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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2811
Tingjun Hu, Ho Teng, Xuwei Luo, Chun Lu, Jiankun Luo
Abstract The relationship between fuel dilution of the crankcase oil and low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) was studied experimentally with a highly-boosted 1.8L turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine fueled with RON93 gasoline. It was found that properties of oil particles entered the engine cylinder were affected significantly by fuel dilution. The gasoline content in the oil represents those with long carbon chain or heavy species in gasoline, with much lower boiling points and auto ignition temperatures than those for the undiluted engine oil. Thus, dilution of the engine oil by these gasoline species lowers the volatility and the minimum auto ignition temperature of the engine oil. With 15% fuel content in the oil, the flash point and the fire point of the SAE 5W30 oil dropped from 245 °C to 90 °C and from 265 °C to 150 °C, respectively.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2041
Vishnu Vijayakumar, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Reji Mathai, Shyam Singh, A K Sehgal
In this paper, the characteristics of particle size distribution in the exhaust of a turbocharged 5.9 liter Cummins gas engine lubricated by two commonly used oils of different viscometrics (15W-40 and 20W-50) have been investigated. The study also attempts to differentiate the performance of the lubricants on the basis of fuel economy. A test procedure developed in- house was used for the evaluation, wherein the engine was operated at various speeds (1200-2800rpm) and load (25 %, 50% & 75%) conditions. Particle size distribution is measured using Engine Exhaust Particle Sizing Spectrometer (TSI EEPS Model 3090). Results indicate that a majority of the particle emissions are observed in the nucleation region (particle diameter < 50nm) and particle size distribution is found to significantly vary with engine speed.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2784
Ben Leach, Richard Pearson
Abstract Rising fuel prices and changes to CO2 and fuel economy legislation have prompted an interest in the electrification of vehicles since this can significantly improve vehicle tailpipe CO2 emissions over homologation test cycles. To this end plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and range extended electric vehicles (REEVs) have been introduced to the market. The operation of the engines in these vehicles differs from conventional vehicles in several key ways. This study was conducted to better understand how the engine design and control strategy of these vehicles affects the temperature and operating regimes experienced by engine crankcase lubricants. A Toyota Prius Plug-in PHEV and GM Volt REEV were tested on a chassis dynamometer over several legislated and pseudo ‘real world’ drive cycles to determine the operating strategy and behaviour of the powertrain. The lubricant and coolant temperatures were monitored, together with other key control parameters.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1216
Jean-Paul Zammit, Paul J. Shayler, Richard Gardiner, Ian Pegg
Reducing friction in crankshaft bearings during cold engine operation by heating the oil supply to the main gallery has been investigated through experimental investigations and computational modelling. The experimental work was undertaken on a 2.4l DI diesel engine set up with an external heat source to supply hot oil to the gallery. The aim was to raise the film temperature in the main bearings early in the warm up, producing a reduction in oil viscosity and through this, a reduction in friction losses. The effectiveness of this approach depends on the management of heat losses from the oil. Heat transfer along the oil pathway to the bearings, and within the bearings to the journals and shells, reduces the benefit of the upstream heating.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0613
Jun Sun, Xiaoyong zhao, Hu Wang
There is the direct interaction between the crankshaft and the crankshaft bearing in an internal combustion engine. Current lubrication analysis of the crankshaft bearing was generally limited in the tribology discipline, only the factors relating to the bearing were considered, and the journal axis was generally supposed to be parallel to the centerline of bearing. In reality, the crankshaft deformation under load will result in the journal misalignment in the bearing. Although the journal misalignment was considered in a few of the lubrication analyses of crankshaft bearings, the causes of journal misalignment were usually thought to be caused by the manufacture, the assembly errors and the deformation of cylinder block. In order to simplify the problem, the journal misalignment was generally assumed to have constant magnitude and direction in an operating cycle of engine.
