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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1373
Emad Sadeghipour, Erich Josef Wehrle, Markus Lienkamp
Global emission targets and high fuel costs are encouraging manufacturers to produce ultralight vehicles. This and low range of electric cars has resulted in new vehicle concepts and reuse of the Quadricycles classification for microcars in Europe. Because of their lightweight and small size, microcars face crash-compatibility problems in car-to-car collisions, which is not considered in current safety assessment approaches. Therefore, new assessment approaches must be developed for crash-compatibility of microcars, whereupon a common method is using generic simulation models to avoid test dependencies on special vehicle models. Generic in this case is defined by a vehicle model that is not a prototype of the model, but instead represents typical properties for the desired car classification in the intended application. In this study, an approach for development and validation of generic simulation models for compatibility investigations of microcars is developed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
The paper is focused on both the the subjective and the objective ride comfort of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride confort was performed. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective drivers' feeling with the measured accelerations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1446
Rini Sherony, Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. Bicyclist PCS (Pre-Collision System) is being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis of the United States national crash databases (FARS and GES) and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of highest occurring test scenarios, and the motion speed and profile of bicycle carrier. The carrier was designed as an autonomous platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system. Each wheel is an independent suspension system to protect motors, gears and reduce the vibrations. The height of carrier was minimized to 78mm to reduce the interference to PCS sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1452
Eiichiro Murata, tasuku usui, kazunori nogi, hiroyuki takahashi
The purpose of this study is to clarify the TTC (Time-to-Collision) distribution when approaching the preceding vehicle under driver’s normal operation. To improve the effectiveness of the PCS (Pre-Collision Safety), the activate timing shall be earlier. However, too early timing may interfere with the driver’s avoidance operation. If the TTC distribution can be approximated by a probability distribution, it can be used to estimate how close approach to the preceding car, and consider the setting to maximize the effectiveness of the PCS. In this study, we examine to clarify the TTC distribution using log-normal distribution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1536
Chung-Kyu Park, Cing-Dao Kan
The vehicle crash pulse severity is a measure of how severely the vehicle crash pulse has an effect on the occupant injury. The objective of this research is to evaluate the assessability of vehicle crash pulse severity in frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) tests. In this study, the existing metrics derived from vehicle crash pulse in the frontal impact are reviewed and categorized into 4 groups in the way of how occupant responses are considered. Then the severity of vehicle crash pulses of the frontal NCAP tests was evaluated by existing metrics. A total of 60 frontal NCAP test data collected from the MY 2012 vehicle test program are analyzed. The linear regression analyses and sled test simulations are conducted to identify their correlation to other metrics and dummy injuries. The results show that some of existing metrics are able to assess crash pulse severity in frontal NCAP tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1487
Zhenhai Gao, Chuzhao Li, Hongyu Hu, Chaoyang Chen, Hui Zhao, Helen YU
At the collision moment, a driver’s lower extremity will be in different braking stage, which leads to different posture of lower extremity with various muscle activations. These will affect the driver’s injury during collision but it was not fully investigated. In this study, a simulated collision scene was constructed and the posture and muscle activation of lower extremity at the collision moment were studied. 20 participants (10 male and 10 female) were recruited for the simulated collision test and muscle activation of 8 major muscles in both right and left legs were measured. Muscle activation of lower extremity in different postures was analyzed. It was found that the driver’s right leg was possible to be on the brake, in the air or even on the accelerator at the collision moment. The left leg was on the floor all along. Significant differences of right leg’s muscle activation were found between different postures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1493
Jeremy Daily, James Johnson, Amila Perera
It has been shown that recovery of snapshot data recorded by Caterpillar engine control modules (ECMs) using CatET software requires a complete record that contains information gathered both before and after the event. However, if an event is set and a crash ensues, or a crash creates an event, then it is possible for the ECM to loose power and not complete the recording. As such, the data could not be download with the CatET maintenance software. An examination of the J1708 network traffic reveals the snapshot data does exist and is recoverable. A motivational case study of a crash test between a Caterpillar powered school bus and a parked transit bus is presented to establish the hypothesis. Subsequently, a digital forensic recovery algorithm is detailed as it is implemented in the Synercon Technologies Forensic Link Adapter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1506
