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2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0136
Kurtis James Irwin, Roy Douglas, Jonathan Stewart, Andrew Pedlow, Rose Mary Stalker, Andrew Woods
With emission legislations becoming ever more stringent there is an increased pressure on the after treatment systems and more specifically the three-way catalysts. With more recent developments in emission legislations, there is requirement for more complex after-treatment systems and understanding of the ageing process. With future legislation introducing independent inspection of emissions at any time under real world driving conditions throughout a vehicle life cycle this is going to increase the focus on understanding catalyst behaviour during any likely conditions throughout its lifetime and not just at the beginning and end. In recent years it has become a popular approach to use accelerated aging of the automotive catalysts for the development of new catalytic formulations and for homologation of new vehicle emissions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0137
Zhen Zhang, Luigi del Re, Richard Fuerhapter
During transients, engines tend to produce substantially higher peak emissions which are the longer the more important as the steady state emissions are better controller. To this end, they must be measurable in an adequate time scale. While for most emissions there are commercially available sensors of sufficient speed and performance, the same is not true for soot, especially for production engines. Against this background, in the last years we have investigated together with a supplier of measurement systems the possible use of a 50Hz sensor based on LII and of the same size of a standard oxygen probe, and the results were very positive, showing that the sensor could recognize transient changes undetected by conventional measurement systems (like AVL Opacimenter or Microsoot) but confirmed e.g. by incylinder 2 color spectroscopy. The higher speed is also due to the position, as the sensor can be mounted above or below the turbine in a turbocharged CI engine.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0002
Adrian Irimescu, Silvana Di Iorio, Simona Merola, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Quasi-dimensional modeling is used on a wide scale in engine development, given its potential for saving time and resources compared to experimental investigations. Often it is preferred to more complex CFD codes that are much more computationally intensive. Accuracy is one major issue of quasi-dimensional simulations and for this reason sub-models are continuously developed in order to improve predictive capabilities. This study looks into the use of equivalent fluid velocity and characteristic length scales for simulating the processes of fresh charge entrainment and oxidation behind the flame front. Rather than dividing combustion into three different phases (i.e. laminar kernel, turbulent flame propagation and oxidation near the walls), the concept of turbulent heat and mass transfer is imposed throughout the entire process.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0130
Antonio Paolo Carlucci, Marco Benegiamo, Sergio Camporeale, Daniela Ingrosso
Nowadays, In-Cylinder Pressure Sensors (ICPS) have become a mainstream technology that promises to change the way the engine control is performed. Among all the possible applications, the prediction of raw (engine-out) NOx emissions would allow to eliminate the NOx sensor currently used to manage the after-treatment systems. In the current study, a semi-physical model already existing in literature for the prediction of engine-out nitric ox-ide emissions based on in-cylinder pressure measurement has been improved; in particular, the main focus has been to improve nitric oxide prediction accuracy when injection timing is varied. The main modification introduced in the model lies in taking into account the turbu-lence induced by fuel spray and enhanced by in-cylinder bulk motion.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0139
Francesco Barba, Alberto Vassallo, Vincenzo Greco
The aim of the present study is to improve the effectiveness of the engine and aftertreatment calibration process through the critical evaluation of several methodologies available to estimate the soot mass flow produced by diesel engines and filtered by Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). In particular, the focus of the present study has been the development of a reliable simulation method for the accurate prediction of the engine-out soot mass flow starting from Filter Smoke Number (FSN) measurements executed in steady state conditions, in order to predict the DPF loading considering different engine working conditions corresponding to NEDC and WLTP cycles. In order to achieve this goal, the study was split into two parts: - Correlation between ‘wet soot’ (measured by soot filter weighing) and the ‘dry soot’ (measured by the Micro Soot Sensor MSS).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0167
Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Rinaldini, Tommaso Savioli, Giuseppe Cantore, Alok Warey, Michael Potter, Venkatesh Gopalakrishnan, Sandro Balestrino
A CFD study on a 2-stroke (2-S) opposed piston high speed direct injection (HSDI) Diesel engine is reported in this work. The engine main features (bore, stroke, port timings, et cetera) were defined in a previous stage of the project, with the support of CFD-1D engine simulations and empirical hypotheses. The current analysis is focused on the assembly made up of scavenge ports, manifold and cylinder. The first step of the study consisted in the construction of a parametric mesh on a simplified geometry. Two geometric parameters and 3 different operating conditions were considered. A CFD-3D simulation by using a customized version of the KIVA-4 code was performed on a set of 243 different cases, sweeping all the most interesting combinations of geometric parameters and operating conditions. The post-processing of this huge amount of data allowed us to define the most effective geometric configuration, named baseline.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0131
Sergio Mario Camporeale, Patrizia D. Ciliberti, Antonio Carlucci, Daniela Ingrosso
The incoming PostEuro6 regulation and the on-board diagnostics -OBD- pushes the research activity towards the set-up of even more efficient after treatment systems. Nowadays, the most common after treatment system for NOx reduction is the selective catalytic reactor –SCR- . This system requires as an input the value of engine out NOx emission –raw- in order to control the Urea dosing strategy. In this work, a grey box NOx raw emission model based on in-cylinder pressure signal (ICPS) is validated on two standard cycles: MNEDC and WLTC using an EU6 engine at the test bench. The overall results show a maximum relative error of the integrated cumulate value integral of 12.8% and 17.4% for MNEDC and WLTC respectively. In particular, the instantaneous value of relative error is included in the range of ± 10% in the steady state conditions while during transient conditions is less than 20% mainly.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0032
Gilles Decan, Stijn Broekaert, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Jan Vierendeels, Sebastian Verhelst
The present work details a study of the heat flux through the walls of an internal combustion engine. The determination of this heat flux is an important aspect in engine optimization, as it influences the power, efficiency and the emissions of the engine. Therefore, a set of simulation tools in the OpenFOAM® software has been developed, that allows the calculation of the heat transfer through engine walls for ICEs. Normal practice in these types of engine simulations is to apply a wall function model to calculate the heat flux, rather than resolving the complete thermo-viscous boundary layer, and perform simulations of the closed engine cycle. When dealing with a complex engine, this methodology will reduce the overall computational cost. It however increases the need to rely on assumptions on both the initial flow field and the behavior in the near-wall region.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0159
Davide Di Battista, Marco Di Bartolomeo, Carlo Villante, Roberto Cipollone
Internal combustion engines is actually one of the most important source of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions. In particular, on-the-road transportation sector has taken this environmental challenge and worldwide governments set up regulations in order to limit the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles. Among the several technologies under development, an ORC unit bottomed exhaust gas seems to be very promising, but it still has several complications when it is applied on board of a vehicle (weight, encumbrances, backpressure effect on the engine, safety, reliability). In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model of an ORC unit bottomed a heavy duty engine, used for commercial vehicle, has been developed. The model is completed with the sizing of the two exchangers involved in the ORC plant: the heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) and the condenser.
