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2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0154
Anand Ramalingam, Saravanakumar Thangamani
In the highly competitive automotive industry, safety and robustness become indispensable. Vibration requirements and crash-worthiness of automotive components have become stringent over the years. Therefore designers are facing huge challenges for fulfilling both criteria as these requirements become contradictory in some applications. The Fuel Delivery Module (FDM) comprising flange and swirl pot assembly, is mounted on fuel tank. It pumps fuel from tank to the engine. Flange mounted on fuel tank opening, provides proper sealing. Swirl pot assembly comprises of fuel pump, pump holder and fuel level sensor. It is positioned inside the tank by two axially spring loaded struts connected to the flange. During crash, FDM undergoes sudden deceleration. Due to inertia, swirl pot assembly creates bending moment in the flange-strut interface. At such adverse condition, flange should not exhibit crack on the sealing side, as it might expose fuel in the fuel tank to the atmosphere. To ensure safety, flange-strut interface in the bottom side of flange is designed with higher stress concentration factor.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0162
Hasan M. Naqvi, Geetam Tiwari
Large number of road accidents i.e. 4,90,383 is reported in India during 2012, resulting 1,38,258 persons killed. Out of total accidents, major share of accidents i.e. about 30% and 35.3% number of persons killed are observed on National Highways (NHs), which constitute about 2% of total road network (83,097 km) in India, but carries about 40% of traffic. 45% (37,510 km) of NHs in India comprises of two lanes and more than 65% of NHs are two lane or less. Road accidents being multi-disciplinary in nature involves attention of multiple departments such as Highways Authority, Police, Motor Vehicles, Automobile Manufacturers, NGOs, etc. Majority of the departments in India dealing with road accidents give low priority to tackle them. Owing to these reasons and spurt in growth of motor vehicle population in India, road accidents are not reduced significantly despite improvement in NHs (widening of carriageway and riding quality). Normally widening of two lane NHs to four lane is taken up based on current and projected traffic volume count in passenger car units to increase capacity of highway, and thereby facilitating highway for higher speed without examining impact of high vehicular speed on local traffic (villages or towns) including pedestrians and other slow moving/vulnerable modes with respect to road accidents.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0171
Niraj Singh, Ruhi Thakur, Mathew Cyriac
With the change in the perspective of the Customers towards safer vehicles, most of the Vehicle manufacturers in India are making their vehicles Crash compliant. According to the accidental data collection, Side crashes are second leading cause to death after Frontal crash. Currently sub system level tests are done for evaluating the safety performance of the vehicle. One of such sub system level test is Quasi-static side door intrusion Test. The primary purpose of this testing is to measure the Force-deflection characteristics by intrusion of the impactor into the vehicle. These characteristics are controlled by various door components like door beam, latch & striker, hinge etc. This article studies the relation between Side door intrusion and Side collision, effect of above mentioned components on this relation. A theoretical study is done to study this relationship and it is substantiated with experimental data.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0168
Dinesh Munjurulimana, Manish Chaturvedi
With a significant increase in awareness of safety and sustainability among the automobile original equipment manufacturers and end users, every car manufacturer is looking for lightweight, safe and cost-effective solutions for every unit present in their vehicle. The latter gets much more focus in developing countries, where the automobile market is extremely cost sensitive. Further, with implementation of the proposed global technical regulations on pedestrian safety in the near future and low-speed vehicle damageability requirements, demand for a low-cost, lighter and safer bumper system is ever increasing. This paper focuses on development of a unique thermoplastic energy-absorbing device for vehicle bumpers. Conventionally, major energy absorbing members of these bumper systems consist of three separate pieces: energy absorber, bumper beam and crash cans. A hybrid approach based on logical reasoning and topology optimization is used to conceive the design. Conceived device is an integrated assembly combining bumper beam, pedestrian-safe energy absorber and side crash cans/boxes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0158
