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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0020
Mark Zachos
Since 2001, all sensitive information by U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)140-2 Security Requirements. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective hardware. This paper describes strong FIPS 140-2 encryption for vehicle communications, using as an example the J1939 protocol. The encrypted J1939 data and commands are tamper-proof, since they cannot be changed or altered -- accidentally or otherwise. The encrypted J1939 data and proprietary commands can be stored and transported securely, giving no unauthorized read access. The examples will show J1939 encryption, including both wired and wireless communication. Two-factor authentication is achieved, since both the hardware and a decryption key are need to decrypt.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0109
Yi Zhang, Madeline J. Goh, Vidya Nariyambut Murali
This work describes a single camera based object distance estimation system. As technology on vehicles is constantly advancing on the road to autonomy, it is critical to know the locations of object in 3D space for safe behavior in vehicle. Though significant progress has been made on object detection in 2D sensor space from a single camera, this work additionally estimates the distance to said object without requiring stereo vision or absolute knowledge of vehicle motion. Specifically, our proposed system is comprised of three modules---vision based ego-motion estimation, object-detection, and distance estimation. In particular, we compensate for the vehicle ego-motion by using pin-hole camera model to increase the accuracy of the object distance estimation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0099
Jose E. Solomon, Francois Charette
Reinforcement learning is a tailored deep neural network (DNN) training approach which uses an iterative process to support the learning of DNNs by targeting their specific mis-classification and detections. The process begins with a DNN that is trained on freely available image data, (which we will refer to as the base model), where a few of the categories for the classifier are related to the automotive theater. A small subset of video capture files taken from drives with test vehicles are selected, (based on the diversity of scenes, objects of interests, incidental lighting, etc.), and the base model is used to detect/classify images within the video files. An in-house software application allows for the capture of frames from the video where the DNN has made mis-classifications. These images, and the corresponding annotation files are subsequently \textit{corrected} to eliminate mislabels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1661
Georg Macher, Richard Messnarz, Eric Armengaud, Andreas Riel, Eugen Brenner, Christian Kreiner
The replacement of safety-critical mechanical components with electro-mechanical systems has led to the fact that safety aspects play a central role in development of embedded automotive systems. Recently, consumer demands connectivity (e.g., infotainment, car-2-car or car-2-infrastructure communication) as well as new advances toward advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) or even autonomous driving functions make cybersecurity another key factor to be taken into account by vehicle suppliers and manufacturers. Although these can capitalize on experiences from many other domains, they still have to face several unique challenges when gearing up for specific cybersecurity challenges. A key challenge is related to the increasing interlacing of automotive systems with networks (such as Car2X) and thus it is no longer acceptable to assume that safety-critical systems are immune to security risks and vice versa.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1655
Paul Wooderson, David Ward
An essential part of any cybersecurity engineering process is testing the implementation of a system for vulnerabilities and validating the effectiveness of cybersecurity countermeasures. The SAE J3061 Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems provides a recommended framework which organizations can use to implement a cybersecurity engineering process, which includes activities such as integration and testing, penetration testing and verification/validation of cybersecurity requirements at the hardware, software and system levels. This paper explores the different kinds of testing that are appropriate at each of these process steps and discusses some important differences between cybersecurity testing and more familiar forms of testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1652
Rolf Schneider, Andre Kohn, Martin Klimke, Udo Dannebaum
Driven by the growing internet and remote connectivity of automobiles, combined with the emerging trend to automated driving, the importance of security for automotive systems is massively increasing. But although cyber security is a common part of daily work in the traditional IT domain, necessary know-how is not yet widely spread among automotive engineers. When considered superficially, this may not appear to be a problem as there are lots of common solutions from other domains, which might be appropriate. But actually there are substantial differences to be taken into account when trying to apply them to an automotive environment. Our paper will point out some basic knowledge about security in information systems, combined with a collection of current focal topics of work related to automotive security.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1658
Qingwu Zou, Wai Keung Chan, Kok Cheng Gui, Qi Chen, Klaus Scheibert, Laurent Heidt, Eric Seow
