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2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0045
Mohahammed Bawahab, Han Xiao, Xu Wang
Abstract The objective of this research paper is to design and develop a linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorber for automotive suspension system. The significance of the arrangement of magnetic and coil materials as components of the linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorber is to generate continuous electric energy to deliver power to a vehicles electronics. Different magnets and coil arrangements will be reviewed and analysed. Additionally, a novel design of linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers will be modeled by using the computer aided design software program (SolidWorks®) and tested using apparatus such as a shock absorber dynamometer. The linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorber system was simulated by using Matlab® and Simulink®. The simulation model was established and validated via experiments. The validated simulation model was then used for the analysis of the system parameter sensitivity.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0044
Yuto Fukumori, Ryuzo Hayashi, Ryosuke Matsumi, Yoshihiro Suda, Kimihiko Nakano
Abstract Methods for motion control with a coupled suspension systems of automobile have been proposed and their effectiveness has been shown by the previous studies. However, it is not easy to couple hydraulic dampers because it requires designing and manufacturing complex pipelines. Recently, the electromagnetic damper, which is composed of an electric motor, a ball screw, and a nut, was proposed. The electromagnetic damper has high responsiveness, controllability, and energy saving performance, and it has been reported they improved ride comfort and drivability. The electromagnetic damper has various function depending on the electric circuit connected to its electric motor and can be connected to each other more easily than that by hydraulic dampers.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0037
Hong Sheng Zhong, Lifeng Guan, Wei You
Abstract The torque sensing module is an important part of EPS (Electronic Power Steering) system. There are various solutions in the market based on different technologies i.e. Potential meter, Inductive and Hall sensing. As a trend, more and more EPS system integrators adopt Hall-based torque sensing solution, most of which consist of a magnetic ring, a magnetic flux detector to read the magnetic flux from the magnetic ring and a flux conductor/concentrator to lead the magnetic signal to a Hall device to convert magnetic flux level to electronic signal. However, available solutions require high mechanical precision from the magnetic flux detector and conductor/concentrator. Also, the magnetic ring in the existing solution is magnetized after its preformation which causes a lower signal-to-noise ratio at the input of the entire system due to the process and brings about less accuracy of the torque sensing module.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0053
Rakesh Khanger, Amritashu Bardhan
Abstract Vehicles in India will soon come with star ratings, signifying how environment-friendly they are. The OEM's have braced to improve fuel economy of their existing & upcoming models. Tyre rolling resistance is one of the significant factors for vehicle fuel consumption. Improvement in Fuel consumption is always a prime focus area & to improve it all major factors are considered. In newly launched models, the low rolling resistance tyre development was initiated. The project is challenging as it requires not only achieving low rolling resistance in smaller size tyres (12″ to 13″) but also required to meet other critical vehicle performance parameters like ride, handling, NVH & durability. Effects of Tyre construction, rubber compound were analyzed to achieve lower rolling resistance and better durability of tyre.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0067
Dai Q Vo, Reza N. Jazar, Mohammad Fard
Abstract A variation in the camber of an automotive wheel is desired to compensate a side-slip force change owing to normal load transfer when the car is cornering. The camber of a steered wheel can be varied by adjusting caster or lean angle which are the representations of steering axis orientation. Thus, a smart camber can be created by a variable caster or lean angle. Choosing which parameter among the two angles to be variable is very important and dependent on its different effects. Here, homogeneous transformation is employed to establish camber as a function of caster, lean angle, and steering angle in the general case. A comparison between caster and lean angle based on different criteria is then made. The comparison shows that a variable caster is much better and more feasible than a variable lean angle in generating a smart camber.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0036
Christopher Nunneley
Abstract Performance abilities that exceed the physical capability of current safety features and design compromises can be achieved in the future by adding new active safety devices externally to autonomous vehicles (autonomous car safety efforts centered on improving problem detection and reaction times are beyond the scope of this paper). This paper shows that multiple physical improvements are now available to car designers including increased braking friction/capability on dry roads, the ability to dry/clear-out wet surfaces, active anti-rollover protection, active anti-over-steer, spin prevention, and automated jacking/lift capability.
