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Viewing 1 to 30 of 5476
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1141
Bashar Alzuwayer, Robert Prucka, Imtiaz Haque, Paul Venhovens
Abstract Fuel economy regulations have forced the automotive industry to implement transmissions with an increased number of gears and reduced parasitic losses. The objective of this research is to develop a high fidelity and a computationally efficient model of an automatic transmission, this model should be suitable for controller development purposes. The transmission under investigation features a combination of positive clutches (interlocking dog clutches) and conventional wet clutches. Simulation models for the torque converter, lock-up clutch, transmission gear train, interlocking dog clutches, wet clutches, hydraulic control valves and circuits were developed and integrated with a 1-D vehicle road load model. The integrated powertrain system model was calibrated using measurements from real-world driving conditions. Unknown model parameters, such as clutch pack clearances, compliances, hydraulic orifice diameters and clutch preloads were estimated and calibrated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0235
Qiuming Gong, Jimmy Kapadia
Abstract Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have an EV mode driving range which can cover a portion of customer daily driving. This EV mode range affects the refuel frequency substantially compared with conventional vehicle. For a conventional vehicle, daily driving pattern, tank size and fuel economy are the factors affecting the refuel frequency. While for a PHEV, EV range is another factor would affect the results substantially. Traditional method of label range can’t represent real world driving range between fill-ups for PHEV well. How to accurately predict the PHEV refuel distance taking into account real world customer driving patterns and PHEV parameters become critical for PHEV system design and optimization. This paper presents real world big customer data based PHEV refuel distance estimation modeling. The target is to estimate PHEV refuel distance given several specific parameters such as EV range, hybrid mode fuel economy, tank size etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1484
Giampiero Mastinu, Mario Pennati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giorgio Previati, Federico Ballo
Abstract The ride comfort of three Alfa Romeo cars, namely Giulietta (1955), Alfetta (1972) and 159 (2005) has been assessed both objectively and subjectively. The three cars belong to the same market segment. The aim is to let young engineers or graduate students understand how technology has evolved and eventually learn a lesson from the assessed trend. A number of cleats have been fixed at the ground and the three cars have traversed such uneven surface. The objective assessment of the ride comfort has been performed by means of accelerometers fixed at the seat rails, additionally a special dummy developed at Politecnico di Milano has been employed. The subjective assessment has been performed by a panel of passengers. The match between objective and subjective ratings is very good. Simple mathematical models have been employed to establish a (successful) comparison between experimental and computational results. The ride comfort differs substantially among the cars.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0232
Nizar Khemri, Hao Ying, Joseph Supina, Fazal Syed
Abstract Realistic vehicle fuel economy studies require real-world vehicle driving behavior data along with various factors affecting the fuel consumption. Such studies require data with various vehicles usages for prolonged periods of time. A project dedicated to collecting such data is an enormous and costly undertaking. Alternatively, we propose to utilize two publicly available vehicle travel survey data sets. One is Puget Sound Travel Survey collected using GPS devices in 484 vehicles between 2004 and 2006. Over 750,000 trips were recorded with a 10-second time resolution. The data were obtained to study travel behavior changes in response to time-and-location-variable road tolling. The other is Atlanta Regional Commission Travel Survey conducted for a comprehensive study of the demographic and travel behavior characteristics of residents within the study area.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Abstract Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across the automotive industry for several years if not decades. For heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from minor gains in fuel economy can lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG standards which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art fuel economy technologies, incremental gains are so miniscule that measurements on the vehicle are inadequate to quantify the benefits. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynamometers are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due to factors such as part to part differences, deterioration, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1625
Rajeev Kalamdani, Chandra Jalluri, Stephen Hermiller, Robert Clifton
Abstract Use of sensors to monitor dynamic performance of machine tools at Ford’s powertrain machining plants has proven to be effective. The traditional approach to convert sensor data to actionable intelligence consists of identifying single features from cycle based signatures and setting thresholds above acceptable performance limits based on trials. The thresholds are used to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable performance during each cycle and raise alarms if necessary. This approach requires a significant amount of resource & time intensive set up work up-front and considerable trial and error adjustments. The current state does not leverage patterns that might be discernible using multiple features simultaneously. This paper describes enhanced methods for processing the data using supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods. The objective of using these methods is to improve the prediction accuracy and reduce up-front set up.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1651
Douglas Thornburg, John Schmotzer, MJ Throop
