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2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0219
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Abstract Starting January 2015 the government of the United Kingdom will allow driverless cars on public roads. From a first glance this can and should be seen as a great step towards the adoption of autonomous vehicles. Yet as any new technology driverless vehicles carry with them many new risks and disadvantages that need to be understood and protected against in order for the introduction of said systems into the market place to be a long lasting and fruitful one. The present work will look at the possible safety and security risks posed by the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems on the open road, motivated by the fact that many projected autonomous vehicle concept systems rely on them for object detection and avoidance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0217
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Abstract To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0307
Hongfeng Wang, Lei He, Qianfei Liu, Changfu Zong
Abstract Nowadays active collision avoidance has become a major focus of research, and a variety of detection and tracking methods of obstacles in front of host vehicle have been applied to it. In this paper, laser radars are chosen as sensors to obtain relevant information, after which an algorithm used to detect and track vehicles in front is provided. The algorithm determines radar's ROI (Region of Interest), then uses a laser radar to scan the 2D space so as to obtain the information of the position and the distance of the targets which could be determined as obstacles. The information obtained will be filtered and then be transformed into cartesian coordinates, after that the coordinate point will be clustered so that the profile of the targets can be determined. A threshold will be set to judge whether the targets are obstacles or not. Last Kalman filter will be used for target tracking. To verify the presented algorithm, related experiments have been designed and carried out.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0313
Ugo Rosolia, Francesco Braghin, Andrew Alleyne, Edoardo Sabbioni
Abstract This paper presents a nonlinear control approach to achieve good performances in vehicle path following and collision avoidance when the vehicle is driving under cruise highway conditions. Nonlinear model predictive control (NLMPC) is adopted to achieve online trajectory control based on a simplified vehicle model. GMRES/Continuation algorithm is used to solve the online optimization problem. Simulations show that the proposed controller is capable of tracking the desired path as well as avoiding the obstacles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1414
Jitendra Shah, Mohamed Benmimoun
In the framework of large scale project interactIVe co-funded by the European Commission Ford has developed an active safety system for the supported and autonomous avoidance of rear end collisions by intervention of braking and steering systems. This paper focuses on the assessment of threat perceived by drivers in collision avoidance situation. The decision making related to the initiation of the interventions by driver is crucial to understand how much threat is the driver can hold. The study has helped to understand how driver feels a threat arising from environment. It is a step towards autonomous driving where the system interventions have to be initiated as early as possible in order to avoid the collision and avoid unstable vehicle dynamics situations. In parallel the reaction has to be delayed long enough until it is likely that the driver will no longer intervene or respectively he is no longer able to intervene. For this reason an experiment is conducted with 26 subjects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1406
Mikael Ljung Aust, Lotta Jakobsson, Magdalena Lindman, Erik Coelingh
This paper presents and discusses the continuous evolution of the developments in the area of collision avoidance systems. Collision avoidance systems have been on the market for a decade, and the development has been rapid. Starting with forward collision warning with brake support targeting vehicles moving in the same direction in front of the car, collision avoidance systems now cover pedestrians and cyclists in front of the car as well as vehicles standing still and even some situations of approaching vehicles in crossings. The development up to date, along with future challenges, are described and discussed according to challenge areas; e.g. detection, decision strategy and intervention strategy. Also, ways of assessing system effects are discussed. Numerous studies have been made predicting the effect of different systems, and the real world effects of these systems have been shown to be significant.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0006
Ramsundar K Ganesan, Dilip Krishna Natesan, Arjun Raj, Nambiraj Sekar, Nardhini Shanmuga Sundaram
Abstract This paper presents an image processing approach to detect obstacles on road using a monocular IR camera. Since potholes and speed bumps are the two major obstacles on roads, the proposed method focuses mainly on detecting them. Shadows are the major challenge in image processing because their presence in the image frame may lead to false results. A simple method to compensate shadows has also been proposed. Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV), developed by Intel is used for implementation of the algorithm. The major target application area could be the powered two wheeler segment in emerging markets, where potholes and speed bumps might be a potential cause for accidents. Another application can be to upload the pothole information on to a cloud to provide intelligent navigation information via Global Positioning System (GPS).
