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2016-11-16
Article
BWI is developing what it believes will be a cost-effective system that would improve ride quality at lower cost than employing magneto-rheological (MR) suspension units.
2016-11-16
Magazine
Focus on advanced safety systems and human-factor interventions The impact of REACH on the aviation sector Considered the most comprehensive chemical-regulation legislation to date, REACH presents serious ramifications for the aircraft industry. Lightweighting: What's Next? Experts weigh in on the challenges and future enablers in the battle to reduce vehicle mass. The best of COMVEC 2016 Autonomous vehicles and improved fuel efficiency via advanced powertrain solutions are pressing topics detailed in this select group of technical papers from the SAE Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress. Optimizing waste heat recovery for long-haul trucks Autonomous solutions in agriculture Downsizing a HD diesel engine for off-highway applications Zero-emissions electric aircraft: Theory vs. reality
2016-11-16
WIP Standard
J2707
This SAE Recommended Practice specifies a dynamometer test procedure to be used for the measurement of automotive service brake linings and disc brake pads wear. Special motor vehicles and motorcycles are excluded from the application. Trailers with nominal Gross Combination Weight Rating exceeding 40 tons are also excluded from this Recommended Practice.
2016-11-15
Article
Hyliion's electric-drive system hybridizes the trailer portion of the tractor-trailer combination and uses regenerative braking to capture power, possibly saving the trucking industry billions in fuel costs. The company recently won the grand prize in the 2016 "Create the Future" Design Contest for the technology.
CURRENT
2016-11-10
Standard
J2318_201611
This procedure provides test performance requirements for service, spring applied parking, and double diaphragm combination air brake actuators with respect to durability, function, and environmental performance when tested in accordance to SAE J1469.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0025
Govardan Daggupati, Bapanna Dora Karedla, Chandan Bansilal Chavan, Gagandeep Singh Risam
Abstract In two wheelers the front suspension system is mounted on chassis by two steering bearings which are lubricated ball type angular contact bearings with significant radial force components. These bearings are designed to withstand maximum vehicle loads for target durability. Maximum load carrying capacity depends on the number and size of the balls, bearing size and material. For target durability with designed load carrying capacity, the ball contact pressure, bearing preload plays a major role as compared to other design parameters. Geometry parameters and maximum load defines contact pressure for given bearing design. But in two wheelers due to nature of usage and road conditions, the peak loads are dynamic and geometry based design calculations may not yield the most optimal bearing design. In this work the bearing ball race profile design is optimized by using dynamic bearing contact profiles by using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0054
Barath Mohan, KVM Raju, Sai Praveen Velagapudi, Chandramouli Padmanabhan
The aim of the present study is to develop feasible test methods to measure the lateral force characteristics of motorcycle tires. In this work, new experimental procedures are developed to estimate the lateral friction coefficient and lateral stiffness characteristics of motorcycle tires. A fairly accurate tire model is developed using the measured lateral force characteristics. Based on this tire model, the steer behavior and the cornering limits of the motorcycle are estimated using an analytical model of the vehicle. The results are validated with experimental data. The test methods proposed are shown to be adequate to estimate tire characteristics that are important for tire development and is less expensive compared to the standard testing facilities available.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0053
Hisato Tokunaga, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Takumi Kawasaki, Akiyuki Yamasaki, Tatsuo Ichige, Tomoyuki Ishimori, Yoichi Sansho
Abstract Owing to the recent developments in sensors with reduced size and weight, it is now possible to install sensors on a body of a motorcycle to monitor its behavior during running. The analysis of maneuverability and stability has been performed based on the data resulted from measurements by these sensors. The tire forces and moments is an important measurement item in maneuverability and stability studies. However, the tire forces and moments is difficult to measure directly, therefore, it is a common practice to measure the force and the moment acting on the center of the wheel. The measuring device is called a wheel forces and moments sensor, and it is widely used for cars. The development of a wheel forces and moments sensor for motorcycles has difficulty particular to motorcycles. First, motorcycles run with their bodies largely banked, which restricts positioning the sensors.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0051
Keisuke Terada, Takayuki Sano, Kenichi Watanabe, Takashi Kaieda, Kazuhisa Takano
Abstract In recent years three-wheel camber vehicles, with two wheels in the front and a single rear wheel, have been growing in popularity. We call this kind of vehicle A “Leaning Multi Wheel category Vehicle” (hereinafter referred to as a “LMWV”). A LMWV has various characteristics, but one of them stands out in particular. When a LMWV is cornering, if one of the front wheels passes over a section of road surface with a low friction coefficient, there is very little disturbance to the vehicle’s behavior and can continue to be driven as normal. However, there has been no investigation into why these vehicles have this particular characteristic. Consequently, in this paper an investigation was carried out in order to determine the behavior of a LMWV in this situation. First, measurements were taken using an actual vehicle to confirm the situation described above.
