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Viewing 31 to 60 of 33430
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2188
Bruno S. Soriano, Edward S. Richardson, Stephanie Schlatter, Yuri M. Wright
Abstract Dual-fuel combustion is an attractive approach for utilizing alternative fuels such as natural gas in compression-ignition internal combustion engines. In this approach, pilot injection of a more reactive fuel provides a source of ignition for the premixed natural gas/air. The overall performance combines the high efficiency of a compression-ignition engine with the relatively low emissions associated with natural gas. However the combustion phenomena occurring in dual-fuel engines present a challenge for existing turbulent combustion models because, following ignition, flame propagates through a partially-reacted and inhomogeneous mixture of the two fuels. The objective of this study is to test a new modelling formulation that combines the ability of the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) approach to describe autoignition of fuel sprays with the ability of the G-equation approach to describe the subsequent flame propagation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2190
Alessandro D'Adamo, Marco Del Pecchia, Sebastiano Breda, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi, Jens Prager
Abstract CFD simulations of reacting flows are fundamental investigation tools used to predict combustion behaviour and pollutants formation in modern internal combustion engines. Focusing on spark-ignited units, most of the flamelet-based combustion models adopted in current simulations use the fuel/air/residual laminar flame propagation speed as a background to predict the turbulent flame speed. This, in turn, is a fundamental requirement to model the effective burn rate. A consolidated approach in engine combustion simulations relies on the adoption of empirical correlations for laminar flame speed, which are derived from fitting of combustion experiments. However, these last are conducted at pressure and temperature ranges largely different from those encountered in engines: for this reason, correlation extrapolation at engine conditions is inevitably accepted. As a consequence, relevant differences between proposed correlations emerge even for the same fuel and conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2192
Shenghui Zhong, Zhijun Peng, Yu Li, Hailin Li, Fan Zhang
Abstract A 3-D DNS (Three-Dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation) study with detailed chemical kinetic mechanism of methane has been performed to investigate the characteristics of turbulent premixed oxy-fuel combustion in the condition relevant to Spark Ignition (SI) engines. First, 1-D (one-dimensional) laminar freely propagating premixed flame is examined to show a consistent combustion temperature for different dilution cases, such that 73% H2O and 66% CO2 dilution ratios are adopted in the following 3-D DNS cases. Four 3-D DNS cases with various turbulence intensities are conducted. It is found that dilution agents can reduce the overall flame temperature but with an enhancement of density weighted flame speed. CO2 dilution case shows the lowest flame speed both in turbulent and laminar cases.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2193
Andreas Nygren, Anders Karlsson
Abstract When developing new combustion concepts, CFD simulations is a powerful tool. The modeling of spray formation is a challenging but important part when it comes to CFD modelling of non-premixed combustion. There is a large difference in the accuracy and robustness among different spray models and their implementation in different CFD codes. In the work presented in this paper a spray model, designated as VSB2 has been implemented in OpenFOAM. VSB2 differ from traditional spray models by replacing the Lagrangian parcels with stochastic blobs. The stochastic blobs consists of a droplet size distribution rather than equal sized droplets, as is the case with the traditional parcel. The VSB2 model has previously been thoroughly validated for spray formation and combustion of n-heptane. The aim of this study was to validate the VSB2 spray model for ethanol spray formation and combustion as a step in modelling dual-fuel combustion with alcohol and diesel.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2194
Mateusz Pucilowski, Mehdi Jangi, Sam Shamun, Martin Tuner, Xue-Song Bai
Abstract Heavy-duty direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine running on methanol is studied at a high compression ratio (CR) of 27. The fuel is injected with a common-rail injector close to the top-dead-center (TDC) with two injection pressures of 800 bar and 1600 bar. Numerical simulations using Reynold Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT), and Well-Stirred-Reactor (WSR) models are employed to investigate local conditions of injection and combustion process to identify the mechanism behind the trend of increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions at higher injection pressures found in the experiments. It is shown that the numerical simulations successfully replicate the change of ignition delay time and capture variation of NOx emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2199
Maria Cristina Cameretti, Vincenzo De Bellis, Luca Romagnuolo, Agostino Iorio, Luigi Maresca
Abstract In recent years, engine manufacturers have been continuously involved in the research of proper technical solutions to meet more and more stringent CO2 emission targets, defined by international regulations. Many strategies have been already developed, or are currently under study, to attain the above objective. A tendency is however emerging towards more innovative combustion concepts, able to efficiently burn lean or highly diluted mixtures. To this aim, the enhancement of turbulence intensity inside the combustion chamber has a significant importance, contributing to improve the burning rate, to increase the thermal efficiency, and to reduce the cyclic variability. It is well-known that turbulence production is mainly achieved during the intake stroke. Moreover, it is strictly affected by the intake port geometry and orientation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2201
