To date, the universal metric for road safety has been historical crash data, specifically, crash frequency and severity, which are direct measures of safety. However, there are well-recognized shortcomings of the crash-based approach; its greatest drawback being that it is reactive and requires long observational periods. Surrogate measures of safety, which encompass measures of safety that do not rely on crash data, have been proposed as a proactive approach to road safety analysis. This white paper provides an overview of the concept and evolution of surrogate measures of safety, as well as the emerging and future methods and measures. This is followed by the identification of the standards needs in this discipline as well as the scope of SAE’s Surrogate Measures of Safety Committee.
Abstract Mountain road winding and bumpy, traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present curve warning system research are based on Charge-coupled Device, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability to identify the curves based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road according to the commercial vehicle characteristic of load, and the characteristics of the mass center to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map.
Abstract Although, the implementation of lift-off prevention devices such as the NASCAR roof flaps have greatly reduced the frequency and severity of race vehicle aerodynamic lift-off incidents, airborne incidents still occur occasionally in motorsports. The effectiveness of existing lift-off prevention measures and future trends in lift-off prevention are addressed in this paper. The results and analysis presented in this paper will be of paramount interest to race vehicle designers and sanctioning bodies because the effects of aerodynamics on vehicle lift-off need to be comprehended, but there exists a scarcity of reliable data in this area.
Abstract The fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles can be significantly improved by reducing the rolling resistance of tires. To reduce the rolling resistance of 6×4 tractor, the super single tires instead of rear dual wheel tires are tried. Though the field trials showed a significant increase in fuel economy by using super single tires, it posed a concern of road safety when these tires blowout during operation. Physical testing of tire blowout on vehicle is very unsafe, time consuming and expensive. Hence, a full vehicle simulation of super single tire blowout is carried out. The mechanical properties of tires such as cornering stiffness, radial stiffness and rolling resistance changes during the tire blowout; this change is incorporated in simulation using series of events that apply different gains to these mechanical properties.
Abstract The regulatory requirement in Economic Commission for Europe (ECE R58) regulation applies to the Rear underrun protection devices which are intended to be fitted to commercial vehicles of N categories. The purpose of this regulation is to offer effective protection against underrunning of vehicles. This paper describes Computer aided engineering (CAE) methodology for testing rear underrun protection devices with loading sequences to be decided by Original equipment manufacturer. A sample model is prepared and analyzed to represent actual test conditions. Constraints and boundary conditions are applied as per test of vehicle. Finite element simulation is carried out using LS DYNA solver. Structural strength and integrity of Rear under protection device assembly is observed for different regulatory load requirement.
Abstract Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated and manual driving, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a laboratory driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a story on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in people's driving performance following the different tasks. We also did not find significant differences in driving performance between the people in each age group who successfully completed the study; however, the rejection rate of the senior age group was over 30% because many of the people in this age group had difficulty hearing instructions, understanding tasks, or remembering what to do.
Cooperative Least Square Parameter Identification by Consensus within the Network of Autonomous Vehicles
In this paper, a consensus framework for cooperative parameter estimation within the vehicular network is presented. It is assumed that each vehicle is equipped with a dedicated short range communication (DSRC) device and connected to other vehicles. The improvement achieved by the consensus for parameter estimation in presence of sensor’s noise is studied, and the effects of network nodes and edges on the consensus performance is discussed. Finally, the simulation results of the introduced cooperative estimation algorithm for estimation of the unknown parameter of road condition is presented. It is shown that due to the faster dynamic of network communication, single agents’ estimation converges to the least square approximation of the unknown parameter properly.
Abstract Vehicle to vehicle communication system (V2V) can send and receive the vehicle information by wireless communication, and can use as a safety driving assist for driver. Currently, it is investigated to clarify an appropriate activation timing for collision information, caution and warning in Japan. This study focused on the activation timing of collision information (Provide objective information for safe driving to the driver) on V2V, and investigated an effective activation timing of collision information, and the relationship between the activation timing and the accuracy of the vehicle position. This experiment used Driving Simulator. The experimental scenario is four situations of (1) “Assistance for braking”, (2) “Assistance for accelerating”, (3) “Assistance for right turn” and (4) “Assistance for left turn” in blind intersection. The activation timing of collision information based on TTI (Time To Intersection) and TTC (Time To Collision).