2015-03-05
Article
One of the main goals of ThyssenKrupp’s InCar plus (phase 2) project is weight reduction, which experts achieved with new A- and B-pillar concepts.
2015-03-05
Article
Applus IDIADA listened to customer feedback in developing its new DynaWheel-III device, focusing on making the system even more reliable and easy-to-use. The wheel position measurement system is composed of two separate parts: the mechanical arms with six absolute optical encoders and the new electronic box (DW-Box), providing real-time calculation of wheel position.
2015-03-05
WIP Standard
J1402
This recommended practice covers minimum requirements for air brake hose assemblies made from reinforced elastomeric hose and suitable fittings for use in automotive air brake systems including flexible connections from frame to axle, tractor to trailer, trailer to trailer and other unshielded air lines with air pressures up to 1 MPa, that are exposed to potential pull or impact. This hose is not to be used where temperatures, external or internal, fall outside the range of -40 °C to +100 °C.
2015-02-20
Standard
J1671_201502
This recommended practice contains dimensions and tolerances for outboard mounted brake drums and disc wheel hubs in the interface areas. This recommended practice is intended for outboard mounted brake drums and disc wheel hubs commonly used on class 7 and 8 commercial vehicles. Included are SAE J694 mounting systems II, III, IV, XIV, and X. Special and less common applications are not covered.
2015-02-20
Standard
J1939DA_201502
The J1939 Digital Annex The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. It also includes the supporting descriptions and figures previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. For other SPNs and PGNs which are published in a document other than SAE J1939-71, J1939DA lists only basic details along with a reference to the document that contains the complete technical details.
2015-02-13
WIP Standard
ARP4955B
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to establish guidelines for the measurement of static and dynamic characteristic properties of aircraft tires. It is intended as a general guide toward standard practice, but may be subject to frequent changes to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
2015-02-11
WIP Standard
J2792
This document proposes methods for the testing and evaluation of aluminum wheel and wheel trim surface finishes for compatibility with various types of tire, wheel and car wash cleaning materials, and other chemicals that might come into contact with these automotive components. It is recognized that each end user of this methodology might seek answers to questions that are unique to his business or situation. Therefore, the procedure is written in a generic sequence that could be strictly followed, repeated, or modified in order to provide the user with the best results. Example decision tree are provided to help the user select a sequence of exposure steps that would best suit his needs, (reference Figures 1, 2). This procedure should not be utilized if the intent is to evaluate the compatibility of wheel finishes to any flammable products, because those chemistries would require special laboratory safety and handling precautions.
2015-02-10
WIP Standard
AIR5800A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) applies to landing gear tires and airframe structure for all types and models of civil and military aircraft having tires as part of the landing gear. This report describes the advantages and disadvantages of prerotating tires prior to landing, and explains why this practice is not generally adopted. Two potential benefits of this practice are considered: 1) Tire wear and 2) Spin-up loads on the landing gear and aircraft structure.
2015-02-06
WIP Standard
J3090
This SAE Standard specifies the performance tests and requirements for hydraulic brake hose assemblies used in the underhood hydraulic braking system of a road vehicle. This standard does not apply to brake hose used in jounce applications (wheel mounted brake hose assemblies).
2015-02-04
WIP Standard
J1410
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes minimum performance requirements for new pneumatic valves when tested in accordance with the test procedure outlined in SAE J1409. The performance requirements will include: a. Input-output performance b. Leakage characteristics c. Low temperature performance d. Elevated temperature performance e. Corrosion resistance performance f. Endurance testing g. Structural integrity
2015-02-04
WIP Standard
J1409
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures for air brake systems pneumatic valves with respect to: a. Input-Output Performance b. Leakage Characteristics c. Low Temperature Evaluation d. Elevated Temperature Evaluation e. Corrosion Resistance Evaluation f. Endurance Testing g. Structural Integrity h. Vibration Testing
2015-02-03
Standard
J44_201502
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes performance requirements for hand-operated brake systems on recreational, noncompetition snowmobiles.