2017-08-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9000
Teresa Donateo, Antonio Ficarella
Abstract The design of a hybrid electric powertrain requires a complex optimization procedure because its performance will strongly depend on both the size of the components and the energy management strategy. The problem is particular critical in the aircraft field because of the strong constraints to be fulfilled (in particular in terms of weight and volume). The problem was addressed in the present investigation by linking an in-house simulation code for hybrid electric aircraft with a commercial many-objective optimization software. The design variables include the size of engine and electric motor, the specification of the battery (typology, nominal capacity, bus voltage), the cooling method of the motor and the battery management strategy. Several key performance indexes were suggested by the industrial partner. The four most important indexes were used as fitness functions: electric endurance, fuel consumption, take-off distance and powertrain volume.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1938
Shyam Sunder Manivannan, Gopkumar Kuttikrishnan, Rajesh Siva, Janarthanan C, G A Ramadass
Abstract The hybrid robot will be a battery operated four wheel drive vehicle with a rigid chassis for all terrain operation. The vehicle will be suited for various payloads based on applications with geological, atmospheric sensors and buried object identification at a depth of 8 to 100 m., etc. The vehicle will be remotely controlled through a RF signal, allows it to maneuver up to 5 km. The novelty of the design, is its capability for all terrain and ease of trafficability based on skid steering, self-alignment of sensors and vehicle traction in spite of possible inverted conditions and the vehicle can travel from land, snow, water and vice versa. The vehicle could be deployed for surveying coastline of water bodies, borderlines and also be extensively used in polar region for studying glacier aging and as advance vehicle for the convoys and polar mapping.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1949
Johnson Jose, Ramesh M, G Venkatesan, M Khader Basha
Abstract Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being deployed in military, law enforcement, search & rescue, scientific research, environmental & climate studies, reconnaissance and other commercial and non-commercial applications on a large scale. A design and development of landing gear system has been taken up for a UAV. This paper presents the design optimization of structural components of Wheel-Brake & Fork assembly pertaining to the Main Landing Gear (MLG) for a UAV. The wheel, fork, axle and brake unit constitute the wheel assembly. The wheel-brake assembly is assembled with the strut assembly and forms the Landing gear system. The Fork is the connecting member between the shock strut and the axle containing the wheel-brake assembly. As the fork and axle are subjected to shock loads while landing, the strength of these components are very much essential to withstand the dynamic loads.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1953
Tushar Narendra Puri lng, Lalitkumar Ramujagir Soni lng, Sourabh Deshpande
Abstract The infliction of rigorous emission norms across the world has made the automobile industry to focus and dwell upon researches to reduce the emissions from internal combustion engines, namely diesel engines. Variation in fuel injection timing has better influence on reduction of engine exhaust emissions. This papers deals with the variation of fuel injection timing along with fuel injection pressure numerically on a 4 stroke, single cylinder, and direct injection diesel engine running at full load condition using CONVERGE CFD tool. As the piston and bowl geometry considered in this work is symmetric, only 60 degree sector of the piston cylinder assembly is considered for numerical simulation over complete 360 degree model.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1954
Premkumarr Santhanamm, K. Sreejith, Avinash Anandan
A local and global environmental concern regarding automotive emissions has led to optimize the design and development of Power train systems for IC engines. Blow-by and Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in modern IC engines. Great efforts have been made by automotive manufacturers to minimize the impact of oil consumption and blow-by on in-cylinder engine emissions. This paper describes a case study of how simulation played a supportive role in improving piston ringpak assembly. The engine taken up for study is a six cylinder, turbocharged, water cooled diesel engine with a peak firing pressure of 140 bar and developing a power output of 227 KW at 1500 rpm. This paper reveals the influence of stepped land, top groove angle, ring face profile, twist features with regard to tweaking of Blow-by & LOC. Relevant design inputs of engine parameters were provided by the customer to firm up the boundary conditions.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1960
Satish Chandra Mudavath, Ganesh Dharmar, Mohanraj Balakrishnan