Vijesh Chinnadurai, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Expanding and improving road network in India has been a catalyst in increased use of road transport in both passenger and goods sector. With improved road quality, bigger commercials vehicles have entered the market. These provide a larger cabin area and better amenities in the truck driver cabin. One of the most welcome features is berths for lying down and sleeping. In many designs, only the functionality of the berth has been taken into consideration with no deliberation on the safety of the occupants of the berths in a panic braking or collision situation. In this work, the design of the berths from occupant safety point of view has been assessed. Kinematics of occupants, sleeping in different typical postures, during frontal impact, with parameters recommended in SAE J2418, has been simulated. In addition to identifying impact points for the occupant within the cab injury levels for head, thorax, pelvis and chest of the occupants were obtained from these simulations. Based on this information, different arrangements of belts in “screen” type configuration were developed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0152
Alok Anand, Pratap Daphal, Pratysh Khare
The vehicle crash signature (here on referred as crash pulse) significantly affects occupant restraints system performance in frontal crash events. Restraints system optimization is usually undertaken in later phase of product development. This leads to sub-optimal configurations and performance, as no opportunity exists to tune vehicle structure and occupant package layouts. In concept phase of development, crash pulse characterization helps to map occupant package environment with available structure crush space and stiffness. The crash pulse slope, peaks, average values at discrete time intervals, can be tuned considering library of restraints parameters. This would help to derive an optimal occupant kinematics and occupant-restraints interaction in crash event time domain. A case study has been explained in this paper to highlight the methodology. The study has been undertaken for critical frontal crash load cases, considering library of single stage restraints components (airbags, seat belts).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0157
Kedar Madhukar Hendre, Yogesh Purohit
Curtain airbag design offers protection in side crash and it plays a critical role in safety of the vehicle. Curtain airbag provides protection to the occupant in many impact events like frontal offset, side barrier, side pole and rollover condition. For a vehicle to be safe for any side impact condition, the curtain airbag should deploy and take its final shape before any injury happens to the occupant. During deployment, it is important that the airbag chooses a path of minimum resistance and does not get entangled in interior trims. In reality, the trims always do obstruct the path of airbag deployment in some way. Hence, special care has to be taken care for designing areas surrounding curtain like providing hinges, deflector components etc. to avoid being caught. There are about ten different factors on this deployment is dependent upon. This paper discusses these factors and the effect of the factors on the trims and airbag development. Proper care needs to be taken while designing the airbag mounting locations and the protrusions from the trims.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0165
Sivaprasad Koralla, Ganesh Bhagwant Gadekar, V Ramana Pavan Nadella, Susanta Dey
Spot welding is the primary joining method used in automobiles. Spot-weld plays a major role to maintain vehicle structural integrity during impact tests. Robust spot weld failure definitions is critical for accurate predictions of structure performance in safety simulations. Spot welds have a complex metallurgical structure, mainly consisting of fusion and heat affected zones. For accurate material property definitions in simulation models, huge no of inputs from test data is required. Multiple tests, using different spot weld joinery configurations, have to be conducted. In order to accurately represent the spot-weld behavior in CAE, detailed modeling is required using fine mesh. The current challenge in spot-weld failure assessment is developing a methodology having a better trade-off between prediction accuracy, testing efforts and computation time. In view of the above, cohesive zone models have been found to be very effective and accurate. It uses the principles of continuum mechanics and linear elastic fracture mechanics, to predict peak stress and damage accurately.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0163
Abhay Kumar, Arun Mahajan, S Prasanth, Sudhir Darekar, Jagadeesan Chellan, K Ashok Kumar
A cabin on an agricultural tractor is meant to protect the operator from harsh environment, dust and provide an air conditioned space. As it is an enclosed space, cabin structure should be a crashworthiness structure and should not cause serious injury to operator in case of tractor roll over. There are International standard like OECD Code 4, SAE J2194 which regulates the crashworthiness of this protective structure. The roll-over protective structure (ROPS) is characterized by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the operator in case of tractor overturn. None of the cabin parts should enter into the clearance zone for operator safety. In addition to meeting ROPS test criteria, the cabin structural strength should be optimized for the required tractor life. In this paper, simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor cabin structure and its mountings to meet the above requirements. A Design Verification Plan (DVP) has been developed consisting of 3 load cases.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0169
Simhachalam Bade, Lakshmanarao C