2015-01-30
Article
Freescale Semiconductor’s FXTH87 tire-pressure monitoring system family provides low-power consumption and functional integration in a compact package.
2015-01-15
WIP Standard
J1095
This SAE Recommended Practice provides uniform laboratory procedures for fatigue testing of spoke wheels and hubs intended for normal highway use on trucks, buses, truck trailers, and multipurpose passenger vehicles. The hubs included have bolt circle diameters from 165.1 to 335.0 mm (6.50 to 13.19 in). It is up to each hub and/or spoke wheel developer to determine what test method, accelerated load factor and cycle life requirements are applicable to obtain satisfactory service life in a given application. When deviations from the procedures recommended herein are made, it is the responsibility of the hub and/or spoke wheel developer to modify other parameters to obtain satisfactory service life.
2015-01-14
Article
Car put on display is based on electrical and mechanical components from a Renault electric vehicle "city car" simply as a proof of process. Much testing and refinement remain. Help is being provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and SABIC.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0004
Jitendra Shah
Abstract A first step towards autonomous rear-end collision avoidance is to start providing natural support to driver in avoiding collision by steering and braking intervention. The proposed system detects slower-moving and stationary vehicles ahead and classifies the risk of having a rear-end-collision. If the risk is high and there is insufficient space to avoid a collision by braking only, the system helps the driver to steer around the obstacle by steering rear toe angle of the wheels individually. A lot of research already exist in the rear wheel steering but the role of rear wheel steering in collision avoidance is not researched yet in great details. Rear wheel steering is used to increase agility and manoeuvrability of vehicle at lower vehicle speed and stability of vehicle at higher vehicle speed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0059
Rahul R Kartha, Mohammad Jamadar, Kishor Kumar Kavathekar, S D Rairikar, S. S Ramdasi, S.S Thipse, N. V Marathe
Abstract The paper deals with the simulation of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) using vehicle performance algorithms. This method speeds up the product development process. Also by using these kind of methodology in vehicle simulation there is much noticeable reduction in cost of testing. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle and also to attain objectives such as to optimize transmission ratio, full load acceleration, maximum tractive force, gradient performance, fuel consumption and the exhaust emission. In this case study, simulation model of a CNG, LCV is used to analyze the performances similar to that done in a chassis dynamometer. The simulation leads to the prediction and evaluation of various parameters such as fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, full load acceleration, gradient performance & maximum tractive effort for Indian Driving Cycle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0062
Pankaj Kumar Verma, Shashi Bhushan Singh, Kalyan Vedula
Abstract The Armoured fighting vehicle designers are continuously fighting for ways to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency, improve reliability, and reduce cost. Customized engineering design and materials are becoming more widespread on all fronts. Also, vehicle emission norms are getting stringent day by day and there is increasing pressure to reduce fuel consumption. One important method of achieving the fuel economy and improve vehicle performance is to reduce vehicle weight. In view of the above advanced materials like Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites are promising to be the material to look for when it comes to reduce weight of structural elements due to its high strength to weight and high stiffness to weight ratios and hence was used for the development of Bogie Wheel of a light tracked vehicle. This paper illustrates the developmental methodology of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Road wheel for 20 ton class of tracked vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0078
Parth Lunia, Mrigendra Prajapati, V Jayashankar, Varun Parakh, Samir Rawte
Abstract This paper is an attempt to compile a systematic approach which can be easily incorporated in the product development system used in the design and development of parking brake systems for passenger cars having rear drum brakes, which in turn can effectively reduce the lead time and give improved performance. The vehicle GVW, percentage gradient and maximum effort limits (as per IS 11852 - Part 3), tire and drum brake specifications were taken as front loading. This data is used for target setting of functional and engineering parameters, such as lever pull effort, lever ratio and angular travel of lever. Design calculations were performed to obtain theoretical values of critical parameters like lever effort and travel. The comparison between target and theoretical values give the initial confidence to the system engineer. Further, the outcome was taken to conceptualize the hard points of lever on vehicle for ergonomics.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0080