Abstract In automotive industry, design of vehicle to end customer with proper ergonomics and balancing the design is always a challenge, for which an accurate prediction of postures are needed. Several studies have used Digital Human Models (DHM) to examine specific movements related to ingress and egress by translating complex tasks, like vehicle egress through DHMs. This requires an in-depth analysis of users to ensure such models reflect the range of abilities inherent to the population. Designers are increasingly using digital mock-ups of the built environment using DHMs as a means to reduce costs and speed-up the “time-to-market” of products. DHMs can help to improve the ergonomics of a product but must be representative of actual users.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1923
Satish Mudavath, Ganesh Dharmar, Shyam Somani
Abstract Digital human models (DHM) have greatly enhanced design for the automotive environment. The major advantage of the DHMs today is their ability to quickly test a broad range of the population within specific design parameters. The need to create expensive prototypes and run time consuming clinics can be significantly reduced. However, while the anthropometric databases within these models are comprehensive, the ability to position the manikin’s posture is limited and needs lot of optimization. This study enhances the occupant postures and their seating positions, in all instances the occupant was instructed to adjust to the vehicle parameters so they were in their most comfortable position. While all the Occupants are accommodated to their respective positions which finally can be stacked up for space assessments. This paper aims at simulating those scenarios for different percentiles / population which will further aid in decision making for critical parameters.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1922
S Nataraja Moorthy, Manchi Rao, Prasath Raghavendran, Sakthi Babu
Abstract NVH is becoming one of the major factor for customer selection of vehicle along with parameters like fuel economy and drivability. One of the major NVH challenges is to have a vehicle with aggressive drivability and at the same time with acceptable noise and vibration levels. This paper focuses on the compact utility vehicle where the howling noise is occurring at higher rpm of the engine. The vehicle is powered by three cylinder turbocharged diesel engine. The noise levels were higher above 2500 rpm due to the presence of structural resonance. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and Transfer path analysis (TPA) analysis was done on entire vehicle and powertrain to find out the major reason for howling noise at higher engine rpm. It is observed that the major contribution for noise at higher rpm is due to modal coupling between powertrain, half shaft and vehicle sub frame.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1930
Anil Kumar Jaswal, Pradeep Chandrasekaran, Surendran Ramadoss
Abstract Indian Automobile Industry has started using Six Sigma for Vehicle Design and process improvement to compete with Global competition. This Paper describes how the Tools of Six Sigma shall be used as an Effective Tool for both redefining the Design and the Process Improvement. This Paper talks on the evolution of DMADV approach in Indian Automobile Industry compared to the related Trends in Other Manufacturing Sectors. The Author describes how the warranty failures in Commercial Segment Vehicle Category which was the selling talk for the Competition was addressed in Leading Indian Automobile OEM. As this Failure was adversely impacting customer satisfaction and no solution seemed forthcoming, top Management indicated to use a radically different approach to solve the problem within a years’ time.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1931
Shaul Hameed Syed, K Rameshkumar
Abstract In this work an attempt is made to design and fabricate a low cost dynamometer for measuring cutting forces in three directions in a CNC vertical milling machine. The dynamometer is designed and fabricated to withstand load up to 5000 N along ‘X’, ‘Y’ and ‘Z’ axis. Milling dynamometer developed in this work, consists of four octagonal rings as an elastic member on which strain gauges are mounted for measuring the cutting forces. Suitable materials for the fixture and for the octagonal rings are chosen for constructing the dynamometer. Structural analysis has been carried out to check the safe design of the dynamometer assembly consisting of fixture and the octagonal rings for the maximum loading conditions. Static calibration of the dynamometer is carried out using slotted weight method by simulating the actual conditions. Calibration chart was prepared for three directions by relating load and corresponding strain.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1935
Praveen V V, P Baskara Sethupathi
Abstract Formula SAE is a prestigious engineering design competition, where student team design, fabricate and test their formula style race car, with the guidelines of the FSAE rulebook, according to which the car is designed, for example the engine must be a four-stroke, Otto-cycle piston engine with a displacement no greater than 710cc. According to FSAE 2017 Rule Book [1], ARTICLE 3, IC3.2 and IC3.3 state that the maximum sound level should not exceed 110 dBC at an average piston speed of 15:25 m/s (for the KTM 390 engine, which has 60 mm stroke length, the noise level will be measured at 7500 RPM) and 103 dBC at Idle RPM. So, the active muffler which works as a normal reflective muffler till the 7500 RPM range, after which an electronic controlled throttle mechanism is used to reduce the backpressure (since after 7500 RPM the noise level doesn't matter in FSAE) by using tach signal from the engine to control the throttle (two position).