Zhongye Cao, Tianyou Wang, Kai Sun, Lei Cui, Yong Gui
Abstract For uniflow scavenged two-stroke marine diesel engines, the main function of scavenging process is to replace the burned gas with fresh charge. The end state of scavenging process is integral to the subsequent compression and combustion, thereby affecting the engine’s fuel economy, power output and emissions. In this paper, a complete working cycle of a large marine diesel engine was simulated by using the 3D-CFD software CONVERGE. The model was validated by mesh sensitivity test and experiment data. Based on this calibrated model, the influences of swirl ratio and exhaust valve closing (EVC) timing on the scavenging process were investigated. The parameters evaluating the performance of scavenging process were introduced. The results show that, by adjusting the swirl orientation angle(SOA) from SOA=10° to SOA=30°, different swirl ratios are generated and have obvious differences in flow characteristics and scavenging performance.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2202
Shiyou Yang
Abstract This work presents an application of two sub-models relative to chemical-kinetics-based turbulent pre-mixed combustion modeling approach on the simulation of burn rate and emissions of spark ignition engines. In present paper, the justification of turbulent pre-mixed combustion modeling directly based on chemical kinetics plus a turbulence model is given briefly. Two sub-models relative to this kind of pre-mixed combustion modeling approach are described generally, including a practical PRF (primary reference fuel) chemical kinetic mechanism which can correctly capture the laminar flame speed under a wide range of Ford SI (spark ignition) engines/operating conditions, and an advanced spark plug ignition model which has been developed by Ford recently.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2208
Tao Liu, Ziwang Lu, Guangyu Tian
Abstract To further explore the potential of fuel economy for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a methodology of demand power optimization is proposed. The fuel consumption depends not only on the EMS, but also on the way to operate vehicle. A control strategy to adjust driver’s demand before power splitting is necessary. To get accurate and reliable control strategy, two aspects are the most important. First, a rigorous and organized modeling approach is a base to describe complicated powertrain system of HEV. The energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is a graphical synthetic description of electromechanical conversion system based on energy flow. A powertrain architecture of HEV is described explicitly via the EMR. Second, the effectiveness of EMS and the reasonability of driving operations are vital.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2211
Mengqiu Jia, Zhen Lu, Tianyou Wang, Yufeng Li, Yanzhe Sun, Ming Wen, Zhizhao Che, Kai Sun
Abstract The intake process plays an important role in the operation of internal combustion engines. In the present study, a three-dimensional transient simulation of a four-valve diesel engine was performed using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model based on software CONVERGE. The mean velocity components in three directions through the intake valve curtain, the flow separation around the intake valves, the influences of inlet jet on turbulence flow field and cycle-to-cycle variation were investigated in this work. The result shows that the mean velocity distributes non-uniformly near the valve curtain at high valve lifts. In contrast, the mean velocity distribution is uniform at low valve lifts. It is found that the flow separation occurs at valve stem, valve seat and valve sealing through the outlet of the helical port. In contrast, flow separation is only observed in the valve seat through the outlet of the tangential port.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2213
Satoshi Hokimoto, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Minoru Iida, Takahiro Watanabe
Abstract Reduction in the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in internal combustion engines is required to reduce fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and improve drivability. CCV increases at low load operations and lean/dilute burn conditions. Specifically, the factors that cause CCV of combustion are the cyclic variations of in-cylinder flow, in-cylinder distributions of fuel concentration, temperature and residual gas, and ignition energy. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze these factors in a production engine. This study used an optically accessible single-cylinder engine in which combustion and optical measurements were performed for 45 consecutive cycles. CCVs of the combustion and in-cylinder phenomena were investigated for the same cycle. Using this optically accessible engine, the volume inside the combustion chamber, including the pent-roof region can be observed through a quartz cylinder.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2215
Mingming Ma