Abstract This paper presents a vision based pedestrian detection system. The presented algorithm is a novel method that accurately segments the pedestrian regions in real time. The fact that the pedestrians are always vertically aligned is taken into consideration. As a result, the edge image is scanned from bottom to top and left to right. Both the color and edge data is combined in order to form the segments. The segmentation is highly dependent on the edge map. Even a single pixel dis-connectivity would lead to incorrect segments. To improve this, a novel edge linking method is performed prior to segmentation. The segmentation would consist of foreground and background segments as well. The background clutter is removed based on certain predefined conditions governed by the camera features. A novel edge based head detection method is proposed for increasing the probability of pedestrian detection. The combination of head and leg pattern will determine the presence of pedestrians.
Concept Design of a Quick Response System to Avoid Fatalities in Post-Collision Fire Due to Fuel-Tank Damage
Abstract This paper is an attempt to address one of the causes of catastrophic failures attributed to incidents of fire and smoke in commercial vehicles during last few years in China and India which have resulted in a considerable number of casualties. Some of the accidents encountered happened because of a crash with fire originating from the fuel tank. This was attributed to fuel leakage and excessive heat produced due to friction of debris with the fuel tank which happened within a few seconds of the crash. A Fuel-Tank Safety ECU for preventing such fire-mishaps shall be designed for spotting this failure and activating prevention methods in order. This ECU shall process the data coming from temperature-sensor and fuel-pressure sensor placed on the fuel tank of the vehicle. This real-time data shall be compared with the previously computed values and then the delta-differentiated value shall be used to conclude the likelihood of a fire-occurrence.
New Trial Analysis of Characteristics of Accidents and Traffic Violations by Elderly Drivers in Japan
The number of elderly drivers is increasing in Japan and ensuring the safety of elderly drivers is becoming an important issue. The authors previously conducted an analysis of the characteristics of accidents and traffic violations by elderly drivers based on the number of accidents in which they were rear-ended. This method was used in order to exclude the influence of driving frequency. As a result of that analysis, it was found that the likelihood of violations committed by elderly drivers was not particularly higher than in other age groups, while the likelihood of accidents caused by them was higher. The risk of causing an accident was judged to be about two times higher in elderly drivers than in the 35-44 year age group. However, the methodology presupposed that collisions in which a driver is rear-ended are accidents that occur randomly, and that they occur with the same probability in each age group.
Self-Regulation Minimizes Crash Risk from Attentional Effects of Cognitive Load during Auditory-Vocal Tasks
This study reanalyzes the data from a recent experimental report from the University of Utah investigating the effect on driving performance of auditory-vocal secondary tasks (such as cell phone and passenger conversations, speech-to-text, and a complex artificial cognitive task). The current objective is to estimate the relative risk of crashes associated with such auditory-vocal tasks. Contrary to the Utah study's assumption of an increase in crash risk from the attentional effects of cognitive load, a deeper analysis of the Utah data shows that driver self-regulation provides an effective countermeasure that offsets possible increases in crash risk. For example, drivers self-regulated their following distances to compensate for the slight increases in brake response time while performing auditory-vocal tasks. This new finding is supported by naturalistic driving data showing that cell phone conversation does not increase crash risk above that of normal baseline driving.
