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2015-09-01
Magazine
Driving EVs toward lower cost The race is on to reduce battery and electric-drive systems costs while improving efficiency. Seeking ways to make better computer crashes New models and simulations help improve safety as software and hardware provide more realism to iterate designs more quickly. Evaluating aluminum bonds Adhesively joined aluminum alloy sheets present challenges that steel-adhesive joints do not. Ford researchers present a modified technique to inspect Al-adhesive joints in lab and production environments. Leading the attack on engine pumping losses Cylinder deactivation delivers real-world fuel economy gains, helping vehicles to meet and exceed their sticker numbers. That's why the downsized/boosted guys now want it on their engines.
2015-07-22
Standard
J2779_201507
This procedure establishes a recommended practice for performing a Low Speed Thorax Impact Test to the Hybrid III 50th Male Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD or crash dummy). This test was created to satisfy the demand by the industry to have a calibration test which resulted in similar results to an actual low energy automotive impact test. An inherent problem exists with the current calibration procedure because the normal (6.7 m/s) thorax impact test has test corridors that are not representative to these low energy impact tests. The normal test corridors specify a displacement range of around 68 mm and the low speed displacement corridor needs to be around 25 mm. The intent of this recommended practice is to develop a low speed thorax calibration procedure for the H-III50M dummy in 25 to 30 mm deflection range.
2015-05-07
Standard
J2980_201505
This SAE Recommended Practice presents a method and example results for determining the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) for automotive electrical and electronic (E/E) systems. This activity is required by ISO 26262-3:2011 [1], and it is intended that the process and results herein are consistent with ISO 26262:2011 [1]. The technical focus of this document is on vehicle motion control systems. It is limited to passenger cars weighing up to 3.5 metric tons. Furthermore, the scope of this recommended practice is limited to collision-related hazards. ISO 26262:2011 [1] has a wider scope than SAE J2980, covering other functions and accidents (not just motion control or collisions as in SAE J2980).
2015-05-07
Standard
J2876_201505
This procedure establishes a recommended practice for performing a Low Speed Knee Slider test to the Hybrid III 50th Male Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD or crash dummy). This test was created to satisfy the demand from industry to have a certification test which produces similar results to an actual low energy automotive impact test. An inherent problem exists with the current certification procedure because the normal (2.75 m/s) knee slider test has test corridors that do not represent typical displacements seen in these low energy impact tests. The normal test corridors specify a force requirement at 10 mm and at 18 mm, while the low speed test needs to have a peak displacement around 10 mm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0499
Nagarjun Jawahar, Sangamitra Manoharan, Harish Chandran
Abstract Material energy and cost minimization has been the need of the hour off late. The work aims at designing a micro gripping device which has suitable application in bio medical industry; specifically surgical operation of comminuted fracture using CAE software. Being a combination of an inverter and a clip, the ability of the compliant mechanism to be used as a gripper as well as positioner constitutes its rare versatility. The compliant mechanisms are single-piece structures, having no backlash as in case of rigid-body, jointed mechanisms and comparatively cheaper to manufacture. Designed in MATLAB R2008a using the concept of topological optimization, modeled in AutoCAD Mechanical 2011 and analyzed in ANSYS Workbench 13.0; the mechanism is initially designed with a geometrical advantage of 2. The MATLAB code which is an improvement of the 99 line code written by O.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1415
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa
Abstract Fatal injuries suffered by cyclists in vehicle-versus-cyclist accidents are investigated to provide information for the introduction of safety countermeasures. We analyzed characteristics of cyclist injuries in real fatal accidents and compared them with severity levels of head injury in impact tests against a road surface. In the accident analyses, we investigated the main body regions whose injuries led to fatalities using a macro vehicle-cyclist accident database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we investigated the frequency of cyclist fatalities by gender, age group, vehicle speed, and the source of fatal head injury (impact with the vehicle or road surface). Results indicated that head injuries are the most common cause of cyclist fatalities in car-cyclist accidents.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1442
Wolfgang Sinz, Jörg Moser, Christoph Klein, Robert Greimel, Karsten Raguse, Class Middendorff, Christina Steiner
Abstract Precise three-dimensional dummy head trajectories during crash tests are very important for vehicle safety development. To determine precise trajectories with a standard deviation of approximately 5 millimeters, three-dimensional video analysis is an approved method. Therefore the tracked body is to be seen on at least two cameras during the whole crash term, which is often not given (e.g. head dips into the airbag). This non-continuity problem of video analysis is surmounted by numerical integration of differential un-interrupted electrical rotation and acceleration sensor signals mounted into the tracked body. Problems of this approach are unknown sensor calibration errors and unknown initial conditions, which result in trajectory deviations above 10 centimeters.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1707
Ravi Ranjan, Shivaswaroop Parameswaraiah
Abstract 1 Glare is subjective and can either cause disability or discomfort in eyes. Thus glare during driving especially at night is a serious concern and must be addressed. No commercial product exists to counter the glare, though there had been some academic progress in realizing a solution. The paper presents two promising technologies that help in reducing the oncoming vehicle glare. The system comprises of a vision based identification of glare source. A pixelated transparent film/glass with dynamically controllable transmittance is placed between the driver and source. By changing the transparency locally, glare is avoided without affecting the overall visibility. The paper details on lab results and feasibility of two proposed solution i.e. Use of a matrix of electro chromic films such that each element can be individually controlled and use of transparent LCD such that each pixel is controlled for its transparency.