Cyber security is becoming increasingly critical in the car industry. Not only the entry points to the external world in the car need to be protected against potential attack, but also the on-board communication in the car require to be protected against attackers who may try to send unauthorized CAN messages. However, the current CAN network was not designed with security in mind. As a result, the extra measures have to be taken to address the key security properties of the secure CAN communication, including data integrity, authenticity, confidentiality and freshness. While integrity and authenticity can be achieved by using a relatively straightforward algorithms such as CMAC (Cipher-based Message Authentication Code) and Confidentiality can be handled by a symmetric encryption algorithm like AES128 (128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard), it has been recognized to be more challenging to achieve the freshness of CAN message.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1612
Tri P. Doan, Subramaniam Ganesan
At 2012, along with the demand of more and more data communication within ECUs, Bosch has proposed a new version of CAN named as CAN FD which can support data frame up to 64 bytes compared with 8 bytes of CAN. Because CAN data frame is limited at maximum 8 bytes, it is impossible to encrypt and secure CAN data, so it is transmitted through CAN bus in a raw format which makes CAN data is vulnerable to attack. With the of CAN FD over CAN in supporting bigger data frame up to 64 bytes, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chips to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 algorithm and SHA-1 with a symmetric key . AES-128 will provide confidential of CAN message and SHA-1 with symmetric key (called as Key SHA-1) can be considered as HMAC which will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. Moreover, hardware shall provide more security for cipher key, symmetric key, or asymmetric keys over software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0092
Vladimir Hahanov, Wajeb Gharibi, Eugenia Litvinova, Svitlana Chumachenko, Arthur Ziarmand, Irina Englesi, Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Anastasiia Khakhanova
The new cyber-technological culture of the transport control based on virtual road signs and streetlight signals on the screen of car is the future of Humanity. A cyber-physical system Smart Cloud Traffic Control, which realizes the mentioned culture, is proposed; it is characterized by the presence of the digitized space of regulatory rules, vehicles and infrastructure components, and also accurate monitoring and active cloud streetlight-free cyber control of road users and traffic lights, automatic output of operational regulatory actions (virtual traffic signs and traffic signals) to monitor of each vehicle. The main components of the cyber-physical system are the following: infrastructure, road users and rules, which have a digital representation in cyberspace to realize a route, based on digital monitoring and cloud mobile control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0117
Raja Sekhar Dheekonda, Sampad Panda, Md Nazmuzzaman khan, Mohammad Hasan, Sohel Anwar
Accuracy in detecting a moving object is critical to autonomous driving or advanced driver assistance systems. By including the object classification from multiple sensor detections, the model of the object or environment can be identified more accurately. The critical parameters involved in improving the accuracy are the size and speed of the moving object. In a laboratory experiment, we used three different type of sensor, a digital camera with 8 megapixel resolution, a LIDAR with 40m range, and an ultrasonic distance transducer sensor to identify the object in real-time. The moving object that is to be detected was set in motion at different speeds in the transverse direction to the vehicle (sensor). The size of the moving object was also varied. All sensor data were processed on a real-time prototyping microcontroller. All sensor data were used to define a composite object representation so that it could be used for the class information in the core object’s description.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0240
Yanli Zhao, Hao Zhou, Yimin Liu
Ride Hailing service and Dynamic Shuttle is one of key smart mobility practices, which provide on-demand door-to-door ride-sharing service to customers through smart phone apps. On the other hand, some big companies spend millions of dollars yearly in third party vendors to offer employee shuttle services to pick up and drop off employees from designated locations and provide daily commutes for employees to and from work. Efficient routing algorithms and analytics are the key ingredients for operation efficiency behind these commercial services. They can significantly reduce operation costs by shortening bus routes and reducing bus number, while maintaining given the same quality of service. The study will develop an off-line optimization routing methods for employee shuttle services in some regions. First, based on the historical demand data collected from a factory in Thailand, we develop a constraint programming model to compute the optimal routes and number of shuttles needed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1657
Jesse Edwards, Ameer Kashani
In the past few years, automotive electronic control units (ECUs) have been the focus of many studies regarding the ability to affect the deterministic operation of safety critical cyber-physical systems. Researchers have been able to successfully demonstrate flaws in security design that have considerable, dramatic impacts on the functional safety of a target vehicle. With the rapid increase in data connectivity within a modern automobile, the attack surface has been greatly broadened to allow adversaries remote access to vehicle control system software and networks. This has serious implications, as a vast number of vulnerability disclosures released by security researchers point directly to common programming bugs and software quality issues as the root cause of successful exploits which can compromise the vehicle as a whole. In this paper, we aim to bring to light the most prominent categories of bugs found during the software development life cycle of an automotive ECU.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0247