2014-12-09
WIP Standard
J850
Fixed rigid barrier collisions can represent severe automotive impacts. Deceleration conditions during fixed rigid barrier collisions are more readily reproducible than those occurring during impacts with yielding barriers. Barrier collision tests are conducted on automotive vehicles to obtain information of value in reducing occupant injuries and in evaluating structural integrity. The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to establish sufficient standardization of barrier collision methods so that results of similar tests conducted at different facilities can be compared. The barrier device may be of almost any configuration, such as flat, round, offset, etc.
2014-11-24
WIP Standard
J2400
Forward Collision Warning (FCW) systems are onboard systems intended to provide alerts to assist drivers in avoiding striking the rear end of another moving or stationary motorized vehicle. This SAE Information Report describes elements for a FCW operator interface, as well as requirements and test methods for systems capable of warning drivers of rear-end collisions. This Information Report applies to original equipment and aftermarket FCW systems for passenger vehicles including cars, light trucks, and vans. This report does not apply to heavy trucks. Furthermore, this document does not address integration issues associated with adaptive cruise control (ACC), and consequently, aspects of the document could be inappropriate for an ACC system integrated with a FCW system.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2380
Joshua L. Every, M. Kamel Salaani, Frank S. Barickman, Devin H. Elsasser, Dennis A. Guenther, Gary J. Heydinger, Sughosh J. Rao
Dynamic Brake Support (DBS) is a safety system that has been applied to various passenger cars and has been shown to be effective at assisting drivers in avoiding or mitigating rear-end collisions. The objective of a DBS system is to ensure that the brake system is applied quickly and at sufficient pressure when a driver responds to a collision imminent situation. DBS is capable of improving braking response due to a passenger car driver's tendency to utilize multi-stage braking. Interest is developing in using DBS on commercial vehicles. In order to evaluate the possible improvement in safety that could be realized through the use of DBS, driver braking behavior must first be analyzed to confirm that improvement is possible and necessary. To determine if this is the case, a study of the response of truck drivers' braking behavior in collision imminent situations is conducted. This paper presents the method of evaluation and results.
2014-09-17
Standard
J994_201409
The scope of this SAE Standard is the definition of the functional, environmental, and life cycle test requirements for electrically operated backup alarm devices primarily intended for use on off-road, self propelled work machines as defined by SAE J1116 (limited to categories of 1) construction, and 2) general purpose industrial). This purpose of this document is to define a set of performance requirements for backup alarms, independent of machine usage. The laboratory tests defined in this document are intended to provide a uniform and repeatable means of verifying whether or nor a test alarm meets the stated requirements. For on-machine requirements and test procedures, refer to SAE J 1446.