2015-04-14
Collection
This technical paper collection focuses on the latest research related to methods and techniques for reconstructing vehicular crashes involving wheeled and tracked vehicles, pedestrians, and roadside features. Emphasis is placed on experimental data and theoretical methods that will enable reconstructionists to identify, interpret and analyze physical evidence from vehicular crashes
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1470
Takahiro Isshiki, Atsuhiro Konosu, Yukou Takahashi
Abstract Current legform impact test methods using the FlexPLI have been developed to protect pedestrians from lower limb injuries in collisions with low-bumper vehicles. For this type of vehicles, the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb is compensated by setting the impact height of the FlexPLI 50 mm above that of pedestrians. However, neither the effectiveness of the compensation method of the FlexPLI nor the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian has been clarified with high-bumper vehicles. In this study, therefore, two computer simulation analyses were conducted in order to analyze: (1) The influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian when impacted by high-bumper vehicles and (2) The effectiveness of the compensation method for the lack of the upper body by increasing impact height of the FlexPLI for high-bumper vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1489
Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, Para V. Weerappuli
Abstract Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraints, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1421
Dennis Turriff, David J. King, James Bertoch
Abstract Vehicle rollovers generate complicated damage patterns as a result of multiple vehicle-to-ground contacts. The goal of this work was to isolate and characterize specific directional features in coarse- and fine-scale scratch damage generated during a rollover crash. Four rollover tests were completed using stock 2001 Chevrolet Trackers. Vehicles were decelerated and launched from a rollover test device to initiate driver's side leading rolls onto concrete and dirt surfaces. Gross vehicle damage and both macroscopic and microscopic features of the scratch damage were documented using standard and macro lenses, a stereomicroscope, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The most evident indicators of scratch direction, and thus roll direction, were accumulations of abraded material found at the termination points of scratch-damaged areas.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1418
Shane Richardson, Nikola Josevski, Andreas Sandvik, Tandy Pok, Tia Lange Orton, Blake Winter, Xu Wang
Abstract Pedestrian throw distance can be used to evaluate vehicle impact speed for wrap or forward projection type pedestrian collisions. There have been multiple papers demonstrating relationships between the impact speed of a vehicle and the subsequent pedestrian throw distance. In the majority of instances, the scenarios evaluated focused on the central width of the vehicle impacting the pedestrian. However, based on investigated pedestrian collisions, the location where the pedestrian has engaged with the vehicle can and does significantly influence the throw distance (and projection) and subsequent impact speed analysis. PC-Crash was used to simulate multiple pedestrian impacts at varying speeds and vehicle impact locations, creating pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots. This paper presents the pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots for a range of nine vehicle types.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1450
Jeremy Daily, Andrew Kongs, James Johnson, Jose Corcega
Abstract The proper investigation of crashes involving commercial vehicles is critical for fairly assessing liability and damages, if they exist. In addition to traditional physics based approaches, the digital records stored within heavy vehicle electronic control modules (ECMs) are useful in determining the events leading to a crash. Traditional methods of extracting digital data use proprietary diagnostic and maintenance software and require a functioning ECM. However, some crashes induce damage that renders the ECM inoperable, even though it may still contain data. As such, the objective of this research is to examine the digital record in an ECM and understand its meaning. The research was performed on a Detroit Diesel DDEC V engine control module. The data extracted from the flash memory chips include: Last Stop Record, two Hard Brake events, and the Daily Engine Usage Log. The procedure of extracting and reading the memory chips is explained.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0612
Weiguo Zhang, Zeyu Ma, Ankang Jin, James Yang, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Nowadays, studying the human body response in a seated position has attracted a lot of attention as environmental vibrations are transferred to the human body through floor and seat. This research has constructed a multi-body biodynamic human model with 17 degrees of freedom (DOF), including the backrest support and the interaction between feet and ground. Three types of human biodynamic models are taken into consideration: the first model doesn't include the interaction between the feet and floor, the second considers the feet and floor interaction by using a high stiffness spring, the third one includes the interaction by using a soft spring. Based on the whole vehicle model, the excitation to human body through feet and back can be obtained by ride simulation. The simulation results indicate that the interaction between feet and ground exerts non-negligible effect upon the performance of the whole body vibration by comparing the three cases.