Experimental Investigation of Effect of Speed Governors on Fuel Consumption, Emission, Noise & Safety
India has the highest number of road accidents in the world. With over 130,000 deaths annually, the country has overtaken China and now has the worst road traffic accident rate worldwide. This has been revealed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in its Global Status Report on Road Safety pointing to speeding as the main contributing factor. This paper studies and details all the approaches for the reduction of accidents adopted by various countries and especially the necessity of speed governors in Indian vehicles and the role of the same in reduction in accidents with other benefits of speed governors with regard to fuel efficiency, noise & pollutant emissions both in Indian and International aspects. [Reference 7]
Overloading is not only a problem for larger goods vehicles, it is equally a problem for smaller vehicles, such as vans, cars and passenger carrying vehicles. Reports indicate that nearly 70% of all traffic on national highways comprise of cargo vehicles while 22% of cargo vehicles are involved in road accidents. Overloading increases the risk of traffic accidents and causes excessive wear and damage to roads, bridges, pavements etc. This paper specifies in detail the existing Indian Legislation on Overloading, different methods of monitoring, Vehicle Overload Control in other countries and India recommendations to curb Overloading of vehicles.
Buses have been main means of mass transport in organized as well as unorganized sectors in India. Though the art and science of Chassis Designing had been practiced and matured by all Indian OEMs, Body design had long not been accorded high priority by them. Till 1989, there was no comprehensive set of rules enforced. Bus designs were developed with scant regard for safety and emission. OEMs sold their products in the form of drive away chassis and the Body Design & Body Building was largely left to Body Builders, many of whom employed poor design, build and quality control practices. Spurious materials, parts, non-uniform construction resulted in number of accidents and many of them were fatal. Central Motor Vehicle Rules (CMVR) kicked-in 1st July 1989. With roll out of CMVR, various safety related features like entry/exit door, emergency exits, window frames, their locations, dimensions and designs were defined.
Collision Prevention While Driving in Real Traffic Flow Using Emotional Learning Fuzzy Inference Systems
This paper proposes a methodology for collision prevention in car following scenarios. For this purpose, Emotional Learning Fuzzy Inference System (ELFIS) approach is used to simulate and predict the behavior of a driver-vehicle-unit in a short time horizon ahead in the future. Velocity of the follower vehicle and relative distance between the follower and the lead vehicles are predicted in a parallel structure. Performance of the proposed algorithm is assessed using real traffic data and superior accuracy of this method is demonstrated through comparisons with another available technique (ANFIS). The predicted future driving states are then used to judge about safety of the current driving pattern. The algorithm is used to generate a warning message while a safe-distance keeping measure is violated in order to prevent a collision. Satisfactory performance of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulations using real traffic data.
More than 44% of all automotive crashes occur in intersections. These incidents in intersections result in more than 8,500 fatalities and approximately 1 million injuries each year in USA. It is also established that roundabouts are safer than junctions. According to a USDOT study, when compared with the junctions they replaced, roundabouts have 40% fewer vehicle collisions, 80% fewer injuries and 90% fewer serious injuries and fatalities. In earlier work, we have proposed a family of vehicular network protocols, which use Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) and Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) technologies to coordinate a vehicle's movement through intersections. We have shown that vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications can be used to avoid collisions at the intersection and also significantly decrease the trip delays introduced by traffic lights and stop signs.
This paper presents a robust method to estimate the relative distance and speed with the approaching vehicles in side and rear blind region of the vehicle for a BSDS with a vision system. Because the vehicle with same relative distance can be represented at different pixel position on the image frame according to the road curvature, a Perception Action Network has been designed based upon the lane model and the vehicle dynamics in order to recognize the rear side lanes and its curvature under ill conditioned background image. Through the various simulation studies for the proposed BSDS by using MATLAB and PRESCAN, it has been concluded that the proposed method can provide the accurate estimations of the relative distance and speed between the vehicles during lane change with satisfied error tolerance.
This paper presents a new methodology for the safety assessment of complex software intensive systems such as is envisioned for the coming major upgrade of the air traffic management system known as NextGen. This methodology is based on a new, more inclusive model of accident causation called Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Process (STAMP) . STAMP includes not just the standard component failure mechanisms but also the new ways that software and humans contribute to accidents in complex systems. A new hazard analysis method, called Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA), is built on this theoretical foundation. The STPA is based on systems theory rather than reliability theory; it treats safety as a control problem rather than a failure problem with interactive and possibly nested control loops that may include humans. In this methodology, safety is assured by closed loop control of safety parameters.