Abstract A lubricating system modeling method based on flight test data is proposed in this paper. ANN model based on a large number of flight test data is trained and validated, and models of 6 lubricating system parameters in all engine operation settings and whole flight envelope are established. Model results are in good agreement with flight test results, which shows feasibility and effectiveness of the presented modeling method. The model results are packaged in dynamic link library, and the coordination between calculating model and GDAS is accomplished. Comparison of model and flight test results in real-time monitoring of flight test comes true, thus on-line trend monitoring of oil parameters is implemented and applied. Additionally, input parameters are gradually decreased as new input parameter group of ANN structure. Oil parameter model is trained and validated again with the new group of parameters, until leading to unacceptable bias between model and flight test results.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2218
Roman Varbanets, Sergey Karianskyi, Sergey Rudenko, Igor V. Gritsuk, Aleksey Yeryganov, Olena Kyrylash, Nadezhda Aleksandrovskaya
Abstract Operability and efficiency of transport diesel engines significantly depend on periodical diagnosis of its technical condition. The article considers the features of monitoring and diagnostic of transport diesel engines with the help of vibroacoustic analysis of high pressure fuel equipment and gas distribution mechanism. Functional scheme of diagnostic system and analytical method of TDC determination is described. Article gives an example of four-stroke and two-stroke diesel engines diagnosis. Also the article shows turbocharger speed determination and diagnosis with the help of vibroacoustic spectrum analysis. The main feature of the given methods is their high efficiency for diagnosis of transport diesel engines during operation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2219
Xihui Wang
Abstract The conventional cooling fluids in vehicle engine cooling water jacket have relatively poor heat transfer performance. The key to enhance heat transfer in cooling-jacket is to research a kind of new coolants. Nanofluids have heat transfer enhancement merits. In present study, the numerical simulation on Fe3O4 nanofluid flow in cooling water jacket of Gasoline direct injection engine was performed using computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) software FLUENT. The heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids was calculated and verified by experiment. Fe3O4 nano-particles were used in mixture of water/ethylene glycol as a base fluid. The thermal performance of the nanofluid was studied, also the thermal performance of a cooling-jacket was studied with CFD technology. The simulation was performed for different volumetric concentrations of(1%,2%,5%) nanofluids at different engine speeds. The results showed that heat transfer enhanced compared to the base fluid.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2261
Xinyan Wang, Hua Zhao
Abstract The spark ignition (SI) - controlled auto-ignition (CAI) hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is achieved by utilizing the temperature and pressure rise from the early flame propagation induced by the spark-ignition to trigger the auto-ignition of the remaining unburned mixture. This hybrid combustion concept can be used to effectively extend the operating range of gasoline CAI combustion and achieve smooth transitions between SI and CAI combustion mode in gasoline engines. However, the significant cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of the SI-CAI hybrid combustion hinders the practical application of the hybrid combustion. In order to understand the cause of its high CCVs, the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process in a gasoline engine was studied in this study by the large eddy simulations (LES). The turbulence is modelled by the sub-grid k model. The spark ignition and subsequent flame propagation were modelled by the ECFM-3Z LES model.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2252
Weihua Sun, Wei Du, Xuefei Dai, Xiangdong Bai, Zhiping Wu
Abstract The acquisition of more authentic cylinder pressure data is the basis of engine combustion analysis. Due to the multiple advantages, quartz piezoelectric pressure transducers are generally applied to the measurement of the cylinder pressure. However, these transducers can only produce dynamic cylinder pressure data which may be significantly different from the actual values. Thus, the cylinder pressure data need to be corrected through a certain method, while different cylinder pressure correction methods will cause result divergences of the combustion analysis. This paper aims to acquire a proper cylinder pressure correction method by carrying out theoretical analysis based on the polytropic process in the compression stroke as well as the experimental research of the cylinder pressure of a turbocharged eight-cylinder diesel engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2256
Muhammad Umer Waqas, Kai Morganti, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Bengt Johansson
Abstract The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2280
Yuzuru Nada, So Morimoto, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi, Ryu Kaya, Hideaki Nakano, Shinichi Kobayashi
Abstract The aim of this study is to clarify the mixture formation in the combustion chamber of our developed natural gas engine incorporating the sub-chamber injection system, in which natural gas is directly injected into a combustion sub-chamber in order to completely separate rich mixture in the sub-chamber, suitable for ignition, from ultra-lean mixture in the main chamber. Mixture distributions in chambers with and without sub-chamber were numerically simulated at a variety of operating conditions. The commercial software of Fluent 16.0 was used to conduct simulations based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations in an axial 2 dimensional numerical domain considering movements of piston. Non-reactive flow in the combustion chamber was simulated before the ignition timing at an engine speed of 2000 rpm. The turbulence model employed here is standard k-ε model. Air-fuel ratio is set with a lean condition of 30.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2273
Xiaokun Nie, Wanhua Su
