIL levels. This can result in a very complex and expensive system setup. Here we present a sensor product developed according ISO 26262. This sensor product comprises a two channel redundant and also diverse implemented magnetic field sensor concept with linear digital outputs on one monolithically integrated silicon substrate. This sensor is used for ASIL D applications like power-steering torque measurement, where the torque is transferred into a magnetic field signal in a certain magnetic setup, but can also be used in other demanding sensor applications concerning safety. This proposed and also implemented solution is beneficial because of implementation on a single chip in one single chip-package but anyway fulfilling ASIL D requirements on system level.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0050
Mario Berk, Hans-Martin Kroll, Olaf Schubert, Boris Buschardt, Daniel Straub
Abstract With increasing levels of driving automation, the perception provided by automotive environment sensors becomes highly safety relevant. A correct assessment of the sensors’ perception reliability is therefore crucial for ensuring the safety of the automated driving functionalities. There are currently no standardized procedures or guidelines for demonstrating the perception reliability of the sensors. Engineers therefore face the challenge of setting up test procedures and plan test drive efforts. Null Hypothesis Significance Testing has been employed previously to answer this question. In this contribution, we present an alternative method based on Bayesian parameter inference, which is easy to implement and whose interpretation is more intuitive for engineers without a profound statistical education. We show how to account for different environmental conditions with an influence on sensor performance and for statistical dependence among perception errors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0063
John Botham, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Antony Powell, Peter Miller, Olivier Haas, David McGeoch, Arun Chakrapani Rao, Colin O'Halloran, Jaroslaw Kiec, Asif Farooq, Saman Poushpas, Nick Tudor
Abstract PICASSOS was a UK government funded programme to improve the ability of automotive supply chains to develop complex software-intensive systems with high safety assurance and at an acceptable cost. This was executed by a consortium of three universities and five companies including an automotive OEM and suppliers. Three major elements of the PICASSOS project were: use of automated model based verification technology utilising formal methods; application of this technology in the context of ISO 26262; and evaluation to measure the impact of this approach to inform key management decisions on the costs, benefits and risks of applying this technology on live projects. The project spanned system level design and software development. This was achieved by using a unified model based process incorporating SysML at the system level and using Simulink and Stateflow auto-coded into C at the software level.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0065
Bülent Sari, Hans-Christian Reuss
Abstract Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train and autonomous driving leads to complexity in designing system, hardware, software and safety architecture. The application of multicore processors in the automotive industry is becoming necessary because of the needs for more processing power, more memory and higher safety requirements. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the safety solutions particularly for Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL-D) Systems. This brings additional challenges because of additional requirements of ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts. This paper presents an approach for model-based “dependent failure analysis” which is required from ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts with decomposition approach.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0060
Heiko Doerr, Thomas End, Lena Kaland
Abstract The release of the ISO 26262 in November 2011 was a major milestone for the safeguarding of safety-related systems that include one or more electrical and / or electronic (E/E) systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars. Although no specific requirements exist for a model-based software development process, ISO 26262 compiles general requirements and recommendations that need to be applied to model-based development. The second edition of the ISO 26262 has been distributed for review with a final publication scheduled for 2018. This revised edition not only integrates the experiences of the last few years but also extends the overall scope of safety-related systems. In order to determine the necessary adaptions for already existing software development processes, a detailed analysis of this revision is necessary. In this work, we focus on an analysis and the impact on model-based software development of safety-related systems.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0001
Ming Cheng, Bo Chen
Abstract This paper studies the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) design of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) for the research of HEV lithiumion battery aging. In this paper, an electrochemical model of a lithium-ion battery pack with the characteristics of battery aging is built and integrated into the vehicle model of Autonomie® software from Argonne National Laboratory. The vehicle model, together with the electrochemical battery model, is designed to run in a dSPACE real-time simulator while the powertrain power distribution is managed by a dSPACE MicroAutoBoxII hardware controller. The control interface is designed using dSPACE ControlDesk to monitor the real-time simulation results. The HiL simulation results with the performance of vehicle dynamics and the thermal aging of the battery are presented and analyzed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0073