2008-10-06
Journal Article
2008-01-2480
Satoru Yoshida, Yasushi Naitoh
The addition of molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) to engine oil improves the fuel consumption of vehicles. However, this is also widely known to cause deposit accretion in the Thermo-Oxidation Engine Oil Simulation Test (TEOST 33C). Thus the effects of additives on TEOST 33C and elemental analysis of the deposits were evaluated to analyze the deposit formation mechanism in TEOST 33C by engine oil containing MoDTC. An elemental analysis of deposits revealed that most consisted of carbide and contained small amounts of molybdenum compounds. Deposit accretion was not caused due to the remarkable increase of compounds derived from MoDTC. It was assumed that they acted as a decomposition catalyst under high temperature and induced carbide to be deposited.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2481
Theodore W. Selby, Gregory C. Miiller
Low-temperature engine oil pumpability has been a concern for OEMs, engine oil formulators, and additive manufacturers for a number of years particularly since a significant number of air-binding failures in 1980 and '81. On careful investigation of the cause of such field failures, it was found that oil sensitivity to a particular combination of weather conditions was responsible. The experience also suggested that many other low-temperature weather conditions might produce engine-damaging gelation. Thus, it seemed desirable to develop a bench test that would induce and measure gelation that might form in engine oil by continuously measuring slowly cooling oil over an extensive low-temperature range. This led to the development of the Scanning Brookfield Technique (SBT) first reported in 1982.
2008-10-06
Journal Article
2008-01-2460
Mark T. Devlin, Allen A. Aradi, Jeffrey M. Guevremont, Tze-Chi Jao, Victor Abdelsayed, M. Samy ElShall
Many vehicle and engine test studies have shown that the fuel efficiency of automobiles can be improved by reducing friction between moving parts. Typically, organic friction modifiers such as glycerol monooleate (GMO) or metal containing friction modifiers such as molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) have been added to engine oils to reduce boundary friction and improve fuel efficiency. These traditional friction modifiers act by forming either a self-assembled organic film (in the case of GMO) or a Mo-disulfide chemical film (in the case of MoDTC). More recently, the ability of inorganic tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanoparticles to reduce boundary friction has been described. Martin has proposed that WS2 nanoparticles are transported into a contact zone where they are compressed and peel open like an onion to form a film. In this study, oil-soluble inorganic nanoparticles containing cerium (Ce) and zinc (Zn) have been synthesized.
2008-04-01
Technical Paper
2008-01-2757
Rajesh Murukesan
Degradation and contamination of the lube oil are the major causes of failure in IC engines. Increases in contaminant levels and changes in fluid properties can be both an indicator of deteriorating component conditions and a cause of component failure. Environmental pollution by an IC engine is related, largely, to the engine's condition, which in turn depends largely on its lubricating system. This work investigates the possibility of using the dielectric property of lubricating oils to decide upon its lubricating quality. The suggested system, consisting of a submerged dielectric sensor, a controller and a display, informs the driver about the real time condition of the oil. The cheap system helps take advantage of entire oil life and prevent over usage of lube oil.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-32-0118
Hiroshi Enomoto, Hiroyuki Motoi, Kyohei Takahashi, Koichiro Saito, Masahiko Yashiro
The turbocharged 4-stroke internal combustion engine was developed for FSAE, the annual collegiate racing competition. The dry sump lubricant system with the custom scavenge pump, KF-SC07, was designed. The crank axle height was 192mm, 76.5% of KF2004. Custom cam-shafts were designed making the torque fluctuation decreased less than 50% of KF2005. The compression ratio was changed. And the maximum boost pressure and the maximum torque gain were 25kPa (0.25 kgf/cm2) and 11%, respectively.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-32-0077
Mark F. WILKES, Nigel J. BRITTON, Christopher TRAVIS, Richard C. CHADWICK