David Poulard, Huipeng Chen, Matthew Panzer
Pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) are used to investigate and predict the injury outcomes from vehicle-pedestrian impact. Due to the sensitivity of pedestrian biomechanics to anthropometry, a PFEM with a generic anthropometry (50th-percentile male) cannot be sufficiently evaluated against post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) test data without accounting for the specific anthropometry. Global geometric personalization can scale the PFEM geometry to match the height and weight of a specific PMHS, while local geometric personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match specific PMHS anatomy. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the benefit of locally-morphed PFEM anthropometry compared to globally-scaled and generic PFEM by comparing the biomechanics of vehicle-pedestrian impact.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1512
Jeya Padmanaban, Roger Burnett, Andrew Levitt
This paper updates the findings of prior research addressing the relationship between seatback strength and likelihood of serious injury/fatality to belted drivers and belted rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes. Statistical analyses were performed using 1995-2014 CY police-reported crash data from fifteen states. Seatback strength for over 100 vehicle models (model years 1996-2013) was included in the analysis. Seatback strength is measured in terms of the maximum moment that results in 10 inches of seat displacement. These measurements range from 5,989 in-lbs to 39,918 in-lbs, resulting in a wide range of seatback strengths. Additional analysis was done to see whether Seat Integrated Restraint Systems (SIRS) perform better than conventional belts in reducing driver and rear seat occupant injury in rear impacts. Field data shows the injury rate for belted drivers and belted rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes is less than 1%.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1488
Derek Jones, James Gaewsky, Ashley Weaver, Joel Stitzel
Computational finite element (FE) modeling of real world motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) is valuable for analyzing crash-induced injury patterns and mechanisms. Due to unavailability of detailed modern FE vehicle models, simplified vehicle models (SVM) of the driver occupant compartment are used for MVC reconstruction simulations. The current study used a SVM based on laser scans of fourteen modern vehicle interiors. A crash reconstruction algorithm was developed to semi-automatically tune the properties of the SVM to a particular vehicle make and model and subsequently reconstruct a real world MVC using the tuned SVM. The required algorithm inputs are ATD position data, deceleration crash pulses from a specific NCAP crash test, and vehicle interior property ranges. A series of automated geometric transformations and five LS-Dyna positioning simulations were performed to match the FE HIII's position within the SVM to reported data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1412
Takeshi Hamaguchi, Satoshi Inoue, Shigeyuki Kimura, Terumasa Endo
In general, driver workload can be measured with questionnaires or other subjective methods for human-centered design. Many researchers have studied how subjective ratings of workload have good correspondence to physiological and/or behavioral, psychological measures. On the other hand, a model of driver behavior can be more informative because it allows researchers to estimate how drivers actually control the vehicle. Behavioral measures can be used to understand the interaction between a driver’s perception of information and his/her choice of action. Previously, pedal control was used for identifying specific individual habits or evaluating acceptability for a wide variety of driving assistance systems. Pedal behavior has not been modeled to estimate driver workload.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1485
Noritoshi Atsumi, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto, Satoko Hirabayashi, Eiichi Tanaka
The reduction of higher brain dysfunction due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by head rotational impact in traffic accidents is needed. However, the injury mechanism still remains unclear. Brain parenchyma of the head finite element (FE) model has been generally modeled as simple isotropic viscoelastic materials in past analyses. In this study, we developed a new constitutive model describing most of the mechanical properties in brain parenchyma such as anisotropy in white matter, strain rate dependency, and the characteristics in unloading process for further understanding of TBI mechanism. The validation of the constitutive model were performed against several material test data from the literature by using simple one element model. The model was also introduced into the human head FE model of THUMS v4.02 and then validated against post mortem human subjects (PMHS) test data about brain tissue displacements under rotational impacts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1491
Eunjoo Hwang, Jason Hallman, Katelyn Klein, Jonathan Rupp, Matthew Reed, Jingwen Hu