2015-04-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9151
Eric S. Winkel, Daniel E. Toomey, Robert Taylor
Abstract Thoracolumbar vertebral fractures are most commonly due to compressive loading modes and associated with falls from height. Two injury metrics are generally referenced for assessing the potential for compressive thoracolumbar injury; the Dynamic Response Index (DRI) and the compressive load measured between the pelvis and lumbar spine using the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) title 49 part 572 subpart B anthropomorphic test device (ATD). This study utilizes an ATD to investigate the injury mitigation potential of a variety of seat cushions during vertical impact in an unrestrained seated posture. ATD responses and DRI are reported for 65 vertical impacts with and without cushions from heights between 4 and 80 inches. The cushions investigated reduced ATD peak pelvic acceleration 63 +/− 11% and compressive lumbar load 42 +/− 9% on average.
2015-03-26
WIP Standard
J3093
This Information Report addresses the design and performance specifications for a generic buck to be used in full-scale vehicle to pedestrian tests conducted to evaluate pedestrian dummy performance. Specifically, the buck is designed to mimic the impact response of the front end of a sedan within the small family car vehicle class during a collision with a pedestrian. The goal is to develop a generic buck with simplified geometry and a limited number of components made of clearly defined and readily available engineering materials to facilitate manufacturing and reproducibility. To ensure performance of the buck, it is specified that the buck mimics the peak crush, absorbed energy, and peak force corresponding to a sedan within the small family car vehicle class during a pedestrian impact.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0024
Jaehaeng Yoo
Abstract For the robust passenger NCAP(New Car Assessment Program) 5star and the stable neck injury performance, a new concept of passenger airbag has been required. Especially, the deployment stability and the vent hole control technology of the passenger airbag can be improved. According to these requirements, the deployment stability technique has been studied and the ‘Active Vent’ technology has been developed. As a result, these technologies have led to achieve the robust NCAP rating and are applied to the production vehicles.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0027
Tia Lange Gaffney, Blake Winter, Arky Elston, Andreas Sandvik, Tandy Pok, Shane Richardson, Nikola Josevski
Abstract When a vehicle is involved in a collision, often a question arises regarding the vehicle's pre-crash velocity. In modern vehicles, velocity data can typically be extracted from the vehicle's Electronic Data Recorder (EDR) via OEM or aftermarket diagnostic tools. However, many modern vehicles - and particularly vehicles operated and/or manufactured in Australia - are not equipped with downloadable EDRs. In these cases, the pre-crash velocity must be calculated based on physical forensic evidence. One method for estimating collision velocity is the crush-energy method, wherein the vehicle is modeled as a spring system. The velocity is then estimated based on the vehicle-specific stiffness properties and on the post-collision crush profile. The vehicle-specific stiffness properties must be derived from a comparable staged crash test. Often, no such crash test exists.
2015-03-03
Standard
J2949_201503
This Information Report documents the signal noise discovered with the 1996 NHTSA regulated version of the 45 degree foot, and defines a recommended solution to resolve the problem.
2015-02-26
WIP Standard
J3074
This procedure establishes a recommended practice for performing a Lumbar Flexion test to the Hybrid III 50th Male Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD or crash dummy). This test was created to satisfy the demand from industry to have a certification test which characterizes the lumbar without interaction of other dummy components. In the past there has not been any tests to document the performance of Hybrid III 50th lumbar.
2015-02-16
WIP Standard
J2878
This procedure establishes a recommended practice for performing a Low Speed Thorax Impact Test to the Hybrid III Small Female Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD or crash dummy). This test was created to satisfy the demand by the industry to have a certification test which results in peak chest deflection similar to current full vehicle, frontal impact tests. An inherent problem exists with the current certification procedure because the normal (6.7 m/s) thorax impact test has test results for peak chest deflection that are greater than those currently seen in full vehicle, frontal tests. The intent of this document is to develop a low speed thorax certification procedure for the H-III5F dummy with a 3.0 m/s impact similar to the SAE J2779 procedure for the H-III50M dummy.