2014-06-17
Magazine
DuPont: from art to part DuPont's newly appointed global automotive technology director Jeffrey Sternberg, in conversation with Ian Adcock. Igniting the creative spark Ryan Gehm and Lindsay Brooke report on breakthrough technologies at the SAE Congress. Winning ways Ian Adcock exclusively reveals the newly formed Williams Advanced Engineering facility. Driverless future: steering a safe course Google unleashing 100 driverless, motorised pods on to the road has put the need for rigorous safety standards centre stage, as Ian Adcock reports
2014-04-01
Collection
Active Safety & Advanced Driver Assistance Systems help prevent accidents or mitigate accident severity. Some of these safety systems provide alerts to the driver in critical situations, while others respond to threats by automatically braking and steering the vehicle to avoid crashes. This technical paper collection covers the latest technologies in active safety and driver assistance systems.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0149
Chi-Chun Yao, Jin-Yan Hsu, Yu-Sheng Liao, Ming Hung Li
Abstract Vehicle Rollover Prevention/Warning Systems have recently been an important topic in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) of automotive electronics field. This paper will propose a rollover-prevention system implementation with vehicle dynamic model, video-detection technique and rollover index to help the driver avoid accidents as driving into a curve. Due to the reason that vehicle rollover motion analysis needs complicated computation and accurate parameters of vehicle stability in real time, in the first stage a vehicle dynamic model based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is built, which can estimate vehicle roll/yaw motion in the curve by vehicle sensors. And then the image-based technique will be employed in detecting the front road curvature, and combined in the system to predict vehicle steering status. The final stage is to apply the vehicle rollover index with estimated vehicle motion to predict the dangerous level to drivers for warning.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0163
Stanley Chien, Qiang Yi, David Good, Ali Gholamjafari, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony
Abstract While the number of traffic fatalities as a whole continues to decline steadily over time, the number of pedestrian fatalities continues to rise (up 8% since 2009) and comprises a larger fraction of these fatalities. In 2011 there were 4,432 pedestrians killed and an estimated 69,000 pedestrian injuries [1]. A new generation of Pedestrian Pre-Collision Systems (PCS) is being introduced by car manufactures to mitigate pedestrian injuries and fatalities. In order to evaluate the performance of pedestrian PCS, The Transportation Active Safety Institute (TASI) at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis is developing a set of test scenarios and procedures for evaluating the performance of pedestrian PCS with the support of the Collaborative Safety Research Center of Toyota. Pedestrian crashes are complex in that there are many aspects about location, driver behavior, and pedestrian behaviors that may have implications for the performance of the PCS.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0164
Cheng-Lung Lee, Hongyi Zhang, Hong Nguyen, Yu-Ting Wu, Christopher Smalley, Utayba Mohammad, Mark J. Paulik
Abstract A novel multi-modal scene segmentation algorithm for obstacle identification and masking is presented in this work. A co-registered data set is generated from monocular camera and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensors. This calibrated data enables 3D scene information to be mapped to time-synchronized 2D camera images, where discontinuities in the ranging data indicate the increased likelihood of obstacle edges. Applications include Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) which address lane-departure, pedestrian protection and collision avoidance and require both high-quality image segmentation and computational efficiency. Simulated and experimental results that demonstrate system performance are presented.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0157
Mengmeng Yu, Guanglin Ma
In this paper, we present a real-time 360 degree surround system with parking aid feature, which is a very convenient parking and blind spot aid system. In the proposed system, there are four fisheye cameras mounted around a vehicle to cover the whole surrounding area. After correcting the distortion of four fisheye images and registering all images on a planar surface, a flexible stitching method was developed to smooth the seam of adjacent images away to generate a high-quality result. In the post-process step, a unique brightness balance algorithm was proposed to compensate the exposure difference as the images are not captured with the same exposure condition. In addition, a unique parking guidance feature is applied on the surround view scene by utilizing steering wheel angle information as well as vehicle speed information.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0158
David LeBlanc, Mark Gilbert, Stephen Stachowski, Rini Sherony
Pre-collision systems (PCS) use forward-looking sensors to detect the location and motion of vehicles ahead and provide a sequence of actions to help the driver either avoid striking the rear-end of another vehicle or mitigate the severity of the crash. The actions include driver alerts, amplification of driver braking as distance decreases (dynamic brake support, DBS), and automatic braking if the driver has not acted or has not acted sufficiently (crash imminent braking, CIB). Recent efforts by various organizations have sought to define PCS objective test procedures and test equipment in support of consumer information programs and potential certification. This paper presents results and insights from conducting DBS and CIB tests on two production vehicles sold in the US. Eleven scenarios are used to assess the systems' performance. The two systems' performance shows that commercial systems can be quite different.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0554
Lotta Jakobsson, Magdalena Lindman, Anders Axelson, Bengt Lokensgard, Mats Petersson, Bo Svanberg, Jordanka Kovaceva
Run off road events are frequent and can result in severe consequences. The reasons for leaving the road are numerous and the sequence the car is exerted to differs in most events. The objective of this study is to identify different situations and mechanisms both in respect to accident avoidance and occupant protection and to present test methods addressing the different identified mechanisms of run off road occupant safety. Mechanisms and influencing factors are identified using statistical and in-depth crash data as well as driving data. There are a number of reasons for leaving the road; driver fatigue, driver distraction and inadequate speed in relation to the traffic situation to mention a few. An outline of principle test methods for evaluating technology assisting the driver to stay on the road is presented in relation to the identified situations and mechanisms. Crash test methods for some typical run off road scenarios are suggested.