N. Khalid Ahmed, Jimmy Kapadia
Electrified vehicles including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) made by Ford Motor Company are fitted with a telematics modem to provide customers with the means to communicate with their vehicles and, at the same time, receive insight on their vehicle usage. These services are provided through the “MyFord Mobile” website and phone applications, simultaneously collecting information from the vehicle for different event triggers. In this work, we study this data by using Big Data Methodologies including a Hadoop Database for storing data and HiveQL and Pig Latin scripts to perform analytics. We present electrified vehicle customer behaviors including geographical distribution, trip distances, daily distances and annual usage factor. We also compare temperature distribution of trips with the EPA-MOVES database. We discuss the process of extracting information from this data that can be used to further refine future design.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0236
Zhigang Wei, Kamran Nikbin
In the Big Data era, the capability in statistical and probabilistic data characterization, data pattern identification, data modeling and analysis is critical to understand the data, to find the trends in the data, and to make better use of the data. In this paper the fundamental probability concepts and several commonly used probabilistic distribution functions, such as the Weibull for spectrum events and the Pareto for extreme/rare events, are described first. An event quadrant is subsequently established based on the commonality/rarity and impact/effect of the probabilistic events. Level of measurement, which is the key for quantitative measurement of the data, is also discussed based on the framework of probability. The damage density function, which is a measure of the relative damage contribution of each constituent is proposed. The new measure demonstrates its capability in distinguishing between the extreme/rare events and the spectrum events.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0239
Seth Bryan, Maria Guido, David Ostrowski, N. Khalid Ahmed
While excluding component changes, it is desirable to find methods to increase electric vehicle (EV) driving range and reduce performance variability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. One strategy to improve EV range could be to increase the charge power limit of the traction battery, which allows for more brake energy recovery. This paper investigates how increasing the charge power limit could affect EV range in real world usage with respect to driving behavior. Big Data collected from Ford employee vehicles in Michigan was analyzed to assess the impact of regenerative braking power on EV range. My Ford Mobile data was used to find correlation to drivers nationwide based on brake score statistics. Estimated results show incremental improvements in EV range from increased charge power levels. Subsequently, this methodology and process could be applied to make future design decisions based on evolving driving habits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1653
Jon Barton Shields, Jörg Huser, David Gell
The evolution from Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) to fully Autonomous Driving (AD) holds the promise of saving millions of lives annually by preventing accidents through human error. With hacks and attacks being reported on a daily basis, the convergence of IT with Automotive technologies also poses new risks. Unassailable security is therefore critical, given that passenger life is at stake with real-time sensor and actuator data providing guidance and control in the connected vehicle communication systems. The reliance on cloud systems for reference locations, crowd sourcing accumulation, AI processing, data-intelligence, business-intelligence and others widen the scope for hackers to find the weakest link. Tampering of sensor data and data pre-processing devices present some of the largest vulnerabilities. What are the key performance requirements and what approach is most suitable for the design of a communication security protocol for today's connected car?
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1659
Mert D. Pesé, Karsten Schmidt, Harald Zweck
The automotive industry experiences a major change as vehicles are gradually becoming a part of the Internet. Security concepts based on the closed-world assumption cannot be deployed anymore due to a constantly changing adversary model. Automotive Ethernet as future in-vehicle network and a new E/E Architecture have different security requirements than Ethernet known from traditional IT and legacy systems. In order to achieve a high level of security, a new multi-layer approach in the vehicle which responds to special automotive requirements has to be introduced. One essential layer of this holistic security concept is to restrict non-authorized access by the deployment of embedded firewalls. This paper addresses the introduction of automotive firewalls into the next-generation domain architecture with a focus on partitioning of its features in hardware and software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1654
Arun Ganesan, Jayanthi Rao, Kang Shin
Modern vehicles house many advanced components; sensors and Electronic Control Units (ECUs) --- now numbering in the 100s. These components provide various advanced safety, comfort and infotainment features, but they also introduce additional attack vectors for malicious entities. Attackers can compromise one or more of these sensors and flood the vehicle's internal network with fake sensor values. Falsified values can confuse the driver, and even cause the vehicle to misbehave. Redundancy can be used to address compromised sensors, but adding redundant sensors will increase the cost per vehicle and is therefore less desirable. To balance the need for security and cost-efficiency, we exploit the natural redundancy found in vehicles. Natural redundancy occurs when the same physical phenomenon causes symptoms in multiple sensors. For instance, pressing the accelerator pedal will cause the engine to pump faster and increase the speed of the vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1660