There is a growing need for improved conceptual vehicle designs along with alternative materials to reduce the damage to the passengers and structures in aerospace and automotive industries. The energy absorption characteristics of materials play a major role in designing a safe vehicle for transport. In this paper, compression behavior and energy absorption of aluminum alloy AA6061 and AA7005 tubes in T4 and T6 conditions are investigated by experimental and numerical methods. The AA7005 and AA6061 tubes are solution heat treated and then aged to achieve the final strength in T6 condition. Experimental compression test results have shown improved energy absorption of tubes in T6 condition compared to tubes in T4 condition. There is less variation of energy among the tested samples. The mean load is compared with the results obtained from analytical formulas. Tensile properties have been obtained from tensile tests using UTM for both AA6061 and AA7005 tubes. True stress-plastic strain curves from the tensile test are used in the static simulation of AA6061 tubes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0172
Girikumar Kumaresh, Thomas Lich, Moennich Joerg
Driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the development of modern automotive safety functions. In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of road transport and highway with 490 383 out of which injured people are 509 667 and fatalities are138 258. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are from the passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents, Bosch accident research team carried out passenger car driver behaviour analysis in India. This research is undertaken to evaluate the benefit of modern vehicle safety systems like car ABS/ESP® which are essential to avoid fatal accidents. Traffic safety becomes more important in India due to increasing fatality risk. It is utmost important to evaluate their needs for vehicle safety in India. Today’s vehicles are equipped with powerful and reliable braking systems that provide excellent braking power even at high speeds.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0155
Amit Kamalakar Pathak, Mayur Rajke, Anupama Madiyan
Globally, road traffic crashes kill about 1.24 million people each year. Pedestrians constitute 22% of all road deaths, and in some countries this is as high as 60%. The capacity to respond to pedestrian safety is an important component of efforts to prevent road traffic injuries. Pedestrian collisions, like other road traffic crashes, should not be accepted as inevitable because they are, in fact, both predictable and preventable. Examination of pedestrian injury distribution reveals that given an impact speed, the probability offatal injuries is substantially greater when the striking vehicle is a pick-up rather than a passenger car. Given their utility areas, pickup vehicles require negotiating rough terrains and are therefore engineered with higher ground clearance and larger approach angle. The challengeis to optimize these design parameters and also style the vehicle for pedestrian safety while maintaining a low design cost at the same time. This document presents a set of solutions and methodology formeeting pedestrian impact safety to be implemented in a pickup vehicle as per EEVC guidelines.Pedestrian simulation carried through proficient software with an Impactor propelled at a speed of 40Km/h towards the front end of the pickup vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0160
Adria Ferrer, Stefanie de Hair, Oliver Zander, Rikard Fredriksson, Swen Schaub, Frederic Nuss, Marie Caspar
Pedestrians and cyclists are the most unprotected road users and their injury risk in case of accidents is significantly higher than for other road users. Though the level of safety for pedestrians, as established through Euro NCAP and others, has significantly increased over the last years, currently still more than 20% of road fatalities correspond to pedestrians. The test procedures and assessment methods for pedestrian safety show potential for further improvement and thus should be adjusted accordingly. The understanding of the influence and sensitivity between important variables describing a pedestrian crash is key for the development of more efficient and reliable safety systems. This paper reflects the related work carried out within the AsPeCSS project. The results summarized out of virtual and physical tests provide valuable information for further development. 1168 virtual and 120 physical tests were carried out with adult and child pedestrian headform impactors, upper legform impactors and lower legform impactors on representatives of 4 different vehicle front geometries in a wide range of impact speeds, angles and locations.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0170
Chaitanya Pendurthi, Sourabh Tiwari, Sujit Chalipat, Ganesh Bhagwant Gadekar
Tyre plays a pivotal role in frontal impact, as it acts as a load path to transfer loads from barrier to side sill or rocker panels. Conventionally, tyres are represented with less modelling detail which can potentially effect CAE prediction. Aim of this study is to improve CAE prediction through more realistic way of representing tyre for crash event. This involves detailed study ranging from coupon level tests to full tyre model. Different tyre components like steel-belts, body plies, steel-beads, tread and sidewall, which influence tyre characterization have been considered for this study. This paper explains in detail about various experimental test and their CAE predictions to arrive at acceptable level of performance. The approach in this study is to have systematic process of rubber tyre characterization which includes quasi-static tensile coupon tests, static compression test on tyre assembly and dynamic impact test with moving trolley.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0167