Andreas Barthels, Christian Ress, Martin Wiecker, Manfred Müller
Abstract Vehicle to Vehicle Communication use case performance heavily relies on market penetration rate. The more vehicles support a use case, the better the customer experience. Enabling these use cases with acceptable quality on vehicles without built-in navigation systems, elaborate map matching and highly accurate sensors is challenging. This paper introduces a simulation framework to assess system performance in dependency of vehicle positioning accuracy for matching approach path traces in Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages (DENMs) in absence of navigation systems supporting map matching. DENMs are used for distributing information about hazards on the road network. A vehicle without navigation system and street map can only match its position trajectory with the trajectory carried in the DENM.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0066
Shogo Nakao, Akihiko Hyodo, Masaki Itabashi, Tomio Sakashita, Shingo Obara, Tetsuya Uno, Yasuo Sugure, Yoshinobu Fukano, Mitsuo Sasaki, Yoshihiro Miyazaki
This paper presents the “Virtual Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (vFMEA)” system, which is a high-fidelity electrical-failure-simulation platform, and applies it to the software verification of an electric power steering (EPS) system. The vFMEA system enables engineers to dynamically inject a drift fault into a circuit model of the electronic control unit (ECU) of an EPS system, to analyze system-level failure effects, and to verify software-implemented safety mechanisms, which consequently reduces both cost and time of development. The vFMEA system can verify test cases that cannot be verified using an actual ECU and can improve test coverage as well. It consists of a cycle-accurate microcontroller model with mass-production software implemented in binary format, analog and digital circuit models, mechanical models, and a state-triggered fault-injection mechanism.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0008
James Andrew Miloser
Abstract Simulink is a very successful and popular method for modelling and auto-coding embedded automotive features, functions and algorithms. Due to its history of success, university feeder programs, and large third party tool support, it has, in some cases, been applied to areas of the software system where other methods, principles and strategies may provide better options for the software and systems engineers and architects. This paper provides approaches to determine when best to apply UML and when best to apply Simulink to a typical automotive feature. Object oriented software design patterns as well as general guidelines are provided to help in this effort. This paper's intent is not to suggest a replacement for Simulink but to provide the software architects and designers additional options when decomposing high level requirements into reusable software components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0079
Hao Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Mengying Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhou, Yu Tang
Abstract Road traffic congestion sometimes happens at tunnel exit even without high traffic flow. One reason is that the deceleration process is imperceptible when the vehicle is driving to the tunnel exit with gradual upgrade slopes. Nowadays regulations are more concentrated in transport sectors, and control measures are applied to vehicles through the tunnel. This process is careless of vehicles’ specific characteristics and easily distract the driver attention. In this paper, a tunnel climbing acceleration reminder system is introduced. When the speed drop is detected and the analysis show this is due to the driver's unconscious behavior, the system will remind the driver to speed up. Based on the dynamic model and the tunnel properties, the relationship between the throttle opening degrees and the duration with the speed change is studied. Then, the engine braking is considered for the variation of speeds and slopes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0006
Harald Bucher, Clemens Reichmann, Juergen Becker
Abstract The increasing complexity of electric/electronic architectures (EEA) in the automotive domain raised the necessity of model-based development processes for the design of such heterogeneous systems, which combine different engineering principles with different viewpoints. High-level simulation is a great means to evaluate the EEA in the concept phase of the design, since it reduces costly real-world experiments. However, model-based EEA design and analysis as well as its simulation are often separate processes in the development lifecycle. In this paper, we present a novel approach that extends state-of-the-art model-based systems engineering principles of EEA by a behavior specification reusing library components. The specification is seamlessly integrated in the development process of a single source EEA model. Therewith, the starting point is the abstract logical function architecture of the EEA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0080
Qilu Wang, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Shengguang Xiong, XiaoXiao Zhou
Abstract Mountain road winding and bumpy, traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present curve warning system research are based on Charge-coupled Device, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability to identify the curves based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road according to the commercial vehicle characteristic of load, and the characteristics of the mass center to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0007
Jose-Guillermo Saavedra, Asaad Makki, Raciel Cruz