Finite element (FE) human body models (HBMs) have been widely used to understand the injury mechanisms in the motor vehicle crashes. However, current HBMs generally only represent young and mid-size male occupants and therefore do not account for body shape and composition variations among the population. Because it generally takes several years to build a whole-body HBM, a method to rapidly develop HBMs with a wide range of human attributes (size, age, obesity level, etc.) is critically needed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a mesh morphing method to rapidly generate skeleton and whole-body HBMs based on the statistical geometry targets developed previously. THUMS 4.01 mid-size male model jointly developed by Toyota Motor Corporation and Toyota Central R&D Labs. was used in this study as the baseline HBM to be morphed. Radial basis function (RBF) was used to morph the baseline model into other geometries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1516
Takahiro Suzaki, Noritaka Takagi, Kosho Kawahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Approximately 20% of traffic deaths in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using Rollover Buck test system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. This paper describes results of occupant kinematics of 95th percentile male (AM95), 50th percentile male (AM50), and 5th percentile female (AF05), simulated using THUMS, when a rolling condition was added to Rollover Buck FE model that include the cases using a rigid mock-up seat and a vehicle seat. Main results were as follows: Lateral head displacement of AM95 case on the right side seat was the largest among all cases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0456
Zhaozhong Zhang, Dongpu Cao
This paper analyses how a human driver interacts with the steer-by-wire (SBW) controller using a simplified driver-vehicle-SBW system model. Driver model includes three main parameters: driver preview time, driver time delay and driver control gain. Driver neuromuscular dynamics are also considered using a simple transfer function. Simulation analyses and parametric studies have been conducted to draw conclusions for offering valuable information for SBW control design when considering driver-SBW collaborations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1497
William Bortles, Wayne Biever, Neal Carter, Connor Smith
This paper presents the most comprehensive literature review to date on the topic of original equipment event data recorders installed in passenger vehicles, focusing on the results from instrumented validation studies. In conducting this literature review, the authors have compiled 182 peer-reviewed studies, textbooks, legal opinions, governmental rulemaking policies, industry publications and presentations pertaining to these event data recorders. Of the 182 references in the literature, the authors have identified 66 references that presented instrumented validation testing. The authors have cataloged the test results by vehicle make, model and, whenever possible, by specific module type. The results from these studies have been summarized and analyzed to present a comprehensive collection of results that represent the performance of event data recorders.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1490
Hans W. Hauschild, Frank Pintar, Dale Halloway, Mark Meyer, Rodney Rudd
Oblique crashes to one corner of the vehicle may not be characteristic of either frontal or side impacts. This research objective was to evaluate occupant response in oblique crashes for a driver, rear adult passenger, and a rear child passenger. Occupant responses and injury potential were evaluated for seating positions as either a far- or near-side occupant. Two crash tests were conducted with a subcompact car. The vehicle’s longitudinal axis was oriented 45 degrees to the direction of travel on a moving platform and pulled into a wall at 56-km/h. The initial point of contact was the right front corner in one test and the left front corner in the other test. Dummies utilized for the seating positions were an adult dummy (50th percentile male HIII and THOR) for the driver position, 5th percentile female HIII for the right-rear position, and a 3-year-old HIII for the left-rear position.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1454
Libo Dong, Stanley Chien, Jiang-Yu Zheng, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (PAEB) for avoiding/mitigating pedestrian crashes has been equipped on some passenger vehicles. One of the important components in the PAEB evaluation is the development of standard testing at night. The test facility should include representative low-illuminance environment to enable the examination of the sensing and control functions of different PAEB systems. The goal of this research is to characterize and model light source distributions and variations in the low-illuminance environment and determine possible ways to reconstruct such an environment for PAEB evaluation. Previously, the development of lighting system for PAEB Testing is based only on ANSI/IESNA RP-8-00, which define the average illuminance level and light uniformity of the lighting requirement in US roadway lighting design. This approach is intrinsic and cost effective, but lacks of real lighting characteristic in urban area.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1469
Craig Luker
