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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0148
Diljith Kunnamcherry Muthuvana
The main purpose of the V2X system is to enhance the safety and efficiency of the driver. Since the Automotive diaspora is now moving for a safe, connected and intelligent mobility. The V2X system allows communication over the air with other V2X traffic participants, the participants include the target vehicles or roadside units equipped with a V2X system and uses this information exchange to warn the driver about potential road hazards, thereby extending a vehicle’s field of vision. This will in turn enhance the safety and efficiency of the driver. One possible scenario could be that the V2X system receives information from a vehicle involved in an accident and then warns about this accident ahead via the HMI display. The V2X system also collects vehicle data and prepares it to generate messages send out to other V2X participants over the air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1658
Jie Huang, Lu Xiong, Songyun Xu, Zhuoping Yu
With the development of the electrification of the automobile, electronic hydraulic brake system is gradually applied. Many companies have introduced products related to integrated electronic hydraulic brake system(I-EHB)- a kind of the electronic hydraulic brake system. In this paper, an integrated electronic hydraulic brake system is introduced, which uses the motor to drive the reduction mechanism as a power source for braking. The reduction mechanism is composed of a turbine, a worm, a gear and a rack. A control method based on command feed-forward is proposed to improve the hydraulic pressure control of integrated electronic hydraulic brake system(I-EHB). Based on previous research, we simplify the system to first order system, and the theoretical design of the command feed-forward compensator is carried out.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1640
An integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system(I-EHB) for automotive is presented to fulfill the requirements of active safety. Based on the analysis of current electro-hydraulic brake systems, regulation requirements and the requirements for automotive brake system, the operating mode requirements of I-EHB are formed. Furthermore, system topological structure and a conceptual design are proposed. After the selection of key components, the parameter design is accomplished by modeling the system. According to the above-mentioned design method, an I-EHB prototype and test rig is made. Through the test rig, characteristics of the system are tested. Results show that this I-EHB system responded rapidly. Upon the experimental results, increasing pressure response time of I-EHB is 53% shorter than that of conventional brake system and reducing pressure response time of I-EHB is 70% shorter than that of conventional brake system. The tracking performance of I-EHB is good.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0110
Mohammad Huq, Douglas McConnell
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) runs with a set of parameters that determine how the ACC performs. Some of these parameters are tunable to some degree through HMI and the rests are pre-determined. The proposed Behavior Trainable ACC (BTACC) is able to learn all or some of these parameters from driving behavior of the driver. To develop BTACC adapted to the driver’s driving behavior, the ACC keeps collecting driving data such as set speed, acceleration, deceleration, head way settings, etc., of the vehicle over time and keeps updating the related parameters. After training is over, the driver is able to drive the vehicle in BTACC mode, when the vehicle would drive itself according to driving behavior of the driver, young or elderly, and thus, provide the drivers with a higher level of safety and comfort. BTACC can be embedded with an existing ACC module so that the drivers may choose either ACC or BTACC.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1639
An investigation into two new control strategies for the vehicle Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) are made for a possible replacement of current non-optimal slip control method. In an emergency braking situation, there is a maximum braking force that can be applied at the wheel in which the vehicle does not slide and lose steering control. This maximum braking force is dictated by a number of uncertain conditions and parameters e.g. road type, tire condition, tire temperature, etc. Current ABS in use today attempt to provide the maximum braking force by providing an increase in brake pressure until the wheel slides, then lets off the pressure and repeats. This algorithm is not ideal and non-optimal as it simply reacts to wheel sliding in order to provide the maximum braking force. Furthermore, for most drivers, the subjective brake pedal feedback from this strategy is poor. This paper/work applies two techniques in order to maximize the braking force without any tire sliding.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1667
Long Chen, Shuwei Zhang, Mingyuan Bian, Yugong Luo, Keqiang Li
As one characteristic parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measurement of the road friction potential is an expensive work for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper, which aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0114
Chris Schwarz, Timothy Brown, John Lee, John Gaspar, Julie Kang