Abstract Onboard, embedded cellular modems are enabling a range of new connectivity features in vehicles and rich, real-time data set transmissions from a vehicle’s internal network up to a cloud database are of particular interest. However, there is far too much information in a vehicle’s electrical state for every vehicle to upload all of its data in real-time. We are thus concerned with which data is uploaded and how that data is processed, structured, stored, and reported. Existing onboard data processing algorithms (e.g. for DTC detection) are hardcoded into critical vehicle firmware, limited in scope and cannot be reconfigured on the fly. Since many use cases for vehicle data analytics are still unknown, we require a system which is capable of efficiently processing and reporting vehicle deep data in real-time, such that data reporting can be switched on/off during normal vehicle operation, and that processing/reporting can be reconfigured remotely.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0237
Jonas Biteus, Tony Lindgren
Abstract Maintenance planning of trucks at Scania have previously been done using static cyclic plans with fixed sets of maintenance tasks, determined by mileage, calendar time, and some data driven physical models. Flexible maintenance have improved the maintenance program with the addition of general data driven expert rules and the ability to move sub-sets of maintenance tasks between maintenance occasions. Meanwhile, successful modelling with machine learning on big data, automatic planning using constraint programming, and route optimization are hinting on the ability to achieve even higher fleet utilization by further improvements of the flexible maintenance. The maintenance program have therefore been partitioned into its smallest parts and formulated as individual constraint rules. The overall goal is to maximize the utilization of a fleet, i.e. maximize the ability to perform transport assignments, with respect to maintenance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0236
Zhigang Wei, Kamran Nikbin
In the Big Data era, the capability in statistical and probabilistic data characterization, data pattern identification, data modeling and analysis is critical to understand the data, to find the trends in the data, and to make better use of the data. In this paper the fundamental probability concepts and several commonly used probabilistic distribution functions, such as the Weibull for spectrum events and the Pareto for extreme/rare events, are described first. An event quadrant is subsequently established based on the commonality/rarity and impact/effect of the probabilistic events. Level of measurement, which is the key for quantitative measurement of the data, is also discussed based on the framework of probability. The damage density function, which is a measure of the relative damage contribution of each constituent is proposed. The new measure demonstrates its capability in distinguishing between the extreme/rare events and the spectrum events.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0245
Kanna Akella, N. Venkatachalam, K. Gokul, Keunho Choi, Ramachandraprabhu Tyakal
Abstract Voice of customer is typically captured through multiple connect points like surveys, warranty claims, social media, and so on. Customer verbatim is collected through these connect points to encourage free expression of opinion by customers. Such verbatim data is generally of high value and is typically analyzed using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for translating into influencing actions in manufacturing, customer service, marketing, and product development departments. One of the challenges in analyzing unstructured verbatim data is to map that data onto appropriate concern codes (CCCs), which are typically used in automotive firms for tracking quality and satisfaction metrics. These concern codes map to a hierarchy of function areas in the organization aimed at improving product, service and hence the customer’s overall experience.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0241
Thiago B. Murari, Paulo Ungaretti, Marcelo A. Moret
Abstract Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing is used to describe the allowed feature variations regarding the product design. Tolerance specification is important in many stages of all phases on product development. The product development engineering need to define the symbols to use on the Feature Control Frame of every component. Since the component function has an increment on its complexity year over year, it is not trivial to define those symbols anymore. The determination of dimensional tolerance shall be preceded by careful specification of the types of tolerance and symbols that will be applied in controlled features. Poor tolerance specifications can increase the production cost, require late product changes or lead to legal issues.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0238
Velappan Shalini, Sridharan Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan Narasimhan
Abstract This study compares the model efficacy of Neural Network and Vector Auto Regression. Further it also analyses the impact of predictors controlling for total industry volume. Understanding both the methodologies has their distinctive advantages and disadvantages. Our empirical findings indicate that based on the characteristics of data such as non-stationary, non-linearity and non-normality paves the way for use of machine learning algorithm relative to econometrics technique. Our results suggest that data type and its characteristics are more important in determining the methodology than the methodology itself. In industry, econometrics methodologies are widely used due to their usage simplicity and its ability to explain the relationships in simple terms.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0079
Soumyo Das, Prashantkumar B. Vora
Abstract The tracking of objects for an autonomous vehicle requires sufficiently reliable data processing and association. In this paper, the signal data processing of sensed LIDAR and the multiple target track management algorithm of a maneuvering vehicle are presented. The algorithm is employed for 2D LIDAR sensor mounted in a moving vehicle and navigating in a high-way. The adaptive segmentation, feature creation from point cloud, data association and prediction modelling are the key features of track management. Initialization of the track has been developed based on constant velocity model hypothesis in order to facilitate target management in a high-way crowded environment. The multiple target tracking are associated with feature identification of the targets and also prediction modelling of moving occluded object. The prediction model of moving vehicles and pedestrians are the focus area of this research.