2015-02-13
WIP Standard
J2517
This procedure establishes a recommended practice for establishing the sensitivity of the chest displacement potentiometer assembly used in the Hybrid III family of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs, or crash dummies). This potentiometer assembly is used in the Hybrid III family to measure the linear displacement of the sternum relative to the spine (referred to as chest compression). An inherent nonlinearity exists in this measurement because a rotary potentiometer is being used to measure a generally linear displacement. As the chest cavity is compressed the potentiometer rotates, however the relationship between the compression and the potentiometer rotation (and voltage output) is nonlinear. Crash testing facilities have in the past used a variety of techniques to calibrate the chest potentiometer, that is to establish a sensitivity value (mm/ (volt/volt) or mm/ (mvolt/volt)).
2015-02-03
Standard
J2862_201502
This user’s manual covers the small adult female Hybrid III test dummy. It is intended for technicians who work with this device. It covers the construction and clothing, disassembly and reassembly, available instrumentation, external dimensions and segment masses, as well as certification and inspection test procedures. It includes instructions for safe handling of the instrumented dummy, repairing dummy flesh, and adjusting the joints throughout the dummy.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0162
Hasan M. Naqvi, Geetam Tiwari
Abstract Road accidents and persons killed in India have been reported to the tune of 4,90,383 and 1,38,258 respectively during 2012. On National Highways (NHs), major share of accidents (about 29%) and number of persons killed (35.3%) are observed out of total accidents. National Highways in India constitute about 2% of total road network (92,851 km) in India, but carries about 40% of traffic. 46% (42,829 km) of NHs in India comprises of two-lane and about 19% (17239 km) of NHs are single or intermediate-lane. Road accidents being multi-disciplinary in nature involves attention of multiple departments such as Highways Authority, Police, Motor Vehicles, Automobile Manufacturers, NGOs, etc. Owing to spurt in growth of motor vehicle population in India, road accidents are not reduced significantly despite improvement in NHs (widening of carriageway and riding quality).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0172
Girikumar Kumaresh, Thomas Lich, Moennich Joerg
Abstract In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 [1]. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0167
Thomas Lich, Girikumar Kumaresh, Joerg Moennich
Abstract Motorized two wheelers, also known as powered two wheelers (PTW) are the most common mode of transportation in India. Around one in four deaths that occurred on the roads in India in 2012 involved a motorcyclist, according to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. This constitutes the highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. The European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist having a fatal accident is 20 times greater than for a car driver travelling the same route [2]. An investigation conducted by Bosch looked at the accident database of Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). This investigation revealed interesting facts about the Indian motorcycle accident situation, such as root causes of powered two wheeler collisions and riders behaviour including their braking patterns during the pre-crash phase of the accident.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0209
Ludek Hyncik, Jan Spicka, Jaroslav Manas, Jan Vychytil
Abstract The paper contributes to the field of vehicle safety technology by the virtual approach using biomechanical virtual human body models. The goal of the paper is to exploit the previously developed scaling algorithm to create several virtual human models of a given age and body proportions and to assess the impact analysis using the sensitivity approach. Based on a validated reference model, the previously developed scaling algorithm develops virtual human body models for given height, mass, age and gender. Particular body segments are scaled based on the anthropometrical database concerning the body dimensions taking also percentiles into account. The body stiffness is driven by age dependent flexindex. Several virtual models of human bodies representing particular cadavers were generated via the automatic scaling algorithm. The frontal sled test response of three models was successfully compared to the available experimental data previously.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0152
Alok Anand, Pratap Daphal, Pratyush Khare
Abstract The vehicle crash signature (here on referred as crash pulse) significantly affects occupant restraints system performance in frontal crash events. Restraints system optimization is usually undertaken in later phase of product development. This leads to sub-optimal configurations and performance, as no opportunity exists to tune vehicle structure and occupant package layouts. In concept phase of development, crash pulse characterization helps to map occupant package environment with available structure crush space and stiffness. The crash pulse slope, peaks, average values at discrete time intervals, can be tuned considering library of restraints parameters. This would help to derive an optimal occupant kinematics and occupant-restraints interaction in crash event. A case study has been explained in this paper to highlight the methodology.
2014-11-01
Book
This title carries the papers developed for the 2014 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Head/brain biomechanics • Thorax, spine, and pelvis biomechanics • Overlap/angled frontal crash testing and real-world performance • Pedestrian and cyclist injury factors and testing • Rollover and side-impact crashes and computational modeling
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