In response to increasingly stringent emissions legislation, rapid advances in four-stroke hardware technology are leading to the development of new lubricant appetites and severities, primarily due to the motorcycle lubricant being common to the gear-box and clutch in addition to the crankcase. These changes are driving motorcycle and passenger car lubricant performance needs in different directions. Ultimately, this divergence of performance requirements may result in the need to use lubricants specifically formulated for motorcycle hardware, and a requirement for application specific performance tests. This paper describes the development of a high-performance motorcycle engine test to generate application-specific lubricant performance data, including data logging a motorcycle on a race-track, designing a test-rig to run a dynamic cycle, and finally, replicating the race severity logged cycle in the engine test.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4141
Howard L. Fang, Shawn D. Whitacre, Elaine S. Yamaguchi, Maarten Boons
Pure biodiesel fuel (B100) is typically made of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). FAME has different physical properties as compared to mineral diesel such as higher surface tension, lower volatility and higher specific gravity. These differences lead to a larger droplet size and thus more wall impingement of the fuel during injection in the combustion chamber. This results in higher levels of fuel dilution as the oil is scraped down into the crankcase by the scraper ring. The lower volatility also makes biodiesel more difficult to evaporate once it enters the crankcase. For these reasons, levels of fuel dilution in biodiesel fueled engines are likely to be higher compared to mineral diesel fueled engines. When in-cylinder dosing is applied to raise the exhaust temperature required for the regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF's), biodiesel dilution in the engine oil may be elevated to high levels.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4143
Cory B. Phillips, J. Scott McQueen, Hong Gao, Robert T. Stockwell, Bryant J. Hardy, Mary E. Graham
It is generally accepted that significant gains in fuel economy can be accomplished by reducing friction between the moving surfaces in key engine components (e.g. valvetrain, piston, crankshaft). This paper provides an overview of how specific tribological/rheological properties (e.g. viscosity, volatility, friction coefficient, film thickness, wear volume) can be considered in the design of fuel efficient crankcase engine lubricants that promote high wear resistance. Here, an example in how base stock, viscosity modifier (VM) and friction modifier (FM) can impact the surface friction is given. Friction and wear measurements from bench level lubrication characterization test methods mainly, high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) and mini-traction machine (MTM), are presented.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4142
Andrew G. Smith, Gordon D. Lamb
This paper describes the effectiveness of an array of dispersant viscosity modifiers (DVMs) in controlling soot-related viscosity increase. Using a controlled stress rheometer in conjunction with rotational and oscillatory rheological methods the DVM chemistries were assessed. A Cummins M11 engine fitted with EGR was used to generate a DVM-free, heavily sooted oil. Evaluation was achieved by subsequent addition of DVM to this drain oil. A yield stress test was employed to evaluate the flow curve of each, with good dispersant viscosity modifiers displaying improved rotational viscosity at the yield point. An oscillation technique was employed to evaluate the elastic modulus (G′) and the viscous modulus (G″) which together contribute to the overall fluid behavior. Clear differentiation was achieved for the range of DVMs tested with regards to their ability to disperse soot, with DVMs 1 and 3 performing the best when equivalent active polymer concentration were compared.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4036
Morgan Andreae, Howard Fang, Kirtan Bhandary
In this work fuel dilution of engine oil, and the impact of biodiesel fuel on dilution, were examined. New emissions requirements have driven the adoption of a range of aftertreatment systems for diesel engines. These aftertreatment devices in many cases have specific requirements for exhaust composition and temperature. Meeting these requirements can lead to fuel dilution of the engine oil. Measurement of fuel dilution of engine oil can be challenging, and in this study a new strategy for utilizing Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was examined. A synthetic component of aviation oil, pentaerythritol ester (PE), was found to be a very useful tracer for measuring dilution with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), but not useful for measuring dilution with B20. Fuel dilution and evaporation rates were measured for both ULSD and for a blend of biodiesel and ULSD (B20).