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1961
Shishir Sirohi, Saurabh Yadav, B. Ashok, V Ramesh Babu, C Kavitha, K Nantha Gopal
The main objective of the study is to design and analyze casing and supports of a transmission system for an electric vehicle. The system comprises of motors as the power source, constant mesh gear box coupled with limited slip differential as the power transmitting source. The space occupied by the transmission system is a foremost constraint in designing the system. The wear and tear in the system are caused by the gear meshing process and transmission error which lead to failure of the transmission system. This internal excitation also produces a dynamic mesh force, which is transmitted to the casing and mounts through shafts and bearings. In order to overcome such issues in a transmission system, a gear box casing, differential mounts and motor mounts have been designed by the use of CAD-modelling software “SOLIDWORKS”. The designs were imported to FEA software “ANSYS” for carrying out static structural analysis.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1939
Maruti Patil, Penchaliah Ramkumar, Shankar Krishnapillai
Abstract Minimum weight and high-efficiency gearboxes with the maximum service life are the prime necessity of today’s high-performance power transmission systems such as automotive and aerospace. Therefore, the problem to optimize the gearboxes is subjected to a considerable amount of interest. To accomplish these objectives, in this paper, two generalized objective functions for two stage spur-gearbox are formulated; first objective function aims to minimize the volume of gearbox material, while the second aims to maximize the power transmitted by the gearbox. For the optimization purpose, regular mechanical and critical tribological constraints (scuffing and wear) are considered. These objective functions are optimized to obtain a Pareto front for the two-stage gearbox using a specially formulated discrete version of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) code written MATLAB. Two cases are considered, in the first with the regular mechanical constraints.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1944
Asif Basha Shaik Mohammad, Ravindran Vijayakumar, Nageshwara Rao Panduranga
Abstract The vibration and acoustic behaviour of the internal combustion engine is a highly complex one, consisting of many components that are subject to loads that vary greatly in magnitude and which operate at a wide range of speeds. The interaction of these components and the excitation of resonant modes of vibration is a major problem for the powertrain engineer when optimising the noise and vibration characteristics of the engine. This paper summarises a study that has been undertaken to assess and optimise the dynamic behaviour of a current production diesel engine with the objective of reducing radiated noise from the engine. The dynamic behaviour of the diesel engine has been assessed using simulation tools. The dynamic analysis will predict the forces and displacements at each of the nodes of the model by forced response analysis. Predicted results and experimentally measured values were found to be in close agreement.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1947
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Kamal Rohilla, Naveen Sukumar, Kunal Kamal
Abstract A propeller shaft is a mechanical component of drive train that connects transmission to drive wheels/axle with the goal to transfer rotation and torque. It is used when the direct connection between transmission and drive axle is not possible due to large distance between their respective assigned design spaces. In commercial vehicles especially in heavy duty (GVW/GCW>15 tons) a single piece propeller shaft is seldom used due to its inherent disadvantages and therefore, most if not all, of the setups consists of multiple pieces of propeller shaft which are directly mounted on to frame cross members with the help of mounting brackets. As such the mounting bracket assembly undergoes various dynamic and static loading conditions and should be able to withstand these loads. This paper will focus on the FEA analysis of propeller shaft mounting assembly system.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1958
Jyothivel Giridharan, Gokul Kumar
Bio-fuels potentially represent a more environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels as they produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions when burned. Ethanol is one such bio-fuel alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. Towards the initiative of sustainable transportation using alternative fuels, it is attempted to develop an ethanol powered engine for commercial vehicles and this paper attempts to explain the 1D thermodynamic simulation carried out for predicting the engine performance and combustion characteristics, as a part of the engine development program. Engine simulation is becoming an increasingly important engineering tool for reducing the development cost and time and also helps in carrying out various DOE iterations which are rather difficult to be conducted experimentally in any internal combustion engine development program. AVL Boost software is used for modeling and simulation.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1948
John Samuel Kopppula, Thundil Karuppa Raj Rajagopal, Edison Gundabattini
Abstract The present work is concentrated to study the effect of varying inlet pressures on the dynamics of the suction valve obtained from a hermetic reciprocating compressor. The effect of valve functioning on the efficiency of a compressor is highly acceptable. Rather than the delivery valve, the suction valve has a significant impact on the compressor efficiency. The reed valve in a hermetic compressor is a cantilever type arrangement. The valve operates due to the pressure difference between the suction muffler and the cylinder. The numerical analysis which includes Fluid-structure interaction is used in the present study. The flow and structural domain employed in the present study are modelled with Solidworks 15.0. The fluid structure interaction analysis is a combination of ANSYS Fluent and ANSYS structural. These two are coupled with a system coupling in ANSYS Workbench 16.0. The numerical results obtained from the simulation are validated with the experimental data.