Distracted driving remains a serious risk to motorists in the US and worldwide. Over 3,000 people were killed in 2013 in the US because of distracted driving; and over 420,000 people were injured. A system that can accurately detect distracted driving would potentially be able to alert drivers, bringing their attention back to the primary driving task and potentially saving lives. This paper documents an effort to develop an algorithm that can detect visual distraction using vehicle-based sensor signals such as steering wheel inputs, lane position and the like. Additionally, the vehicle-based algorithm is compared with a version that includes driving-based signals in the form of head tracking data. The algorithms were developed using machine learning techniques and combine a Random Forest model for instantaneous detection with a Hidden Markov model for time series predictions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0149
Mehdi Jalalmaab, Mohammad Pirani
This paper presents a multi-agent estimation approach to identify unknown parameters of autonomous vehicle environment in presence of communication fault in vehicular network. For some application, e.g. look-ahead road condition estimation, it is required for an agent to have access to other agents’ measurements, particularly frontal vehicles to predict the upcoming situations. By taking the advantage of the hybrid nature of the cooperative estimation problem, short time scale for V2V communication and longer time scale for single agent estimation convergence, the authors provide a multi agent consensus estimation, with an observer to access other agents’ measurements even for out of range agents in faulty network. Furthermore, the described estimation strategy is implemented in an adaptive model predictive collision avoidance policy for unknown road condition driving situation to demonstrate the application of proposed cooperative estimation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1447
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Chi-Chen Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
As part of active safety systems, Bicyclist Pre-Collision System (BPCS) is being studied currently by several vehicle manufactures to help reduce bicyclist fatalities and injuries. This paper describes the development of surrogate bicycle with a bicyclist mannequin on top to support the development and evaluation of BPCS. The surrogate bicyclist is designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of real bicycles and cyclists in the United States. The size of bicycle surrogate mimics the 26 inch mountain bike which is the most popular adult bicycle sold in the US. The radar cross section (RCS) of the surrogate bicycle is designed based on RCS measurement of the 10 different adult sized bicycles. The surrogate bicycle is constructed with detachable components with shatter resistant material to prevent structural damage during collision, and matches the look and RCS of a real 26 inch mountain bicycle from all 360 degree angles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1446
Rini Sherony, Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. Bicyclist PCS (Pre-Collision System) is being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis of the United States national crash databases (FARS and GES) and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of highest occurring test scenarios, and the motion speed and profile of bicycle carrier. The carrier was designed as an autonomous platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system. Each wheel is an independent suspension system to protect motors, gears and reduce the vibrations. The height of carrier was minimized to 78mm to reduce the interference to PCS sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0119
Preeti J. Pillai, Veeraganesh Yalla, Kentaro Oguchi
This paper is an extension of our previous work on the CHASE (Classification by Holistic Analysis of Scene Environment) algorithm, that automatically classifies the driving complexity of a road scene image during day-time conditions and assigns it an ‘Ease of Driving’ (EoD) score. The EoD score is a novel driving metric related to the driving difficulty of road scenes, ranging from ‘A’ (Very Easy) to ‘E’ (Very Difficult). In this paper, we introduce a method to compute the EoD during night-time driving conditions. At night, apart from traffic variations and road type conditions, illumination changes are a major predominant factor that affects the road visibility and the driving easiness. Strong illumination variations are introduced at night from light sources such as traffic lights, building lights, overly-lit streetlights and unlit alleys; posing a challenge for the onboard vision system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1653
Vehicle Longitudinal Control (VLC) algorithm is the basis function of automotive Cruise Control System. The main task of VLC is to achieve an acceleration tracking controller, whose performance requirements include fast response and high tracking accuracy. At present, to implement vehicle longitudinal control, at least three control methods, such as the classical PID controller, the method based on numerical look-up table and the controller based on vehicle longitudinal dynamics model, are used to implement vehicle longitudinal acceleration tracking control. However, the above methods are needed to be improved. The PID controller and the numerical look-up table based method need a large number of experiments to calibrate the parameters of controller. Moreover, the controller based on vehicle longitudinal dynamics model is not able to achieve accurate tracking control of target acceleration because of inevitable model error.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1424