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4107
Ewa A. Bardasz, Elizabeth Schiferl, William Nahumck, Jack Kelley, Lewis Williams, Carolyn P. Hubbard, Eva Thanasiu, Mark Jagner, Ann O'Neill, Dairene Uy
Phosphorus is known to reduce effectiveness of the three-way catalysts (TWC) commonly used by automotive OEMs. This phenomenon is referred to as catalyst deactivation. The process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) decomposes in an engine creating many phosphorus species, which eventually interact with the active sites of exhaust catalysts. This phosphorous comes from both oil consumption and volatilization. Novel low-volatility ZDDP is designed in such a way that the amounts of volatile phosphorus species are significantly reduced while their antiwear and antioxidant performances are maintained. A recent field trial conducted in New York City taxi cabs provided two sets of “aged” catalysts that had been exposed to GF-4-type formulations. The trial compared fluids formulated with conventional and low-volatility ZDDPs. Results of field test examination were reported in an earlier paper (1).
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4092
Ion C. Halalay, Eric W. Schneider
The time dependence of the electrical properties for several fully formulated engine oils was tracked during engine dynamometer tests. The pattern for the resistivity indicates the existence of two types of processes (fast ion-depleting and slow ion-releasing) whose existence cannot be inferred through standard engine oil analysis. After these processes have subsided, the change in the resistivity correlates with the change in oil viscosity. We show that the peak value of the resistivity at early test times correlates with oil performance longevity as determined from conventional oil analysis parameters. In addition, the permittivity can provide an early warning of a dangerously low oil level. The significance of the results and their consequences for on-board monitoring of oil life through sensing technology based on electrical ac impedance measurements are discussed.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4091
Yosuke Okuyama, Koichiro Aikawa, Wataru Hoshikawa, Masashi Maruyama
The research discussed in this paper revealed a strong correlation between the anti-oxidation performance of engine oils and sludge production. The results of NOx bubbling tests and engine bench tests showed that the main factors in the deterioration of anti-oxidation performance are heat, air, NOx, and unburnt fuel. Detailed analysis indicated that the rate of deterioration of anti-oxidation performance could be expressed as formulas. The use of these deterioration rate formulas to calculate the deterioration in anti-oxidation performance in a real engine showed that the formulas could be employed in a monitoring system. The use of these estimation methods of oil anti-oxidation performance by the engine control unit (ECU) would enable onboard estimation of oil deterioration.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4079
Gregory H. Guinther, Michael M. Danner
An engine test has been developed to assess the impact of volatile phosphorus from passenger car engine oils on catalytic converter efficiency. The ten-day, steady-state, catalyst aging test was established to promote the production and consumption of volatile phosphorus species contained in crankcase vapors that are evacuated and combusted via the PCV system. A system for sampling, analyzing and identifying crankcase vapors led to a greater understanding of the phosphorus-based poisoning mechanism. Catalytic converter conversion efficiency was assessed through an engine-based system that swept catalyst inlet temperature from low to high while using a constant flow of controlled exhaust gas. The test results indicate correct ranking of field-tested oils that have catalyst poisoning data.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4078
Jeffrey M. Guevremont, Greg Guinther, Tze-Chi Jao, Tim Herlihy, Richard White, Jim Howe
The poisoning of three way catalysts (TWC) by the phosphorus contained in oil formulations containing zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) is examined. Catalysts were exposed to various types of ZDDP and detergents under conditions that were known to reduce performance through phosphorus poisoning without the blocking of sites by formation of glazing. The presence of phosphorus was detected with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In addition to analyzing the surface concentration of the phosphorus on the washcoat, the catalyst was cross cut so phosphorus that diffused into the washcoat could be mapped. The total phosphorus in the catalyst could then be calculated. The amount of total phosphorus detected correlated well with the reduced activity of the catalyst as measured by the temperature of 50% conversion.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4133