2017-06-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-9453
Tobias Hoernig
Within the scope of today’s product development in automotive engineering the aim is to produce more light and solid parts with higher capabilities. On the one hand lightweight materials such as aluminum or magnesium are used, but on the other hand, increased stresses on these components cause higher bolt forces in joining technology. Therefore screws with very high strength rise in importance. At the same time, users need reliable and effective design methods to develop new products at reasonable cost in short time. The bolted joints require a special structural design of the thread engagement in low-strength components. Hence an extension of existing dimensioning of the thread engagement for modern requirements is necessary. In the context of this contribution, this will be addressed in two dimensions: on one hand extreme situations (low strength nut components and high-strength fasteners) are considered.
2017-06-17
Journal Article
2017-01-9550
David Neihguk, M. L. Munjal, Arvind Ram, Abhinav Prasad
Abstract A production muffler of a 2.2 liter compression ignition engine is analyzed using plane wave (Transfer Matrix) method. The objective is to show the usefulness of plane wave models to analyze the acoustic performance (Transmission Loss, TL) of a compact hybrid muffler (made up of reactive and dissipative elements). The muffler consists of three chambers, two of which are acoustically short in the axial direction. The chambers are separated by an impervious baffle on the upstream side and a perforated plate on the downstream side. The first chamber is a Concentric Tube Resonator (CTR). The second chamber consists of an extended inlet and a flow reversal 180-degree curved outlet duct. The acoustic cavity in the third chamber is coupled with the second chamber through the acoustic impedances of the end plate and the perforated plate.
2017-06-17
Journal Article
2017-01-9077
Zaimin Zhong, Junjie Li, Shuihua Zhou, Yingkun Zhou, Shang Jiang
Abstract Description of PMSM torque in high accuracy is critical and previous work for its further research. However, the traditional linear torque model fails to describe its non-ideal characteristics of practical working. This paper presents a generalized torque model of PMSM based on flux linkage reconstruction. In synchronous rotating space coordinates, flux linkage were reconstructed through Fourier series expansion and bivariate polynomial. Based on this model, a precise PMSM torque ripple description and corresponding suppression method were developed. Current feed-forward compensation and the rotor field oriented control were applied in torque ripple suppression. Simulation and experimental results both show that the model not only accurately describes the nonlinear variation of PMSM torque in different working conditions, but also can be used to suppress PMSM torque ripple effectively.
2017-06-17
Journal Article
2017-01-9078
Dong Gao, MiaoHua Huang, Jiangang Xie
In order to solve the environmental pollution and energy crisis, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been developed rapidly. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is the key power supply equipment for EVs, and the scientific and accurate prediction of its Remaining Useful Life (RUL) has become a hot topic in the field of new energy research. The internal resistance and capacity are often used to characterize the Li-ion battery State of Health (SOH) from which RUL is obtained. However, in practical applications, it is difficult to obtain internal resistance and capacity information by using the non-intrusive measurement method. Therefore, it is necessary to extract the measurable parameters to characterize the degradation of Li-ion battery. At present, the methods of extracting health indicators based on measurable parameters have gained preliminary results, but most of them are derived from the Li-ion battery discharging data.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 33250