High image quality video surveillance systems have proliferated making it more common to have collision video footage that is suitable for detailed analysis. This analysis begins by finding a series of positions for the vehicle that can be reconstructed using variety of methods. If the frame rate is known or can be estimated, then the average travel speed between each of those vehicle positions can be found. Unfortunately with video surveillance systems, the frame rates are typically low and the vehicle may be hidden from view for multiple frames. As a result there are often relatively large time steps between known vehicle positions and the average speed between known positions becomes less useful. The method outlined here determines the instantaneous speed and acceleration time history of the vehicle that was required for it to arrive at the known positions at the known times.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1511
Jan Vychytil, Ludek Hyncik, Jaroslav Manas, Petr Pavlata, Radim Striegler, Tomas Moser, Radek Valasek
In this work we present the VIRTHUMAN model as a tool for injury risk assessment in pedestrian crash scenarios. It is a virtual human body model formed of a multibody structure and deformable segments to account for the mechanical response of soft tissues. Extensive validation has been performed to ensure its biofidelity. Due to the scaling algorithm implemented, variations in the human population in terms of height, weight, gender and age can be considered. Assessment of the injury risk is done via automatic evaluation software developed. Injury criteria for individual body parts are evaluated using accelerations, forces and displacements of certain points. Injury risk is indicated by the colour of particular body parts in accordance with NCAP rating. A real accident is investigated in this work. A 60-year-old female was hit laterally by a passenger vehicle with the impact velocity of 40 km/h. The accident is reconstructed using VIRTHUMAN as pedestrian representative.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1492
Ming Shen, Haojie Mao, Binhui Jiang, Feng Zhu, Xin Jin, Liqiang Dong, Suk Jae Ham, Palani Palaniappan, Clifford Chou, King Yang
To predict the injuries of child pedestrians and occupants in traffic incidents, finite element (FE) modeling has become a common research tool. Currently, there was no whole-body FE model for 10-year-old (10 YO) children. This paper introduces the development of two 10 YO whole-body pediatric FE models (named CHARM-10) representing a pedestrian and an occupant postures with sufficient anatomic details and reasonable biofidelity. The geometric data was obtained from medical images and the key dimensions were compared to literature data. Component-level sub-models were built and validated against experimental results of post mortem human subjects (PMHS). After the integration of the sub-models, the whole-body pedestrian model (standing) was assembled and a positioning procedure was then conducted to transform it into the occupant model (seated). The two FE models have shown reasonable responses in whole-body impact simulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1455
John Gaspar, Timothy Brown, Chris Schwarz, Susan Chrysler, Pujitha Gunaratne
In 2010 more than 32,500 fatalities and over 2.2 million injuries occurred in automobile accidents, not to mention the immense economic impact on our society. Two of the four most frequent types of crashes are rear-end and lane change crashes. In 2011, rear-end crashes accounted for approximately 28% of all crashes while lane change crashes accounted for approximately 9%. In order to develop effective crash avoidance systems, we investigate incorporating driver response models to actuate the systems in a timely manner. Good models of driver behavior will support the development of algorithms that can detect normal and abnormal behavior as well as warning systems that are tuned to issue useful alerts that are not perceived as false, or nuisance, alerts by the driver. This paper documents a study on the NADS-1 driving simulator to support the development of such driver behavior modeling. Several scenario events were designed to fill in gaps left by previous crash research.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1518
Carolyn W. Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Jack Cochran, Qi Zhang, Patrick Foltz, Bronislaw Gepner, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Multiple laboratory dynamic test methods have been developed to evaluate vehicle crashworthiness in rollover crashes. However, in order to control test variables, the systems trade-off characteristics of real life rollovers, making it difficult to compare laboratory and real life tests. One dynamic method for evaluating vehicle rollover crashworthiness is the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS), which simulates translational motion with a moving road surface and constrains the vehicle roll axis to a fixed plane within the laboratory. In this study, five DRoTs vehicle tests were performed to judge the ability of DRoTs to match conditions measured during a pair of unconstrained steering-induced rollover tests. The kinematic state of the unconstrained vehicles at the initiation of vehicle-to-ground contact was determined using instrumentation and some touchdown parameters were matched in the DRoTS tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1489
Logan Miller, James Gaewsky, Ashley Weaver, Joel Stitzel, Nicholas White