Huaxin Li, Di Ma, Brahim Medjahed, Qianyi Wang, Yu Seung Kim, Pramita Mitra
Nowadays, the automotive industry is experiencing the advent of unprecedented applications with connected devices, such as identifying safe users for insurance companies or assessing vehicle health. To enable such applications, driving behavior data are collected from vehicles and provided to third parties (e.g., insurance firms, car sharing businesses, healthcare providers). In the new wave of IoT (Internet of Things), driving statistics and users’ data generated from wearable devices can be exploited to better assess driving behaviors and construct driver models. We propose a framework for securely collecting data from multiple sources (e.g., vehicles and brought-in devices) and integrating them in the cloud to enable next-generation services with guaranteed user privacy protection.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1428
Berkan Guleyupoglu, Ryan Barnard, F. Scott Gayzik
Abstract Computational modeling of the human body is increasingly used to evaluate countermeasure performance during simulated vehicle crashes. Various injury criteria can be calculated from such models and these can either be correlative (HIC, BrIC, etc.) or based on local deformation and loading (strain-based rib fracture, organ damage, etc.). In this study, we present a method based on local deformation to extract failed rib region data. The GHMBC M50-O model was used in a Frontal-NCAP severity sled simulation. Failed Rib Regions (FRRs) in the M50-O model are handled through element deletion once the element surpasses 1.8% effective strain. The algorithm central to the methodology presented extracts FRR data and requires 4-element connectivity to register a failure. Furthermore, the FRRs are localized to anatomical sections (Lateral, Anterior, and Posterior), rib level (1,2,3 etc.) and element strain data is recorded.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1662
Tom R. Markham, Alex Chernoguzov
Problem: The OBD-II port began as a means of extracting diagnostic information from vehicles and supporting the right to repair. However, we did not anticipated self-driving vehicles or insurance dongles plugged into the OBD-II port. ADAS, self-driving features and overall vehicle network complexity opens the door for cyber security breaches which can impact vehicle safety. Researchers have already demonstrated how the cellular modem on an OBD-II insurance dongle may be hacked to tamper with the vehicle brakes. Challenge: The industry must balance the interests of multiple stakeholders. • OEMs – are required to provide an OBD-II port. However, the OEM is also responsible for the cyber security and in turn safety of the vehicle. • Repair shops and vehicle owners - have a right to repair which includes access to many vehicle functions via the OBD-II. • Dongle providers - want to offer vehicle-related services via the OBD port.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0233
Weihong Guo, Shenghan Guo, Hui Wang, Xiao Yu, Annette Januszczak, Saumuy Suriano
The wide applications of automatic sensing devices and data acquisition systems in automotive manufacturing have resulted in a data-rich environment, which demands new data mining methodologies for effective data fusion and information integration to support decision-making. This paper presents a new methodology for developing a diagnostic system using manufacturing system data for high-value assets in automotive manufacturing. The key issues studied in this paper include optimal feature extraction using descriptive analysis, optimal feature subset selection using statistical hypothesis testing, machine fault prediction using multivariate process control chart, and diagnostic performance assessment using process trend detection. The performance of the developed diagnostic system can be continuously improved as the knowledge of machine faults is automatically accumulated during production.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0534
Bojan S. Jander, Roland Baar
The knowledge of thermal behavior of combustion engines is extremely important e.g. to predict engine warm up or to calculate engine friction and finally to optimize fuel consumption. Typically, thermal engine behavior is modeled by using look-up tables or semi-physical models to calculate temperatures of structure, coolant and oil. Using look-up tables can cause in inaccurate calculation results because of interpolation and extrapolation and semi-physical modeling lead to high computation time. This study introduces a new kind of model to calculate thermal behavior of combustion engines by using artificial neural network which is high accurate and extremely fast in both building and calculating results.
CURRENT
2017-02-21
Standard
AS4074B
This standard specifies the characteristics of the SAE Linear Token Passing Bus (LTPB) Interface Unit. The LTPB provides a high reliability, high bandwidth, low latency serial interconnection network suitable for utilization in real time military and commercial applications. Multiple redundant data paths can be implemented to enhance reliability and survivability in those applications which require these attributes. The token passing and data exchange protocols are optimized to provide low latency and fast failure detection and correction. Physical configurations with bus lengths up to 1000 m can be accommodated. This specification defines the following: a. General Description (3.1): An overview of the LTPB protocol. b. Physical Media Interface (3.2): This portion of the standard defines the physical interface to both optical and electrical bus media. c.