Thomas Lich, Girikumar Kumaresh, Joerg Moennich
Around one in four deaths that occurs on the road in India involves a motorcyclist, according to Ministry of road transport and highways, Government of India 2012. Nearly 26 % of the fatalities (~ 33 873 people) are from powered two wheelers which constitute the highest contributor for fatal accidents in India. European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist having a fatal accident is 20 times greater than for a car driver traveling the same route. An investigation conducted by Bosch based on the RASSI accident database (Road Accident Sampling System for India), revels interesting facts of Indian powered two wheeler (PTW) riders behaviour and their braking patterns during the precrash phase of the accident. This research is undertaken to evaluate the benefit of modern vehicle safety systems like a PTW Antilock-Braking System (ABS) which are essential to avoid accidents.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0166
Rakesh Kumar, Aditya Malladi, Sridhar lingan Sr
For the purpose of effective occupant restraint, seat belt anchorage test is required to prevent any failure at anchorage locations during vehicle crash. In India seat belt anchorages (SBA) certification test is mandatory for M and N types of category vehicles with regards to forward and rearward facing seats in the vehicle. During the development phase failure at seat anchorage location was observed in physical test, which resulted in vehicle not meeting the regulatory requirement. This phenomenon of anchorage failure was captured through FE simulations and correlation was done to understand the root cause of failure for future development. CAE based design proposals were developed by considering various parameters which influence the load path and force distribution at seat belt and seat anchorage locations. This paper talks about a detailed study done to estimate effects of variation in design, material and thickness properties at anchorage locations.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0164
Eduard Infantes, Marie-Estelle Caspar, Simon Kramer, Swen Schaub, Tobias Langner, André Eggers, Thomas Unselt, Paul Lemmen
The ASSESS project was a European Commission co-funded project that aimed to develop harmonized and standardized assessment procedures for collision mitigation and avoidance systems. ASSESS was one of the first European projects which dealt in depth with the concept of integrated safety, defining methodologies to analyse vehicle safety from a global point of view. As such, the developed procedures included driver behaviour evaluation, pre-crash and crash system performance evaluation and socio-economic assessment. The activities performed for the crash evaluation focussed on the influence of braking manoeuvres in occupant positioning through dynamic braking manoeuvres with real occupants and Madymo and LS-Dyna simulations, and the assessment of the passive safety protection level according to the results of the influence of the active systems through sled testing and full vehicle testing.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0241
Maria de Odriozola, Ignacio Lázaro, Adria Ferrer
Safety is one of the main criteria that is taken into account by new vehicle buyers. Therefore, manufacturers must achieve excellent results in all safety requirements to ensure a successful new vehicle model launching. Additionally, the current safety requirements in the European market are more demanding than ever, especially in consumer tests, as new dummies and crash configurations are being introduced. This paper focusses on the new dummy that will be introduced in the new Euro NCAP Side Impact Testing protocol in 2015, the WorldSID. Furthermore, special attention has been paid on the comparison between this dummy and the dummy that is being currently used, the EuroSID II. For many years, all Side Impact Crash Test studies have been put into practice considering the results achieved from the EuroSID II dummy. The introduction of the WorldSID to the crash test world has become a milestone not only for vehicle manufacturers but also for crash test laboratories.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0159
Tripti Jain, Tanvee Adhikari
During vehicle development, numerous tests are done to ensure safety & durability of the vehicle. One such test prescribed by regulation (IS 12009:1995) is side door intrusion test (SDIT). This test evaluates strength requirement of a side door of passenger cars to minimize the safety hazards caused by intrusion into passenger compartment in a side impact accident viz., initial, intermediate and peak crush resistance. In current scenario, the passenger car manufacturers are striving hard on cost reduction by reducing the development cost. Thus, prediction of the exact vehicle performance before its prototype stage is vital and can be achieved with the help of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) During the SDIT, the load is applied to the door in inward direction. This impact force is resisted by the door assembly, while door is pivoted at door latch and hinge.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0156