2016-12-21
Journal Article
2016-01-9082
Bradley Michael, Rani Sullivan, Dulip Samaratunga, Ratneshwar Jha
Abstract Polymer matrix composites are increasingly adopted in aerospace and automotive industries due to their many attributes, such as their high strength to weight ratio, tailorability, and high fatigue and durability performance. However, these materials also have complex damage and failure mechanisms, such as delaminations, which can severely degrade their strength and fatigue performance. To effectively and safely use composite materials in primary structures, it is essential to assess composite damage response for development of accurate predictive models. Therefore, this study focuses on determining the response of damaged and undamaged carbon epoxy beams subjected to vibration loadings at elevated temperatures. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) technique is used to analyze the beams’ modal response. The HHT shows potential in identifying the nonlinear damaged response of the beams.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0211
Thiago Hoeltgebaum, Rodrigo de Souza Vieira, Daniel Martins
Abstract The competitiveness within the automotive sector increases constantly. Research institutes, universities and manufacturers are commonly trying to discover the new trends and to develop novel technologies. Nevertheless, it is important to understand if a certain technology is worth researching. In order to do that, a state of the art survey is necessary which is usually divided in two main groups: Literature Information and Market Analysis. The literature information regards papers, congress proceedings, books, among other types of formal publication. The market analysis is responsible to gather information within the manufacturers press releases, websites and events, for example. Even though, depending on the technology, those two topics are not enough to reveal the importance of a given technology. Therefore, it is necessary to search the patents database, where it is possible to find the development status of a device.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0125
Luiz Bellatini, Leandro Alencar, Ricardo Malerman, Rogério Fernandes
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to share with the Product Engineering community relevant learnings on Internal Shift System for Manual Transmissions in order to promote transmission performance and eliminate potential concerns on shift quality and system durability for passenger cars. The subsystems in focus are the Manual Transmission Sliding Sleeve, Gear Fork, Rods and Synch Rings. One important shift ability response that directly affects customer satisfaction is the Gear Clashing. This is a noise and vibration phenomena resultant of parallel synch activation while gear is intended to be engaged. This phenomenon was determinate by lack of Gear Fork design characteristics, which allowed two forks displacement at same time during cross-shifting maneuvers. Through simulation analysis, which consists a detailed select and shift 3D stack-limit motion, an abnormal displacement of non-intended flyer fork displacement has been captured in a specific hardware under development.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0127
Gustavo Siebert, Amilton Sinatora
Abstract The growing use of tribotest has been helping the researches to understand the actuation mechanisms of additives on the friction and wear control of engine parts. But, it is common to observe differences between the tribofilms formed in real situation from that obtained using tribotests. Furthermore, the automakers have difficulty to correlate the results obtained using tribotests with that performed using engines in dynamometers. For the piston ring/cylinder bore tribosystem is almost impossible to reproduce its real tribosystem using tribotests. Therefore simplifications are necessary and they affect the tribochemical behavior of the tribosystem. To understand how these simplifications and the test parameters affect the tribochemical behavior of the simplified tribosystem is critical to design a tribotest that correlate well with the real situation.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0177
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Abstract Public transport has been considered the preferred strategy to reduce congestion and pollution from urban road traffic. For low to medium capacity, bus systems are considered the most affordable and flexible mode. Currently, diesel based systems still dominate transit bus market, due to their high productivity, low deployment costs, technological maturity, operational reliability and flexibility (high daily ranges, fast refuelling and no infrastructure requirement along the routes). However, although some important improvements in engine technology and aftertreatment devices, enforced by emission standards improvements (Euro VI, US 2010 and those related), have been achieved, it is well known that there is a limit to cleaning exhaust diesel buses exhaust. In this context, transit authorities and operators have been under pressure to shift for more environmental friendly technologies.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0196
Francisco Ganzarolli, Samuel Lopes Souza, Jose Maria Campos Dos Santos