2017-02-02
Magazine
The next phase Meeting Phase 2 fuel efficiency and GHG emissions for heavy trucks will require multiple technology pathways—some of which are still on the horizon. Active vibration damping for construction machines An innovative concept for an active system to reduce machine oscillations based on frequency identification. Consumer electronics come on board Smartphones and tablets are likely to play a large role in HMIs for heavy vehicles—if productivity and safety are not compromised. Patton’s new campaign As new SAE International President for 2017, Doug Patton will advocate STEM, “cultivation” of prospective young engineers. PACCAR’s Sproull primed for SAE Commercial Vehicle post As SAE International’s new 2017-2020 Commercial Vehicle Sector VP, Landon Sproull intends to bolster the society’s involvement in evolving industry regulations and to better cultivate cross-sector alliances.
2017-02-02
Magazine
WCX17 Preview The annual SAE World Congress is rebranded WCX17 to express its expanded experience of new-technology discussion and established thought leadership. Achates powers toward production Achates Power's internal-combustion solution is a new play on an old technology. Inside the Bolt EV While the new battery deserves credit for the car's +200-mile range, systems optimization, careful motor design and proprietary CAE tools were equally important. CES 2017: Lush luxury EVs, sophisticated connectivity Suppliers challenge OEMs in advanced tech. Editorial: Question mark or exclamation point Supplier Eye Are you prepared for greater electrification? SAE Standards News VS committees fully engaged on cybersecurity.
CURRENT
2017-01-12
Standard
AS5609A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the editorial format and policies necessary for the publication of Interface Control documents. The Common Interface Control Document Format Standard defines a common format for aircraft/store interface documents to foster increased interoperability. It is designed with the versatility to serve differing “ICD” philosophies and organizations. This aerospace standard defines the common technical data sections for the Common Interface Control Document Format down to the third header level for the majority of sub-sections. The Common Interface Control Document Format Aerospace Standard provides a structured document format in appendixes supported by example paragraphs, drawings, etc.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0001
Kuldeep Singh, Anoop Chawla, Sudipto Mukherjee, Pradeep Agrawal
Abstract The importance of on-site, in-depth accident research studies has been recognized internationally especially in developed countries. In order to address problems related to road safety, it is important to understand the epidemiology and causation of crashes. For this an in-depth investigation of the crash site, vehicles involved and injury details is required. Detailed crash information helps in analysing the events leading to crash and developing safety measures and/or intervention to reduce crashes. In order to pilot such an activity in India, an in-depth accident data collection activity had been carried out on national highway connecting Delhi to Jaipur (NH-8) for a duration of over a year by a joint team of IIT-Delhi and NATRiP. A total of 1220 road traffic accidents (RTA) notifications were received by the team, of which 186 cases were attended and detailed data was collected in a pre-decided format.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0078
Nandagopalan Chidambaram, Sridhar Prasad Chandrasekar, VM Maheshwar, Prabaharan Palanivelu, Aravapalli Sriniwas
Abstract In the past few decades, improvement on fuel efficient technologies have progressed rapidly, whereas little emphasis is being made on how the vehicle should be driven. Driving habits significantly influences fuel consumption and poor driving habits leads to increased fuel consumption. In this paper a new system called “Green Drive” is being presented wherein driving habits are closely monitored, evaluated and details are systematically presented to the user. Green Drive system monitors key driving parameters like speed, gear selection, acceleration, unwanted engine idling periods, aggressive braking and clutch override and presents an ecoscore on the infotainment system which is reflection of users driving behavior. The system also offers guidance on the scope for improving driving habits to achieve better ecoscore and hence reduced fuel consumption.
2016-12-31
Book
Terry Lee Davis
In the next decade, commercial aviation will see Next Generation ATM (NextGEN), Single European Skies ATM Research (SESAR), and others utilizing Internet- based air-to-ground communication links for advanced “air traffic control” (ATC) communications. Commercial Aviation Cyber Security: Current State and Essential Reading highlights some of the major issues the industry must confront if the vision of a new, advanced air traffic management is to come to fruition. This will require standardization work to identify key components with built-in cyber security that will guide prototype testing, functionality, and prioritizing implementation efforts to solve the roadblocks to global interoperability. The ten technical papers selected for Commercial Aviation Cyber Security: Current State and Essential Reading span the last decade’s work in commercial aviation cyber security, and aircraft cyber technologies.
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