Yi G. Glaser, Robert E. Llaneras, Daniel S. Glaser, Charles A. Green
Partially automated driving involves the relinquishment of longitudinal and/or latitudinal control to the vehicle. Partially automated systems, however, are not full automation and require driver oversight to avoid road hazards. Researchers have expressed concern that automation promotes extended eyes off road behaviors which may lead to a loss of road awareness, degrading a driver’s ability to detect hazards and make necessary overrides. A potential countermeasure to visual inattention is the orientation of the driver’s attention towards potential hazards. This method is based on the assumption that drivers are able to rapidly identify hazards once their attention is drawn to the area of interest regardless of preceding eyes off road behavior. This work tested this assumption by investigating if the time to detect a hazard is positively correlated with preceding off-road gaze duration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0028
Ali Shahrokni, Peter Gergely, Jan Söderberg, Patrizio Pelliccione
In novel areas, such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To keep up with the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for the engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools like spreadsheet tools are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability. At the other side of the spectrum, rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited ability to adapt to changes. As organizations become more agile, the need for flexible and agile data management increases; as products become more complex and developed in larger and more distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, consistent, and coherent data increases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1458
Ryuta Ono, Wataru Ike, Yuki Fukaya
We have developed for packaged safety system called Toyota Safety Sense P to deal with various type of accident based on accident analysis. Based on accident analysis, we developed five functions which are Pre-collision system (PCS) to deal with rear-end collision, pedestrian PCS to deal with pedestrian accident included under crossing, Lane Departure Alert(LDA) to assist deviating accident on a road, Automatic high beam(AHB) to assist ensuring the forward visibility, Adaptive Cruise Control(ACC) to reduce drivers operating load. “Toyota Safety Sense P” has been developed and formed as one package. These functions have been equipped optionally so far, however we aim TSS P to spread extensively by packaging five functions with a set. It is very important a technology to detect a danger of accident in this safety system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1454
Libo Dong, Stanley Chien, Jiang-Yu Zheng, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (PAEB) for avoiding/mitigating pedestrian crashes has been equipped on some passenger vehicles. One of the important components in the PAEB evaluation is the development of standard testing at night. The test facility should include representative low-illuminance environment to enable the examination of the sensing and control functions of different PAEB systems. The goal of this research is to characterize and model light source distributions and variations in the low-illuminance environment and determine possible ways to reconstruct such an environment for PAEB evaluation. Previously, the development of lighting system for PAEB Testing is based only on ANSI/IESNA RP-8-00, which define the average illuminance level and light uniformity of the lighting requirement in US roadway lighting design. This approach is intrinsic and cost effective, but lacks of real lighting characteristic in urban area.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1449
Taylor Johnson, Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Road departure crashes are one of the most dangerous crash modes in the United States. When the vehicle drifts out of lane and departs the roadway, it has a higher potential of impacting less compliant objects, such as trees, poles, as well as oncoming vehicles. In the U.S., road departure crashes account for 10% of all crashes, but is responsible for over 30% of all vehicle occupant fatalities. Lane departure warning (LDW) systems can detect an impending road departure and deliver an alert to allow the driver to steer back to the lane. LDW has great potential to reduce the number of road departure crashes, but the effectiveness is highly dependent upon driver acceptance. However, if the driver perceives there is little danger after receiving an alert, the driver may become annoyed and deactivate the system. Most current LDW systems rely heavily upon distance to lane boundary (DTLB) in the decision to deliver an alert.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1457