Abstract The purpose of the theme developed in this work is to increase the volume of information related to vehicle evaluation and how human perception can be translated into numbers, thus facilitating the process of definitions, refinement and analysis of its performance. Based on the discipline of psychophysics, where it is possible to study the relationship between stimulus and sensation and the use of post processing tool known as PSD (Power Spectral Density), post process the acceleration data of inputs perceived by the occupants of the vehicle, when driving in routes considered ergodic. By this, in a summarized way, get to human subjective perception of comfort. This material shows in a conceptual way a sequence of studies that were conducted to make it possible, to generate a performance classification of the subjective vehicle attribute of Smoothness, by processing values of acceleration measured the driver's seat.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0230
Guilherme Canuto da Silva, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract Automotive industries are undergoing a transformation of their manufacturing systems. Called by the German government as Industrie 4.0, this transformation is based on the evolution of traditional Embedded Systems-ES to Cyber-Physical Systems-CPS. In the next years such evolution will have to reach transitory stages, where ES and CPS should coexist for a determined period of time (ES-CPS). Based on this projection, this work compares ES with CPS, identifies the main differences between these systems and thus forms a transitory stage of automotive manufacturing for the next years. The work is structured as follows: Introduction section places the reader on the treated subject and presents the methodology of the work. Later, Industrie 4.0, Embedded Systems (ES) and Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) are defined. Once this is done, the analysis of ES-CPS transition is finished. Analysis results are presented and a representation of ES-CPS transition is proposed.
2016-10-03
Journal Article
2016-01-9044
Eric Gingrich, Daniel Janecek, Jaal Ghandhi
Abstract An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the impact in-cylinder pressure oscillations have on piston heat transfer. Two fast-response surface thermocouples embedded in the piston top measured transient temperature and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit thermocouple signals from the moving piston. Measurements were made in a light-duty single-cylinder research engine operated under low temperature combustion regimes including Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and Conventional Diesel (CDC). The HCCI data showed a correlated trend of higher heat transfer with increased pressure oscillation strength, while the RCCI and CDC data did not. An extensive HCCI data set was acquired. The heat transfer rate - when corrected for differences in cylinder pressure and gas temperature - was found to positively correlate with increased pressure oscillations.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2107
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Matthias Scholer, Jan Ball
Abstract The global competition challenges aircraft manufactures in high wage countries. The assembly of large components is very difficult and distinguished by fixed position assembly. Many complex assembly processes such as aircraft assembly are manually done by highly skilled workers. The aircraft manufactures deal with a varying number of items, increasing number of product variants and strict product requirements. During the assembly process hundreds of clips, ties and stringers as well as thousands of rivets must be assembled. To remain competitive in global competition, companies in high wage countries like Germany must insure a continuously high productivity and quality level. To achieve a reduction of cycle times with a simultaneous increase in quality, supportive assistance systems for visual support, documentation and organization within the assembly are required. One example for visual assistance systems are laser projection systems.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1979
William D. Bertelsen
Abstract Technology to create a VTOL for general aviation that is fast, efficient, easy to fly, and affordable, has proven elusive. Bertelsen Design LLC has built a large research model to investigate the potential of the arc wing VTOL to fulfill these attributes. The aircraft that is the subject of this paper weighs approximately 145 kg (320 lbs) and features coaxial, dual-rotating propellers, diameter 1.91 m (75 inches). Power is from an MZ 202 two-cycle, two-cylinder engine. Wingspan is 1.82 m (72 inches). The arc wing differentiates this aircraft from previous deflected-slipstream prototypes, which suffered from pitch-trim issues during transition. This paper will present configuration details of the Bertelsen model, showing how it is possible to generate high lift from a short-span wing system. The Bertelsen model can hover out of ground effect using just two arc-wing elements: a main wing and a “slat”.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2017
Devesh Kumar, Konrad Juethner, Yves Fournier