Abstract A numerical simulation was performed to investigate the pilot ignited natural gas combustion process in a direct injection natural gas engine. Various mixture distribution characteristics were compared in terms of the evolution of mixture equivalent ratio distributions and mixture concentration stratifications around top dead center (TDC). Based on above, the pilot injections were specially designed to investigate ignition core formation and its effects on natural gas combustion process. The result shows that pilot ignition sites have great impacts on pilot fuel ignition process and natural gas combustion process. The pilot ignition site on the region with rich NG/Air mixture is disadvantageous to the pilot fuel ignition due to a lack of oxygen, which is not beneficial to ignition core formation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2282
Gen Chen, Wenxin Cai, Jianguang Zhou, Christian Spanner, Heribert Fuchs, Werner Schrei, Karl Weihrauch
Abstract A TGDI (turbocharged gasoline direct injection) engine is developed to realize both excellent fuel economy and high dynamic performance to guarantee fun-to-drive. In order to achieve this target, it is of great importance to develop a superior combustion system for the target engine. In this study, CFD simulation analysis, steady flow test and transparent engine test investigation are extensively conducted to ensure efficient and effective design. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation is firstly conducted to optimize controlling parameters for each representative engine operating condition, and the results serve as the input and boundary condition for the subsequent Three-dimensional CFD simulation. 3D CFD simulation is carried out to guide intake port design, which is then measured and verified on steady flow test bench.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2284
Haifei Zheng
Abstract The potential benefits of reheat burner placed between turbine stages for propulsion system have been recognized for nearly a century. Compared to the conventional non-reheat engines, the turbine inter-guide-vane burner (TIB) engines by using jet-swirl flow scheme (high-G loading) are shown to have a higher specific thrust with no or only small increase in thrust specific fuel consumption. But, it is a known fact that the G loading in the circumferential cavity is inversely proportional to the radius of the circumferential cavity. If one needs to scale this configuration for a larger spool of turbine components, the effeciency of the high G operation and obtained benefits on flame speed will reduce and hence the performance will de-grade.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2290
Zhixin Sun, Shaoqing Yang, Xinyong Qiao, Zhiyuan Zhang
Abstract When operating at high elevation of 3700m (atmospheric pressure about 68 kPa), the combustion process of diesel engine deteriorates, and the engine performance declines significantly. In this paper, Isooctyl Nitrate(EHN) is blended into the diesel fuel as additive to improve the combustion process. The decomposition of Isooctyl Nitrate(EHN) is analyzed and its mechanism is studied through chemical kinetics. A series of tests were carried out on a single cylinder diesel engine to study the effects of EHN on diesel engine combustion with the low intake pressure of 68kPa. Results show that the generation of OH、 H、 HO2 and H2O2 in n-heptane cleavage reactions can be promoted by EHN. In both stages of low and high temperature, the decomposition of n-heptane is accelerated, which shortened the ignition delay period. Four kinds of fuel are studied by tests: diesel fuel, diesel fuel with 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9% mass fraction EHN respectively.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2304
Hui Ding, Frank Husmeier, Jayesh Gudekar, Amol Bobade, Deepak Patil
Abstract This paper discusses the holistic approach of simulating a low pressure pump (LPP) including test stand flow dynamics. The simulation includes all lines and valves of the test stand representing realistic test operating conditions in the simulation. The capability to capture all line dynamics enables a robust design against resonances and delivers high-quality performance data. Comparison with actual test data agrees very well giving us confidence in the prediction capability of proposed method and CFD package used in the study. Despite the large spatial extent of the simulation domain, Simerics-MP+ (aka PumpLinx) is able to generate a feasible mesh, together with fast running speed, resulting in acceptable turn-around times. The ability to still model small gaps and clearance of the LPP very efficiently enables inclusion of realistic tolerances as experienced on hardware.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2302
Tobias Knorsch, Dmitrii Mamaikin, Philippe Leick, Philipp Rogler, Jin Wang, Zhilong Li, Michael Wensing
Abstract The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure gradients and turbulences of the internal flow and in-nozzle cavitation. Therefore, statistical parameters for spray characterization through experiments must be considered. The characterization of spray velocity fields in the near-nozzle region is of particular importance as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during fuel atomization and mixture formation. This knowledge is needed in order to optimize injector nozzles for future requirements. In this study, the results of three experimental approaches for determination of spray velocity in the near-nozzle region are presented. Two different injector nozzle types were measured through high-speed shadowgraph imaging, Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and X-ray imaging.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2301
Hongli Gao, Fujun Zhang, Wenwen Zeng, Tianpu Dong, Zhengkai Wang