Saving Lives with V2X versus On-Board Sensing Systems -Which will be More Effective?: Technology Leadership Brief
Infrastructure systems such as vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication can theoretically prevent nearly all accidents by gathering the speed, locations, and travel directions of traffic participants, and intervening to control vehicle motion as required to help prevent collisions. However, during the phase-in of the communication systems, there will be many vehicles and many roads that do not have the communication systems in place, and therefore the system will not be effective in those cases. This lack of availability is likely the main disadvantage. On-board sensing (autonomous) systems such as cameras and radar sensors may not detect all potential hazards (e.g. due to weather, or hidden hazards), but they are effective in many situations and can help prevent crashes without depending on communication with infrastructure or other vehicles.
In this paper, the analysis has been made on the effect of the reduction of traffic accident following the installation of the red light camera. The survey was based on 2004 when the red light camera started on 13 signal intersections in 3 areas to analyze the number of accident occurrences for 2003 as pre-installation and 2005 to 2007 as the post-installation. Before and after installing the red light camera at each point, the on-site survey was made at the similar points of installed point and un-installed point, and as a result, the average speed of vehicle, dispersion and signal violation rate would be shown to decline at the installed point compared to the un-installed point compared to the pre-installation of the red light camera for average speed of vehicle, dispersion and signal violation rate.
The mission of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is to reduce crashes, injuries, and fatalities involving commercial vehicles . According to the FMCSA, the development, evaluation, and deployment of advanced safety technology will be a key to realizing this goal. Currently, there are many safety systems in development that have the potential to significantly reduce crashes on our nation's roadways. For a variety of reasons, the potential benefits that these systems may provide in reducing crashes may never be realized. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), in cooperation with FMCSA, has developed a program to evaluate promising safety technologies aimed at commercial vehicle operations (CVO). The objective of FMCSA's Advanced System Testing Utilizing a Data Acquisition System on the Highway (FAST DASH) program is to perform quick turnaround and independent evaluations of promising CVO safety technologies.
ACC radar systems gather valuable data about the speed of forward vehicles, and then utilize that information to best regulate the spacing between those forward vehicles and the ACC host. However, such radar-gathered data can also be useful to help prevent rear-end collisions involving the host vehicle. Embedded in that data is information revealing decelerations of forward vehicles that holds particular value to any driver that might be trailing the host vehicle - especially if their vision is screened by the bulk of the host vehicle. In this paper, a hybrid stop lamp system is proposed whereby ACC radar data gathered by a host vehicle is automatically conveyed to the trailing driver utilizing a new light element integrated with the host vehicle's stop lamp system.
Investigating the Improvement of the Localisation Propensity and Impact of the Emergency Vehicle Sirens
Rapid mobilization of emergency vehicles in the urban or rural road network presents a high probability of collisions and other related hazards to other drivers. Yet uninterrupted high speeds of the emergency vehicles through traffic are imperative for the successful patient transfer or negotiation of fire and flood emergencies. The utilisation of contemporary emergency vehicle sirens as an early warning system has proved inefficient and in some cases unsafe as the localisation characteristics of siren patterns, combined with ambient noise, has a detrimental effect on the average driver's ability to spatially define the position of the incoming emergency vehicle. This paper examines the inherent issues in the localisation of the incoming emergency vehicle audible warning systems and suggests a prototype system for faster localisation propensity of the incoming vehicle.
Sound localization of a backup alarm is important in situations when vehicles are reversing. Previous work has demonstrated the effects of ambient noise level and the spectral content of the backup alarm on localization. In the current study, we investigate the effects of backup alarm mounting location on localization performance. To address this question, we asked blindfolded listeners to localize backup alarms installed in positions that provided either direct (e.g., installed on the outer rear aspect of the vehicle) or indirect (e.g., installed within the inner frame rails of the vehicle) sound propagation paths to the listener. Additionally, we explored the effects of ambient noise level and the direction of origin of the alarm (behind, in front of, or to the left or right of the listener), and the interactions among all three factors (alarm location, ambient noise, and alarm direction relative to the listener).