Abstract In modern complex engine design, it is a common challenge to keep simulation in step with changes to component geometry, environmental conditions, and mission data - and this applies to both actual designs and those that belong to the hypothetical design space as explored in design of experiments (DOE). In this paper, an effective simulation process and data management (SPDM) approach is presented that hinges on a focus on components, their generalized connections and programmatic templating. This simulation approach improves the fidelity of engine analysis, engineering productivity, quality, scalability across the gas turbine engine organization, and HPC utilization. In addition to this new analysis machinery, gas turbine engine modeling fidelity is elevated by surpassing commonly used one-dimensional (1D) models of rotors.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2069
Zied Aloui, Nawfal Ahamada, Julien Denoulet, Martin Rayrole, Francine Pierre, Marc Gatti
Abstract Avionics is one kind of domain where prevention prevails. Nonetheless failures occur, sometimes due to pilot misreacting, flooded in information. Sometimes information itself would be better verified than trusted. To avoid some kind of failure, it has been thought to add,in midst of the ARINC664 aircraft data network, a new kind of monitoring.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2024
Allan J. Volponi, Liang Tang
Abstract Engine module performance trending and engine system anomaly detection and identification are core capabilities for any engine Condition Based Maintenance system. The genesis of on-condition monitoring can be traced back nearly 4 decades, and a methodology known as Gas Path Analysis (GPA) has played a pivotal role in its evolution. GPA is a general method that assesses and quantifies changes in the underlying performance of the major modules of the engine (compressors and turbines) which directly affect performance changes of interest such as fuel consumption, power availability, compressor surge margins, and the like. This approach has the added benefit in that it enables anomaly detection and identification of many engine system accessory faults (e.g., variable stator vanes, handling and customer bleeds, sensor biases and drift).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0052
Jihas Khan
Abstract HILS is a proven and essential part of the embedded product development life cycle which strives to reduce effort, time and cost spent on automotive validation activities. An efficient HILS system allows to create a precise simulation environment for the ECU which is made to believe that it is sitting inside a real vehicle and there by the intended functionalities implemented in the same could be tested even before the vehicle prototypes or other ECUs or sensors and actuators are available. An inefficient and faulty HILS system provides erroneous test results which could lead to wrong inferences. This paper is proposing a standardized process flow aided by specific documentation and design concepts which validates that the test system designed is robust and caters to the actual requirement. The Design stage starts by a requirement gathering phase where the analysis of the device under test is executed in detail.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
Abstract This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0175
Edward G. Groff
Abstract Spark-ignition direct-injection technology existed since about 1930 for the primary purpose to give multifuel capability over what the compression-ignited diesel engine could provide. In subsequent decades development of multifuel engines continued both as higher-compression-ratio “spark-ignited diesel” and moderate-compressionratio stratified-charge engines. Global events in the 1960-1970’s, namely the oil embargo, oil-supply crises, and the passage of the U.S. Clean Air Act intensified interest in such engines. The military and large commercial fleet operators were particularly focused on efficiency and multifuel capability over concerns for fuel supplies. Automobile manufacturers were focused on gasoline-fueled efficiency and the potential to reduce engine-out legislated NOx emissions with the stratified-charged combustion systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0176
Joseph M. Colucci
Abstract This paper summarizes the history and most significant accomplishments of the GMR-GMR&D Fuels and Lubricants Department from its predecessor organization starting about 100 years ago to its demise during a reorganization in the late 1990s. It covers: Combustion research to improve engine efficiency and reduce emissions, Development of chemical, bench, engine, and vehicle tests to improve fuel and lubricant quality, Development of technology to reduce vehicle emissions, Research to understand and reduce air pollution, and Evaluation of alternative fuels and lubricants. In total, the above activities helped not only GM and the worldwide auto industry, but also society. They improved the operation of vehicles and the quality of the air in the United States and around the globe, favorably affecting the lives of hundreds of millions of people. They also created the recognition of and the reputation of the Fuels and Lubricants Department as the best of its kind in the world.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 5476