John M. Scanlon, Kerry Page, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Intersection Advanced Driver Assist Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging, vehicle-based active safety systems that aim to help drivers safely navigate intersections. These systems can detect a potential intersection-related crash and provide either a warning to the driver or activate automatic braking/steering. This paper presents a strategy for reconstructing the pre-crash trajectories of vehicles in real-world cross traffic crashes which might be mitigated using I-ADAS. The crashes were then simulated as if either vehicle was equipped with a side or forward facing radar system. This study is based on evidence collected from 48 crashes (96 vehicles) within the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) years 2004 to 2014. Pre-crash kinematics were generated using vehicle positions indicated by the investigator-generated scene diagram and pre-crash event data recorder (EDR) records. Two main research questions were posed in this study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1453
I-Hsuan Lee, Bi-Cheng Luan
Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems is one of the functions of the Advanced Driver Assists System to avoid or mitigate vehicle frontal collisions. Most of the previous studies focus on two-car scenario where the host vehicle monitors the distances to the vehicles in front, and automatically applies emergency brake when a collision is imminent. The purpose of this paper is to develop an Advanced-AEB control system that mitigates collisions in a multi-car scenario by computing the Time-to-Collision (TTC) to the vehicles in front as well as those to the vehicles behind using the concept of impedance control. A simple gain-scheduling PI controller was designed for the host vehicle to track the reference inputs generated by the impedance control. The preliminary simulation results demonstrate that the proposed AEB is effective in mitigating the collisions in a 3-car following scenario.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0124
Andrew Scott Alden, Brian Mayer, Patrick Mcgowen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Animal-vehicle collision (AVC) is a significant safety issue on American roads. Each year approximately 1.5 million AVCs occur in the U.S., the majority of them involving deer. The increasing use of cameras and radar on vehicles provides opportunities for prevention or mitigation of AVCs, particularly those involving deer or other large animals. Developers of such AVC avoidance/mitigation systems require information on the behavior of encountered animals, setting characteristics, and driver response in order to design effective countermeasures. Naturalistic driving data were collected in high AVC incidence areas using 48 participant-owned vehicles equipped with data acquisition systems (DAS), and 1 experimental vehicle equipped with a DAS and 76 GHz radar. Continuous driving data including forward video, location information, and vehicle kinematics were recorded. The respective 11TB dataset contains 35k trips covering 360K driving miles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0150
Felix Pistorius, Andreas Lauber, Johannes Pfau, Alexander Klimm, Juergen Becker
In order to further improve road safety and efficiency V2X based applications have been proposed and developed, such as emergency brake or crash warning. Hard real-time constraints have to be satisfied in order to build these safety applications. Existing V2X systems adhering to the IEEE 1609 (WAVE) and SAE J2735 (DSRC) standards implement most message processing in software. This means the latency of these systems strongly depends on the CPU load as well as the number of incoming messages per time. According to safety constraints all messages of nearby vehicles have to be processed, whereby no prediction of the message importance can be given without analyzing the message content first. This paper proposes a novel architecture that optimizes latency to satisfy the hard real-time constraints for V2X messages. At the same time it allows to reduce the load of the V2X application CPU (V2X-APU).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0147
Toshiya Hirose, Tomohiro Makino, Masanobu Taniguchi, Hidenobu Kubota
1. Background of this study Vehicle to vehicle communication system (V2V) can send and receive the vehicle information by wireless communication, and use as a safety driving assist for driver. Currently, requirements of technical guideline have been studied in Japan. In particular, it is investigated to clarify appropriate activation timing for collision information, caution and warning. This study focused on the activation timing of collision information with V2V, and investigated an effective activation timing of collision information. In addition, this study investigated the relationship between the activation timing and the accuracy of the vehicle position. 2. Experimental method This experiment used Driving Simulator. The experimental scenario is four situations of (1) “Assist for braking”, (2) “Assist for accelerating”, (3) “Assist for right turn” and (4) “Assist for left turn” in blind intersection.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0151
Ganesan Easwaran, Kulandaivelu Shanmugam, Rangaraj Sakthivel, Ramkumar Rajachandrasekaran
The EyeOnRoad System intends to predict the road anomalies accurately and alerts the vehicles. This system introduces a new technique to detect road anomalies (bumps, potholes, cracks, expansion joints, patches, etc) automatically, using sensor fusion technique. This system integrates the road anomaly information with the existing navigation system which forecasts the distance, type & extent of the anomaly along with the recommended speed. The driver is suggested with an alternate route to avoid the road anomalies. With the road anomaly information and traffic density, the accurate travel time can be estimated. This system obtains the live updates (using sensory data) automatically via Cloud- Internet of things. This concept is applicable for multiple platforms, which includes In-Car navigation system and Smartphone's. This system intends to fill the technology barriers in anomaly detection, which imports intelligence to the navigation system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1450