Abstract The advancement in connectivity technology is driving a shift in business models in almost every field. Automakers need to adapt to a new business model in which the platform (automobile) and the mobility solutions (Devices and Services) are enabled by a strong dynamic connectivity. To succeed in this business model, it is imperative to deliver an unparalleled customer experience. Traditional customer experiences focused only in the platform (automobile) are no longer sufficient to address the mobility needs. The development of in-vehicle features should consider both the platform and the connectivity in a single development scope. This paradigm shift sets new challenges for the in-vehicle features designers. Designers have to speak not only the language of the experience but rather a language to address different levels of abstractions to ensure effective communication with all stakeholders and developers including those outside the organization.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0081
Majid Majidi, Majid Arab, Vahid Tavoosi
Abstract In this research, an optimal real-time trajectory planning method is proposed for autonomous ground vehicles in case of overtaking a moving obstacle. When an autonomous vehicle detects a moving vehicle ahead of it in a proper speed and distance and the braking is not efficient due to the lost of its kinematic energy, the autonomous vehicle decides to overtake the obstacle by performing a double lane-change maneuver. A two-phase nonlinear optimal problem is developed for generating the path for the overtaking maneuver. The cost function of the first phase is defined in such a way that the vehicle approaches the moving obstacle as close as possible. Besides, the cost function of the second phase is defined as the minimization of the sum of the vehicle lateral deviation from the reference path and the rate of steering angle during the overtaking maneuver while the lateral acceleration of the vehicle does not exceed a safe limit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0004
Norbert Wiechowski, Thomas Rambow, Rainer Busch, Alexander Kugler, Norman Hansen, Stefan Kowalewski
Abstract Modern vehicles become increasingly software intensive. Software development therefore is critical to the success of the manufacturer to develop state of the art technology. Standards like ISO 26262 recommend requirement-based verification and test cases that are derived from requirements analysis. Agile development uses continuous integration tests which rely on test automation and evaluation. All these drove the development of a new model-based software verification environment. Various aspects had to be taken into account: the test case specification needs to be easily comprehensible and flexible in order to allow testing of different functional variants. The test environment should support different use cases like open-loop or closed-loop testing and has to provide corresponding evaluation methods for continuously changing as well as for discrete signals.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0005
Yun Liu, Sung-Kwon Hong, Tony Ge
Abstract Powertrain drivability evaluation and calibration is an important part of vehicle development to enhance the customer experience. This step mainly takes place on vehicle testing very late in the product development cycle, and is associated with a considerable amount of prototype, test facility, human resource and time cost. Design change options at this stage are also very limited. To reduce the development cost, a model based computer aided engineering (CAE) method is introduced and combined with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation technology. The HIL simulation method offers a possibility for drivability prediction and development in early phase of product cycle. This article describes the drivability HIL simulation process under development in Ford. The process consists of real time capable multi-domain CAE model integration, powertrain control module (PCM) and HIL simulator interface development and drivability HIL simulation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0002
Nate Rolfes
Abstract Driver assistance features are increasingly dependent upon system architectures that distribute and share responsibilities across various function-based ECUs to minimize cost and redundancy while maximizing engineering efficiency. Clear and accurate system requirements are critical to success, and a robust methodology for validating and testing requirements is essential. Distributed systems are highly sensitive to requirement ambiguity and inaccuracy as they are designed on the assumptions of predictable logical behavior of each functional component. Requirement ambiguity drives variance in implementations which results in system incompatibilities. Errors in requirements lead to faulty implementations that fail not just the component test but also hinder the testing of the entire system of components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0003
Tetsuya Tohdo
Abstract We propose a verification method in the field of automotive control systems integrating the concepts of Formal Methods with testing, aiming at efficient and reliable software development. Although Formal Methods are believed to provide the benefits of their rigorous nature and their inherent capability of automation, only limited cases are known where Formal Methods were applied in system and software development, in practice, due to two major difficulties: appropriate abstraction in modeling and scalability in automated reasoning. Focusing on testing on the other hand, there is the difficulty of selecting reasonable set of tests for given verification objectives. In order to overcome these difficulties, our approach is to present verification criteria for testing to appropriately cover the property with the help of the Formal Method concepts.
Viewing 241 to 270 of 33250