2014-03-21
Magazine
Downsizing: the heat is off Ian Adcock discovers why a material developed in the nuclear industry could prove a real boon for OEMs as they look to downsize engines. Lightweight champions Could an alloy with the strength of steel, but as light as aluminium, prove to be a game changer for the automotive industry? Ian Adcock investigates. Road fatalities: eliminating the human factor In a new series on vehicle safety, Ian Adcock looks at the need for more driver intervention systems.
2013-12-10
Book
Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen
Advances in Intelligent Vehicles presents recent advances in intelligent vehicle technologies that enhance the safety, reliability, and performance of vehicles and vehicular networks and systems. This book provides readers with up-to-date research results and cutting-edge technologies in the area of intelligent vehicles and transportation systems. Topics covered include virtual and staged testing scenarios, collision avoidance, human factors, and modeling techniques.
2013-11-01
Book
This title carries the papers developed for the 2013 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Thoracic biomechanics • Neck injury biomechanics • Computational injury biomechanics • Biomechanical injury data analysis • Restraint and protective system injury assessment and evaluation • Development of future vehicle safety features
2013-10-22
WIP Standard
J2808
The Road/Lane Departure Warning System is a crash-avoidance technology which warns drivers if they are drifting (or have drifted) out of their lane or from the road. This warning system is designed to help prevent the possibility of a run-off-road crash. This system will not take control of the vehicle; it will only let the driver know that he/she needs to steer back into the lane. This warning system is not designed as a lane-change monitor, or a merging system which warns of other vehicles. This informational report applies to OEM and after-market Road/Lane Departure warning systems for light-duty vehicles on relatively straight roads with a radius of curvature of 500m or more, and under good weather conditions. Future revisions should consider the implications of newer variations on the user experience.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0651
Alessandro Cezar Pinto, Cleber Willian Gomes, Daiane de Lima Dantas de Souza, Diogo Pereira da Silva, Geovanni Vezzaro Mattioli
From simple collisions to major tragedies, car accidents happen every day. Automobile industry has been investing a lot in security systems (e.g., airbags, ABS brakes, vehicle proximity warning systems). However, drivers are still the ones who have to act in order to avoid collisions, by using the brakes or maneuvering the car. The purpose of this project is to develop an anti-collision logic that can be used on automobile vehicles to avoid collisions with both static and moving objects by interfering on the vehicle behavior. The control system is based on a fuzzy modeled controller using the MATLAB and Simulink tools from Math Works. The prototype chosen to test the logic was the Robotino, a mobile robot system made by Festo Didactic, and used for educational, training and research purposes. Robotino is able to integrate to Simulink tool natively, and provides out-of-the-box sensors and actuators, so the developers are able to focus the efforts on the software itself.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2391
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower, Carol A. C. Flannagan, Scott E. Bogard, Paul A. Green, Shan Bao
This paper explores the potential safety performance of “Future Generation” automated speed control crash avoidance systems for Commercial Vehicles. The technologies discussed in this paper include Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), second and third generation Forward Collision Avoidance and Mitigation Systems (F-CAM) comprised of Forward Collision Warning (FCW) with Collision Mitigation Braking (CMB) technology as applied to heavy trucks, including single unit and tractor semitrailers. The research [1[ discussed in this paper is from a study conducted by UMTRI which estimated the safety benefits of current and future F-CAM systems and the comparative efficacy of adaptive cruise control. The future generation systems which are the focus of this paper were evaluated at two separate levels of product refinement, “second generation” and “third generation” systems.
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