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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1491
Automotive OEMs, insurance agencies and regulatory bodies are continuously looking at various accident statistics and proper ways of evaluating unaccounted (as per current regulations and safety ratings) accident scenarios to improve the safety standards of cars. Small overlap and oblique impacts during which a corner of a car hits a tree or the corner of another vehicle are two such situations. To address these scenarios, IIHS has incorporated small overlap impact in the NCAP rating. Similarly, NHTSA is developing an oblique test to address this. Most of the vehicles which are on road scored low when tested for these impact scenarios. This is mainly because most of the energy-absorbing structures (in a vehicle) such as rails and crush boxes during a high speed crash do not get engaged with the impactor as the overlap is very small.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1489
Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraint, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point vehicle belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven different body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1492
Kazunobu Ogaki, Takayuki Kawabuchi, Satoshi Takizawa
We test the mid-size sedan according to NHTSA Oblique test to assess the occupant protection and to provide possible design changes to improve the oblique collision performance. This test result predicted high potential injury for BrIC, chest deflection, and lower extremities. Injury reductions could likely be achieved through optimization of the restraint devices. We focus to reduce the lower extremity injury. Traditionally, lower extremity injuries are often mitigated by reducing the intrusion of the cabin’s dashboard lower region; however, this type of design change can lead to a significant increase in vehicle weight. Increasing the energy absorbed within the engine compartment is more efficient than reinforcing the passenger compartment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1490
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
A study of belted driver injury in various types of frontal impacts in the US field data was conducted. Specifically, subject to the Frontal Impact Taxonomy of Sullivan et al. (2008), injury potential of belted drivers in non-rollover, frontal impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) was assessed. The field data pertained to 1985 - 2013 model-year light passenger vehicles in 1995 - 2012 calendar years of NASS. Two levels of injury were considered: AIS2+ and AIS3+. For ease of presentation, we grouped the injury data into lower- or upper-body regions. Frontal impacts were binned into eight taxonomic groups: Full-engagement, Offset, Narrow, Oblique, Side-swipe corner, High/low vert (i.e., over- and under-ride crashes), DZY-No rail (i.e., distributed crashes, but with negligible frame rail involvement), and Other. The results of the survey yielded insights into the distribution of belted-driver injury in NASS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1488
Adam G.M. Cook, Moustafa El-Gindy, David Critchley
This work investigates the multi-objective optimization methods for Front Underride Protection Devices (FUPDs) using varying meta-modeling and direct optimization techniques, while implementing several materials and minimizing cost of the design. The developed dsFUPD F9 design for a Volvo VNL was subjected to a modified ECE R93 quasi-static loading to objectify deformations. A developed application was needed to objectify the cost as a third target objective to minimize with mass and deformation of the design. NSGA-II, SPEA-II genetic algorithms and adaptive simulated annealing optimization methods were under investigation in combination with three meta-modeling techniques; Feedforward Neural Network, Radial Basis Function Network, and Kriging. Leapfrog LFOPC algorithm hybridized forms of genetic algorithms and adaptive simulated annealing was also investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1493
Vinay L. Virupaksha, Stuart Brown
Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10.5 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma and finite element analysis is used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0567
Kenji Takada, Kentaro Sato, Ninshu Ma
In order to reduce the automobile body weight and to improve the crashworthiness, the use of high strength steels is greatly increasing these years. An optimal combination of both the crash safety performance and a lightweight structure has been an important challenge in automobile body engineering. The application of high strength steel to automobile body structures has been considered to be an efficient solution because of a lower cost in volume production in the automotive industry. With the improvement of the formability of high strength steels by optimizing the metallic microstructure, the range of applications of high strength steels has been expanding in the automobile body structures. Recently, advanced high strength steels with strength from 980MPa to 1500MPa used in automobile bodies have being playing a crucial role in crash safety performance.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0154