Anil Kumar Jaswal, MV Rajasekhar, J Perumal, Samir Rawte
Vehicle Safety is always been in prime focus for development engineers while introducing newer products in markets for the customers. It is now common to see vehicles catching fire on roads and in parking places leading to destruction of the surroundings as well as hazard to the passengers. Thermal events can take place due to the heat dissipated by the heat emitters such as Engine, Turbo, Alternator, Exhaust System etc. The most critical area where Thermal events can usually take place are under hoods which includes the complete engine compartment and under body area. The extent of fire depends on the fire source, characteristics of the materials used in constructing and furnishing the vehicle. The Performance and life of Electronic parts and parts made of polymeric materials such as rubbers and plastics are also greatly influenced by the temperatures of their surroundings.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0161
Chandrashekhar Thorbole, Saurabh Deshpande
A Study to Address the Failure Mechanism of the Conventional 3-Point Restraint in Protecting the Far Side Occupant in a Rollover Accident Dr. Chandrashekhar K. Thorbole Thorbole Simulation Technologies LLC, AR, USA Mr. Saurabh R. Deshpande The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune, India Abstract Occupant motion in a vehicle rollover accident is a function of many factors. Some important ones are vehicle kinematics, position of the occupant in the vehicle, occupant size and restraint usage. The far side belted occupants are more vulnerable than the near side occupants in a rollover accident. This outcome is attributable to the inadequate safety performance of the conventional single loop; B-pillar mounted D-ring restraints. Roof crush tends to displace the vehicle’s B-pillar, resulting in D-Ring displacement which causes slack in the lap portion of the restraint.
2014-11-02
WIP Standard
AS4459C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for externally swaged tube-fitting assemblies used in aircraft fluid systems in the following pressure classes: B (1500 psi or 10 500 kPa), and D (3000 psi or 21 000 kPa), and in temperature types I (-65 to 160 °F or -55 to 70 °C), and II (-65 to 275 °F or -55 to 135 °C) of AS2001. This specification covers a common Cres, titanium, and aluminum fittings that may be used for a range of operating pressures up to 3000 psi with different tubing materials and tubing wall thicknesses, and is assembled with the same tooling in accordance with AS5902. Table 10 shows applicable aerospace fitting part number standard and tubing materials and operating pressures.
2014-11-02
WIP Standard
AS5008B
Scope is unavailable.
2014-10-27
WIP Standard
AS6306
create a standard derived from AS4383 but with dry film lube
2014-08-26
WIP Standard
J1624
The SAE Recommended Practice applies to all commercial, self- propelled motor vehicles which transport property or passengers when: gross weight~the vehicle has a gross weight rating of more than 4540 kg (10 000 lb); fuel~the fuel used has a boiling point above 0 °C (32 °F) at normal atmospheric pressure.
2014-08-26
WIP Standard
J703
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to all commercial, self-propelled, or towed motor vehicles which transport property or passengers in interstate commerce in which the gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating exceeds 4550 kg (10 000 lb).
2014-08-22
WIP Standard
ARP1536B
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes a method of testing, and criteria for comparative evaluation of the abrasion resistance of chafe guard, and also establishes standard test equipment to be used in conducting these tests. This ARP establishes a standard test criteria for the evaluation of chafe guards intended to afford protection from abrasion and chafing of hose assemblies and adjacent components. For test purposes, a stainless steel wire braided hose assembly, such as MIL-H-25579, shall be used. The information obtained from testing will be applicable to any hose assembly because testing ceases when the chafe guard has worn through to the test assembly.
2014-08-11
Standard
J3026_201408
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the testing procedures that may be used to evaluate the integrity of ground ambulance-based occupant seating and occupant restraint systems for workers and civilians transported in the patient compartment of an ambulance when exposed to a frontal or side impact. This Recommended Practice was based on ambulance patient compartment dynamics and is not applicable to other vehicle applications or seating positions. This Recommended Practice is structured to accommodate seating systems installed in multiple attitudes including but not limited to side-facing, rear-facing, and forward-facing.
2014-07-28
WIP Standard
AS1975F
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) lined, para-aramid fiber reinforced, hose assembly suitable for use up to 4000 psi, and up to 275 °F, aircraft and missile hydraulic and pneumatic systems.
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