Wen Zhang, Bo Yang
Abstract Commercial vehicle plays an important role during transportation process under the demand of high speed, convenience and efficiency. So improving active safety of commercial vehicle has become a research topic. Due to the fact that braking characteristic is the basic and most closely related to safe driving of vehicle's performances, this paper aims to improve the braking performance by researching into an integrated control method based on the mature ABS products. Firstly, a strategy which gives priority to ABS and differential yaw moment control, complementary with the hydraulic active suspension control is proposed. In comparison with ABS, the combined control of brake system and suspension system is designed not only for preventing wheels lock. But the directional control to avoid roll or spin is more focused on. Then in order to run the novel method correctly, the controlled variables and evaluation criteria are illustrated briefly.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0084
Ishwar Patil, Kiran P Wani
Abstract The three main objectives that a suspension system of an automobile must satisfy are ride comfort, vehicle handling and suspension working space. The aim of this paper is to design and analyze the semi active suspension system models using skyhook, ground hook and hybrid control method. The two degree of freedom (2 DOF) quarter car model is used for analysis of vehicle body displacement, vehicle acceleration and suspension working space and dynamic tire deflection. Simulation of semi active control models are carried out in MATLAB SIMULINK which describes performance of passive system, skyhook on-off and continuous control, ground hook control and hybrid control methods. Time response analysis shows that, for road bump excitation of 70mm vertical displacement, skyhook on-off control improves ride comfort for the results of maximum peak to peak body displacement with 27.53% improvement than that of the passive suspension model.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0082
Jeevan N. Patil, Sivakumar Palanivelu, Vaibhav Aswar, Vipin Sharma
Abstract Pneumatic brake system is widely used in heavy truck, medium and heavy buses for its great superiority and braking performance over other brake systems. Pneumatic brake system consists of various valves such as Dual Brake Valve (DBV), Quick release Valve (QRV), Relay Valve (RV), Brake chambers. Dynamics of each valve is playing a crucial role in overall dynamic performance of the braking system. However, it is very difficult to find the contribution of each valve and pipe diameters in overall braking performance. Hence, it is very difficult to arrive a best combination for targeted braking performance as it is not possible to evaluate all combination on the actual vehicle. Hence, it is very important to have a mathematical model to optimize and evaluate the overall braking performance in early design phase. The present study is focusing on the mathematical model of a pneumatic brake circuit.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0085
Boris Belousov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Sergei Naumov
Abstract The modular designing principle is generally recognized in the automotive industry. However, the issue of building a wheel open-link locomotion module (OLLM) as a combination of steering (wheel turning), springing, traction drive and braking systems is not properly developed yet. An automated control system (ACS) is needed to able to unite and coordinate all the vehicle systems intended to manage the wheel. The automated control system intended to manage the steering and wheel springing parameters is a combination of an information and power channels, through which the wheel is electro-hydraulically driven, and the steering, springing and braking systems are controlled. The number of such channels in a wheeled mover of the vehicle or mobile robot is defined by the wheel type (driving, driven, steered or non-steered wheel). The plurality of such channels forms a complex of automated control systems of the wheeled mover.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0143
Navneet Chaudhari, K.V.V. Rao Srinivasa, Phillips Cecil
Abstract The purpose of a differential is to allow the wheels of an automobile to turn at different speeds so that it does not skid during turning. However when a vehicle runs on a slick or muddy surface (especially in Agricultural and constructional Field applications) that same feature causes the wheel with less traction to spin freely as this unit transmits power to the tire with least amount of traction. The function of a difflock is to lock the differential gears, by locking the differential, both the axles receive equal power and hence equal traction is available at both the tires. This Paper describes the positive locking of a differential by stopper, and also in detail the problems associated with its engagement and disengagement in tractors and construction equipment's. Additionally a concept for a difflock stopper which has been experimentally proven for tractors and construction equipment's is also discussed.
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