Anand Ramalingam, Saravanakumar Thangamani
Abstract This paper discusses about the Flange design study carried out in Fuel Delivery Module (FDM) for meeting out contradictory requirements of robustness and crash worthiness. FDM is assembled in the fuel tank with flange covering the tank opening, and swirl pot assembly comprising fuel pump attached to flange through two steel struts. During crash, FDM undergoes sudden deceleration. Due to inertia, swirl pot assembly creates bending moment in the flange-strut interface. At such adverse condition, flange should not exhibit crack on the sealing side, as it might expose fuel in the fuel tank to the atmosphere. To ensure safety, flange-strut interface in the bottom side of flange is designed with higher stress concentration factor. So, the struts along with swirl pot assembly will break away from flange during crash without creating crack in the flange sealing faces.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0169
Simhachalam Bade, Lakshmanarao C
Abstract There is a growing need for improved conceptual vehicle designs along with alternative materials to reduce the damage to the passengers and structures in aerospace and automotive industries. The energy absorption characteristics of materials play a major role in designing a safe vehicle for transport. In this paper, compression behavior and energy absorption of aluminum alloy AA6061 and AA7005 tubes in T4 and T6 conditions are investigated by experimental and numerical methods. The AA7005 and AA6061 tubes are solution heat treated and then aged to achieve the final strength in T6 condition. Experimental compression test results have shown improved energy absorption of tubes in T6 condition compared to tubes in T4 condition. There is less variation of energy among the tested samples. The mean load is compared with the results obtained from analytical formulae. Tensile properties have been obtained from tensile tests using UTM for both AA6061 and AA7005 tubes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0191
Pablo Cruz, Jose Antonio Muñoz, Jordi Viñas
Abstract Robust and reliable FE-model spotweld characterization has been a challenge since spotweld technology was incorporated extensively into the automotive industry. The innovation required leads to constant enhancement of product performance; reduced time-tomarket, cost and weight. The need for quality requires robust development tools, consistency of design decisions, andrepeatability of the development process. Proper spotweld characterization has a clear impact on the above-mentioned needs and carmakers invest in efforts to increase the efficiency of the development process. Furthermore, the continuoususage of new steel grades increases the complexity of the topic. This paper presents an in-depth spotweld study that involves three different spotweld specimens: KSII; lap shear and peeling, for automotive steel grades and usual part thicknesses for each steel grade.
2014-12-09
WIP Standard
J850
Fixed rigid barrier collisions can represent severe automotive impacts. Deceleration conditions during fixed rigid barrier collisions are more readily reproducible than those occurring during impacts with yielding barriers. Barrier collision tests are conducted on automotive vehicles to obtain information of value in reducing occupant injuries and in evaluating structural integrity. The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to establish sufficient standardization of barrier collision methods so that results of similar tests conducted at different facilities can be compared. The barrier device may be of almost any configuration, such as flat, round, offset, etc.
2014-12-09
WIP Standard
J972
Collision tests are conducted on automotive vehicles to obtain information of value in evaluation of structural integrity and in reducing the risk of occupant injuries. The deformation resulting from a moving rigid barrier impact is more severe at a given speed than that produced by using an actual vehicle, but is more readily reproducible than that occurring during vehicle to vehicle impacts. The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to establish sufficient standardization of such moving barriers and moving barrier collision methods so that results of tests conducted at different facilities may be compared.
2014-11-02
WIP Standard
AS4459C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for externally swaged tube-fitting assemblies used in aircraft fluid systems in the following pressure classes: B (1500 psi or 10 500 kPa), and D (3000 psi or 21 000 kPa), and in temperature types I (-65 to 160 °F or -55 to 70 °C), and II (-65 to 275 °F or -55 to 135 °C) of AS2001. This specification covers a common Cres, titanium, and aluminum fittings that may be used for a range of operating pressures up to 3000 psi with different tubing materials and tubing wall thicknesses, and is assembled with the same tooling in accordance with AS5902. Table 10 shows applicable aerospace fitting part number standard and tubing materials and operating pressures.
2014-11-02
WIP Standard
AS5008B
Scope is unavailable.