Peter Vertal, Hermann Steffan
The objective of this work is to test the potential benefit of active pedestrian protection systems. The tests are based on real fatal accidents with passenger cars that were not equipped with active safety systems. Tests have been conducted in order to evaluate what the real benefit of the active safety system would be, and not to gain only a methodological prediction. The testing procedure was the first independent testing in the world which was based on real fatal pedestrian accidents. The aim of the tests is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Volvo pedestrian detection system. The in-depth accident database ZEDATU contains about 300 fatal pedestrian traffic accidents in urban areas. Eighteen cases of pedestrians hit by the front end of a passenger vehicle were extracted from this database. Cases covering an average traffic scenario have been reconstructed to obtain detailed model situations for testing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1455
John Gaspar, Timothy Brown, Chris Schwarz, Susan Chrysler, Pujitha Gunaratne
In 2010 more than 32,500 fatalities and over 2.2 million injuries occurred in automobile accidents, not to mention the immense economic impact on our society. Two of the four most frequent types of crashes are rear-end and lane change crashes. In 2011, rear-end crashes accounted for approximately 28% of all crashes while lane change crashes accounted for approximately 9%. In order to develop effective crash avoidance systems, we investigate incorporating driver response models to actuate the systems in a timely manner. Good models of driver behavior will support the development of algorithms that can detect normal and abnormal behavior as well as warning systems that are tuned to issue useful alerts that are not perceived as false, or nuisance, alerts by the driver. This paper documents a study on the NADS-1 driving simulator to support the development of such driver behavior modeling. Several scenario events were designed to fill in gaps left by previous crash research.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1660
Takahiro Okano, Akira Sakai, Yusuke Kamiya, Yoshio Masuda, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi
The use of hybrid, fuel cell electric, and pure electric vehicle is on the increase to reduce exhaust gas emissions and help resolve energy issues. Regenerative cooperative brake technology has been adopted in these vehicles. The realization of this technology requires a braking system which can accurately control the hydraulic brake in response to a small change in the regenerative braking. On the other hand, the spread of collision avoidance supprt technology along with the growing safety awareness to the car is progressing at a rapid pace. The realization of this technology requires braking systems that can apply a large braking force in a short time. Brake system that meets these requirements in the past was present. But to promote further adoption, more simple structure brake system is required.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0170
Vidya Nariyambut Murali, Ashley Micks, Madeline J. Goh, Dongran Liu
Camera data generated in a 3D virtual environment has been used to train object detection and identification algorithms. 40 common US road traffic signs were used as the objects of interest during the investigation of these methods. Traffic signs were placed randomly alongside the road in front of a camera in a virtual driving environment, after the camera itself was randomly placed along the road at an appropriate height for a camera located on a vehicle’s rear view mirror. In order to best represent the real world, effects such as shadows, occlusions, washout/fade, skew, rotations, reflections, fog, rain, snow and varied illumination were randomly included in the generated data. Images were generated at a rate of approximately one thousand per minute, and the image data was automatically annotated with the true location of each sign within each image, to facilitate supervised learning as well as testing of the trained algorithms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1456
Rini Sherony, Renran Tian, Stanley Chien, Li Fu, Yaobin Chen, hiroyuki takahashi
Many vehicles are currently equipped with active safety systems that can detect vulnerable road users like pedestrians and bicyclists, to help mitigate associated conflicts with vehicles. With the advancements in technologies and algorithms, detailed motions of these targets, especially the limb motions, are being considered for improving the efficiency and reliability of object detection. Thus, it becomes important for understanding these limb motions to support the design and evaluation of many vehicular safety systems. However in current literature, these is no agreement being reached on whether or not and how often these limbs need to move during road crossing phrases, which usually are the most critical moments for potential crashes.
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