Abstract The electronic control of direct injection fuel system, which could improve engine fuel efficiency, dynamics and engine emission performance through good atomization, precise control of fuel injection time and improvement of fuel-gas mixture, is the key technology to achieve the stratified combustion and lean combustion. In this paper, a direct injection injector that based on voice coil motor was designed aiming at the technical characteristics of one 800cc two-stroke cam-less engine. Prior to a one - dimensional simulation model of injector was established by AMEsim and the maximal fuel injection demand was met via the optimization of the main parameters of the injector, the structure of the voice coil motor was optimized by magnetic equivalent circuit method. After that, the maximal flow rate of the injector was verified by the injector bench test while the atomization characteristic of the injector was verified by using a high-speed camera.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2316
Yuhan Huang, Guang Hong, John Zhou
Abstract Ethanol direct injection (EDI) has great potential in facilitating the downsizing technologies in spark ignition engines due to its strong anti-knock ability. The fuel temperature may vary widely from non-evaporating to flash-boiling sprays in real engine conditions. In this study, a CFD spray model was developed in the ANSYS Fluent environment, which was capable to simulate the EDI spray and evaporation characteristics under non-evaporating, transition and flash-boiling conditions. The turbulence was modelled by the realizable k-ε model. The Rinzic heterogeneous nucleation model was applied to simulate the primary breakup droplet size at the nozzle exit. The secondary breakup process was modelled by the Taylor Analogy Breakup model. The evaporation process was modelled by the Convection/Diffusion Controlled Model. The droplet distortion and drag, collision and droplet-wall interaction were also included.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2310
Xiaoyan Jia, Baigang Sun, Dongwei Wu, Dan Xu, Wei Zang, Wei Shang, Jie Wang
Abstract The control valve is the most important implementation part of a high pressure common rail system, and its flow characteristics have a great influence on the performance of an injector. In this paper, based on the structure and the working principle of an electromagnetic injector in a high pressure common rail system, a simulation model of the injector is established by AMESim software. Some key parameters of the control valve, including the volume of the control chamber, the diameter of the orifice Z (feeding orifice), the diameter of the orifice A (discharge orifice) and the hole diameter of the fuel diffusion hole are studied by using this model. The results show that these key structural parameters of the control valve have a great influence on the establishment of the control chamber pressure and the action of the needle valve.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2306
Xiaochuan Sun, Xiang Li, Zhong Huang, Dehao Ju, Xing-cai Lu, Dong Han, Zhen Huang
Abstract Recently, the shortage of fossil resources contributes to strict regulations of environmental protection. The research on the high efficiency and low emission of engines becomes an important direction all over the world. Technologies like high injection pressure, high levels of supercharging and higher levels of back pressure have come into application. Increasing the injection pressure and average cylinder pressure results in that parts of the spray can experience transcritical and supercritical regimes. In this paper, we established a surrogate fuel composed of n-Hexadecane, HMN and 1-Metylnaphthalene, to analyze the injection and atomization of diesel surrogate fuel with large eddy simulation (LES) in a cubic calculation region with high temperature and high pressure environment.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2317
Om Prakash Saw, Yashas Karaya, J M Mallikarjuna
Abstract The mixture formation in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines operating at stratified condition plays an important role in deciding the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine. In a wall-guided GDI engine, piston profile is such that the injected fuel is directed towards the spark plug to form a combustible mixture at the time of ignition. In these engines, fuel injection pressure and timing play an important role in creating a combustible mixture near the spark plug. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of fuel injection pressure with single and split injection strategy on the mixture formation in a four-stroke, wall-guided GDI engine operating under stratified conditions by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Four fuel injection pressures viz., 90, 120, 150 and 180 bar are considered for the analysis.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2434
Srinivasan Paulraj, Saravanan Muthiah
Abstract Traditionally driveline ratios are selected based on trial and error method of proto vehicle testing. This consumes lot of time and increases overall vehicle development effort. Over last few decades, simulation-based design approach has been extensively used to alleviate this problem. This paper describes torque converter and final drive ratio (FDR) selection at concept phase for new Automatic Transmission (AT) vehicle development. Most of the critical data required for simulating vehicle performance and fuel economy (FE) targets were not available (e.g. shift map, clutch slip map, pedal map, dynamic torque, coast down, etc.) at an initial stage of the project. Hence, the risk for assuming right inputs and properly selecting FDR/Torque converter was particularly high. Therefore, a validated AVL Cruise simulation model based on an existing AT vehicle was used as a base for new AT vehicle development to mitigate the risk due to non-availability of inputs.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 33430