2014-11-01
Book
This title carries the papers developed for the 2014 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Head/brain biomechanics • Thorax, spine, and pelvis biomechanics • Overlap/angled frontal crash testing and real-world performance • Pedestrian and cyclist injury factors and testing • Rollover and side-impact crashes and computational modeling
2014-10-27
WIP Standard
AS6306
create a standard derived from AS4383 but with dry film lube
2014-08-26
WIP Standard
J1624
The SAE Recommended Practice applies to all commercial, self- propelled motor vehicles which transport property or passengers when: gross weight~the vehicle has a gross weight rating of more than 4540 kg (10 000 lb); fuel~the fuel used has a boiling point above 0 °C (32 °F) at normal atmospheric pressure.
2014-08-26
WIP Standard
J703
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to all commercial, self-propelled, or towed motor vehicles which transport property or passengers in interstate commerce in which the gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating exceeds 4550 kg (10 000 lb).
2014-08-22
WIP Standard
ARP1536B
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes a method of testing, and criteria for comparative evaluation of the abrasion resistance of chafe guard, and also establishes standard test equipment to be used in conducting these tests. This ARP establishes a standard test criteria for the evaluation of chafe guards intended to afford protection from abrasion and chafing of hose assemblies and adjacent components. For test purposes, a stainless steel wire braided hose assembly, such as MIL-H-25579, shall be used. The information obtained from testing will be applicable to any hose assembly because testing ceases when the chafe guard has worn through to the test assembly.
2014-08-11
Standard
J3026_201408
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the testing procedures that may be used to evaluate the integrity of ground ambulance-based occupant seating and occupant restraint systems for workers and civilians transported in the patient compartment of an ambulance when exposed to a frontal or side impact. This Recommended Practice was based on ambulance patient compartment dynamics and is not applicable to other vehicle applications or seating positions. This Recommended Practice is structured to accommodate seating systems installed in multiple attitudes including but not limited to side-facing, rear-facing, and forward-facing.
2014-07-28
WIP Standard
AS1975F
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) lined, para-aramid fiber reinforced, hose assembly suitable for use up to 4000 psi, and up to 275 °F, aircraft and missile hydraulic and pneumatic systems.
2014-07-14
Standard
J3043_201407
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the dynamic and static testing procedures required to evaluate the integrity of an equipment mount device or system when exposed to a frontal or side impact (i.e. a crash impact). Its purpose is to provide equipment manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that, to a great extent, ensure equipment mount devices or systems meet the same performance criteria across the industry. Prospective equipment mount manufacturers or vendors have the option of performing either dynamic testing or static testing. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, test fixture, and performance metrics are included.
2014-07-14
Standard
J3027_201407
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the testing procedures required to evaluate the integrity of a ground ambulance-based patient litter, litter retention system, and patient restraint when exposed to a frontal or side impact. Its purpose is to provide litter manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that, to a great extent ensures the patient litter, litter retention system, and patient restraint utilizes a similar dynamic performance test methodology to that which is applied to other vehicle seating and occupant restraint systems. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, test fixture, and performance metrics are included.
2014-07-08
Standard
AS1946D
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) lined, metallic reinforced, hose assemblies suitable for use in aerospace hydraulic, fuel and lubricating oil systems at temperatures between -67 °F and 450 °F for Class I assemblies, -67 °F and 275 °F for Class II assemblies, and at nominal pressures up to 1500 psi. The hose assemblies are also suitable for use within the same temperature and pressure limitations in aerospace pneumatic systems where some gaseous diffusion through the wall of the PTFE liner can be tolerated. The use of these hose assemblies in pneumatic storage systems is not recommended. In addition, installations in which the limits specified herein are exceeded, or in which the application is not covered specifically by this standard, for example oxygen, shall be subject to the approval of the procuring activity.
2014-07-07
Standard
AS4141C
Scope is unavailable.
2014-07-07
Standard
AS4140C
Scope is unavailable.
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