A. K. Gangopadhyay, R. O. Carter, D. Uy, S. J. Simko, M. Riley, C. B. Phillips, H. Gao
Engine oils are subjected to a series of industry standard engine dynamometer tests to measure their wear protection capability, sludge and varnish formation tendencies, and fuel efficiency among several other performance attributes before they are approved for use in customer engines. However, these performance attributes are measured at the end of tests and therefore, do not provide any information on how the properties have changed during the tests. In one of our previous studies it was observed that engine oil samples collected from fleet vehicles after 12,000 mile drain interval showed 10-15 % lower friction and more importantly, an order of magnitude lower wear rate than those of fresh oils. It was also observed that the composition of the tribochemical films formed was quite different on the surface tested with the drain oils from those formed with fresh oils.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4135
Jian-Qiang Hu, Yi-Qin Hu, Zheng-Hui Qiu, Yuan-Bao Sun
The antioxidation properties of molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate (M 807)- and p,p-dioctyldiphenylalmine (V 81)- or mixed octylated and butylated diphenylalmines (V 961)-containing poly-α-olefin (PAO)-derived lubricants were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and modified penn state micro-oxidation test (PMOT). DSC test measures incipient oxidation temperature (OT) and oxidation induction time (IT) of the lubricant at high temperatures and the oxidation stability of oil weight loss is measured by PMOT test. DSC test shows that OT and IT of V 81-or V 961-containing PAO were improved significantly by M 807 addition. PMOT test indicates that when combining with V 81 antioxidants, M 807 can also effectively reduce the increase in weight loss of PAO and deposits formed in oils. These results suggest that M 807 shows a good antioxidative synergism with alkylated diphenylamine antioxidants.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4001
W. Michael Burk, Brigdon D. Domonkos, Kieron Donnelly, David A Duncan, Matthew D. Gieselman, Darryl T. Gundic, Jess R. Hamilton, Douglas T. Jayne, Michael Sutton
With the increasing use of modern, EGR-equipped, heavy-duty diesel engines and the use of lower sulfur and alternate fuels, such as biodiesel, lubricants are being exposed to a range of different compositions of acids. To complement the traditional detergent bases, todays lubricants have evolved to include a higher proportion of basic materials from amine-derived sources to aid in oxidation and soot control. This paper explores the impact of the different sources of acids, some of the issues they create and how they can be addressed, exemplified in a prototype CJ-4 lubricant formulation.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-3999
W. van Dam, Feijens de Vries, J. A. van Leeuwen, K. Narasaki
Over the last decades, heavy duty diesel engines have experienced many changes in design and operation. More stringent emission legislation has been a driver for changes in the design of heavy duty diesel engines since the 1980s. Optimization of the combustion process and the introduction of exhaust gas recirculation allowed for significant reductions of exhaust emission levels over the years, but the thermal loading of the engine and its lubricant has increased. In the coming years, diesel engines will have to meet even more stringent requirements for particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions. These low emission diesel engines are expected to be equipped with exhaust gas after-treatment systems.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4002
Kenneth Oxorn, Mark W. Cooper, Wim Van Dam, Scott M. Richards
The API has established lubricant specifications, which include standard tests for ring and liner wear. The Mack T-10 is one such test, performed on a prototype engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). At EOT, the liner wear is measured by profilometry, while the ring wear is measured by weight loss. It was decided to monitor the wear of the rings and liners during a full-length T10 test in order to observe the evolution of the wears and wear rates over the course of the test, by using the Surface Layer Activation (SLA) and Bulk Activation (BA) techniques. Three different radioisotopes were created, one in the liners at the turnaround zone, one in the chromium-containing coating on the ring faces, and one in the iron bulk of the rings. This enabled us to observe the wear characteristics of these three components separately. In particular, we were able to separate the face and side ring wears, which cannot be done with simple weight-loss measurements.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4134