Crash reconstructions using finite element (FE) vehicle and human body models (HBMs) allow researchers to investigate injury mechanisms, predict injury risk, and evaluate the effectiveness of injury mitigation systems, ultimately leading to a reduced risk of fatality and severe injury in MVCs. The Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) full body HBM (621,074 nodes and 1,727,232 elements) can be used in crash reconstructions for injury prediction. To predict injuries, regional-level injury metrics were implemented into THUMS v4.01 (THUMS AM50 Version 4.01, Toyota TCRDL, Japan). THUMS was instrumented with cross-sectional planes to measure forces and moments in the femurs, upper and lower tibias, ankles, pelvis (pubic symphysis, ilium, ischium, sacrum, ischial tuberosity, and inferior and superior pubic ramus), and the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral discs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1495
Motomi Iyoda, Tom Trisdale, Rini Sherony, Daniel Mikat, William Rose
EDR (Event Data Recorder) is a function of recording vehicle status at the timing of accident. Toyota introduced EDR from August 2000 one after the other. Now about 70% of Toyota vehicles in North America have EDR. This is more than about 50% EDR coverage of all vehicles in North America. There is EDR regulation in USA, so we record EDR data based on the regulation. We think this is the minimum requirement and we record additional necessary data required from accident reconstruction. They are, (1) additional pre-crash data, (2) additional side crash recording system, (3) roll over recording system, (4) pedestrian protection PUH (Pop Up Hood) recording system, (5) non-crash triggered recording system VCH (Vehicle Control History), etc. Commercially available tool is necessary for EDR data retrieval, based on the regulation in USA. So we adopted BOSCH CDR (Crash Data Retrieval). All Toyota EDR can be retrieved using CDR for all over the world including North America.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1463
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
It is extremely important to calibrate photographs or video taken of a scene at night, when attempting to accurately show how the subject scene appeared. It is widely understood and published that digital image sensors cannot capture the large dynamic range that can be seen by the human eye. Furthermore, todays commercially available printers, computer monitors, TV’s or other displays cannot reproduce the dynamic range that is captured by the digital cameras. Therefore, care must be taken when presenting a photograph or video when attempting to accurately depict a subject scene. However, there are many parameters that can be altered, while taking a photograph or video, to make a subject scene either too bright or too dark. Similarly, adjustments can be made to a printer or display to make the image appear either too bright or too dark.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0244
Kumaraswamy Udugu, Viswanatha Reddy Saddala, Sridhar Lingan
Abstract Traffic injuries are an important public health issue. To prevent these injuries, safety systems in a vehicle are recognized as valuable tools. These safety systems are active before and during a crash event. Passive safety is one such safety tool which comprises of occupant restraint systems to prevent fatal injuries during an event of a crash. To improve the real life safety further, active safety systems plays an important role in mitigating the real world accidents. Moreover, effective integration of active and passive safety systems has a potential to further reduce car occupant fatalities. However, in the recent developments in India towards road safety, vehicle safety standards are oriented more towards passive safety. In the present work, road accidents data from India between 2005 and 2014 are studied, to estimate the major mode of accidents and factors influencing the fatal injuries.
2015-12-17
Standard
J1698/1_201512
This Recommended Practice provides common data output formats and definitions for a variety of data elements that may be useful for analyzing vehicle crash and crash-like events that meet specified trigger criteria. The document is intended to govern data element definitions and EDR record format as applicable for light-duty motor vehicle Original Equipment applications.
2015-11-10
Standard
J826_201511
The devices of this SAE Standard provide the means by which passenger compartment dimensions can be obtained using a deflected seat rather than a free seat contour as a reference for defining seating space. All definitions and dimensions used in conjunction with this document are described in SAE J1100. These devices are intended only to apply to the driver side or center occupant seating spaces and are not to be construed as instruments which measure or indicate occupant capabilities or comfort. This document covers only one H-point machine installed on a seat during each test. Certified H-point templates and machines can be purchased from: SAE International 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 Specific procedures are included in Appendix A for seat measurements in short- and long-coupled vehicles and in Appendix B for measurement of the driver seat cushion angle. Specifications and a calibration inspection procedure for the H-point machine are given in Appendix C.
2015-11-09
Book
This title carries the papers developed for the 2015 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Biomechanical Testing and Modeling of Human Response and Injury in Side Impacts • Biomechanics of the Thorax/Abdomen • Estimating Effects of Vehicle Mass and Active Safety Technologies on Injury/Fatality Risk • Computational Models and ATDs • Response and Injury to Pedestrians and Cyclists • Human and ATD Response to High-Speed Vertical Loading
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