Mike Sutton, Jody A. Kocsis, Isao Nakagawa
Requirements to improve vehicle fuel economy continue to increase, spurred on by agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol. Lubricants can play a role in aiding fuel economy, as evidenced by the rise in the number of engine oil specifications that require fuel economy improvements. Part of this improvement is due to achieving suitable viscometric properties in the lubricant, but additional improvements can be made using friction modifier (FM) compounds. The use of FMs in lubricants is not new, with traditional approaches being oleochemical-based derivatives such as glycerol mono-oleate and molybdenum-based compounds. However, to achieve even greater improvements, new new friction modifying compounds are needed to help deliver the full potential required from next generation lubricants. This work looks at the potential improvements available from new FM technology over and above the traditional FM compounds.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0134
David R Merritt, Omar Mian, Ducai Wang
This paper attempts to address the limitations of quasi-static elastohydrodynamic (EHD) bearing lubrication analysis where the structural inertia of the distributed rod mass is neglected. A procedure is outlined where the big-end bearing distortions due to the structural inertia are pre-calculated using the finite element (FE) method and then included in a subsequent EHD analysis via a dynamic deformation file. The effect on results in terms of oil film thickness and pressure are investigated for a 2.0L gasoline engine. A validation is presented showing good comparison of the EHD bore shape with an instrumented engine test and also a full dynamic FE model. The conclusion is made that distributed inertia effects become significant above 3000rpm and that the outlined method is valid for including such effects.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0110
Elias Vouitsis, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Zissis Samaras, Loukia Chrysikou, Constantini Samara, George Miltsios
This paper investigates the effect of lubrication oil on the physical and chemical characteristics of the particulate matter (PM) emitted from a Euro 4 diesel vehicle. Two different lubrication oils were examined. A fully synthetic ACEA grade B3 service-fill oil of low sulfur content (1760 ppm wt.) falling into the OW-40 SAE viscosity grade and a mineral ACEA B2-98 motor oil of high sulfur (8890 ppm wt.), falling into the 15W-40 SAE viscosity grade. To exclude interferences from the fuel derived sulfur, a rather sulfur-free fuel (< 10 ppm wt.) was used in the experiments. The experiments included steady state tests, the certification cycle and real-world highspeed transient driving conditions. The properties measured included total particle mass collected on Teflon-coated filters, total particle number measured by a condensation particle counter, size distributions determined by a scanning mobility particle sizer.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1992
Hirotaka Yamasaki, Motoharu Ishikawa, Hideki Kamano, Hiroaki Koshima, Shinya Iizuka
Engine oil combined with SPZn instead of ZnDTP shows excellent total base number (TBN) retention in oxidation and NOx gas bubbling tests. The wear resistance of engine oil combined with SPZn was similar to oil combined with ZnDTP in a four-ball test. Prototype engine oils with 1.0 wt% of sulfated ash and 0.04wt%-0.09wt% of SPZn-derived phosphorus were prepared and a JASO valve train wear test was performed on them. The wear resistance of engine oil including SPZn with P = 0.09 wt% was greater than that of engine oil including ZnDTP. This result shows the possibility of reduce the phosphorus in engine oil by using SPZn.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1991
Teppei Tsujimoto, Akira Yaguchi, Kazuhiro Yagishita
The authors have spent considerable time studying the sulfur-free additive ZP as a means to improve the environmental properties of engine oils. ZP is an alternative compound to ZDDP, which has been a key engine oil additive for over 50 years. The ZP molecule contains oxygen in place of the sulfur found in ZDDP. In our past studies, various engine tests confirmed that ZP-blend engine oils outperform ZDDP-blend oils in terms of long-life and fuel-saving properties. Moreover, by using ZP, levels of sulfur can be reduced without sacrificing the oils' primary performance characteristics, so there less of an adverse effect on emission control systems, and lower levels of vehicle emissions can be achieved. We conducted field tests involving dozens of vehicles to verify the fuel economy retention and long-life performance of ZP oils. We report the results in this paper.
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