2016-11-03
WIP Standard
AIR6805
This document will outline existing best practices in the instrumentation of landing gears for in-service operation (including flight test, operational loads monitoring, etc.).
CURRENT
2016-11-01
Standard
J2580_201611
This Recommended Practice covers air braked trucks, truck-tractors, trailers and buses. It enumerates the identification and installation of the air brake components not covered in other SAE recommended practices and standards.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0348
André de Moura Oliveira, Elvis Bertoti, Jony Javorski Eckert, Rodrigo Yassuda Yamashita, Eduardo dos Santos Costa, Ludmila Corrêa de Alkmin e Silva, Franco Giuseppe Dedini
Abstract The need for improved fuel economy for road vehicles has increased the interest in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and recovering vehicle energy. This paper aims to evaluate the amount of kinetic energy that could be restored through regenerative braking in a HEV. This work will not resort the Brazilian urban driving cycle NBR 6601, for this cycle does not fully represent a pattern of traffic faced regularly in urban areas, which is typically composed of heavy traffic and long periods of idleness. Therefore, a new drive cycle will be developed that better represents the Brazilian traffic. Also, considering the shortage of energy resources, the large amount of energy dissipated as heat during braking a vehicle is a recurring concern. Therefore, measuring the maximum available energy that could be restored through regenerative braking is the first step towards estimating the profit of using this technology and how it would pay off the investment in the long run.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0309
Adriano Schommer, André Ogliari, Mario Martins
Abstract In the way of achieving maximum performance of a racecar several aspects of it have to be optimized. The whole picture of vehicle performance involves crossing data to find relationship among systems and identifying trends, pitfalls and optimum points. In this paper, a straightforward software tool for tire data analysis is developed and described. The software aims to integrate tire data analysis in early stages of the development process of a Formula SAE racecar. In addition, it is thought to be a learning environment to fresh team members. To establish and achieve the necessary goals, an affordancebased model was used to elicit user needs. Regarding the tires, it was possible to precisely point out what data is required to quickly fit a Pacejka tire mode and to cross raw tire data of different tires and preview the steady state balance of a vehicle.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0239
Lucas Iensen Bortoluzzi, Adriano Schommer, Mario Martins, Alexandre Aparecido Buenos
Abstract In many vehicle motorsport categories, the one of the most important factors that lead a team to the victory is the suspension setup. Parameters like roll stiffness and camber changing are essential to the vehicle behavior during a driving situation. To handle these variables, features like suspension hardpoints arrangement, pivot points position and spring stiffness can be settled. However a setup only will perform a desirable effect if the chosen configuration does not change. Ideally, to make it possible, every component that holds suspension loads (suspension members, mounting plates and chassis) would have to be infinitely rigid. Even though it is not achievable, the existing deformation can be small enough to be negligible when compared with suspension displacement. In order to reach this target, this paper introduce a spring modeling and a Finite Element multibody modeling process of a Formula SAE prototype’s suspension and chassis.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0242
A. C. R. Ramos, R. B. Santos, C. A. P. Melo, I. C.S. Perez
Abstract Noise, vibration and Harshness in the automotive industry became important mainly because the development of modern automobiles and the increased of customer demands for quieter vehicles and with comfortable vibration levels. The sources of vibration and noise inside the vehicle are caused by the engine, tires, transmission systems, suspension, air conditioning, among others. In this work, vibroacoustic transfer function is obtained to analyze the internal noise in two sport utility vehicle with distinctive silhouette. Furthermore, it was analyzed the influence of elastomeric bushings rigidity of the damper in reducing internal noise and vibration and the effect of adding mass in some framework positions for attenuation of vibration peaks due to structural resonance.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0140
Rodrigo Luiz de Campos
Abstract This work aims to summarize in a single form all legal requirements that dictates the minimum safety compliance required by government edicts to any wheel manufacture to have their products available for passenger or light truck vehicle in any country around the world in the year of 2016. It is not intention of this paper compare or discuss the different requirement among the countries but indicate to the manufactures of wheels what legal edicts they need to meet in case they are willing to go overseas to explore the wheel market of other country. Before start designing wheels for passenger or light truck application, any manufacture should be sure about what the government of the new market demands for wheels when installed on vehicle axis or just available as temporary spare.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0157
Paulo Augusto Mayer, Anderson Petronilho, André Tognolli, Fabio Santos Batista, Jamilton Vidal da Silva
Abstract The high level of reliability of virtual analysis for suspension system development should not be thinking only for comfort and performance purpose, considering the `growing number of failures due to the touch between components in dynamic condition. The study establishes a simple and optimized methodology, able to predict more accurately the flexible brake hose path subject to the steering motion and associates with the independent suspension course, aiming the best route in order to achieve a low cost and robust design. In turn, the flexible brake hose non-linear model invalidates the multibody study to get the best route. However, with the aid of motion making use of NX9 [1] CAD [2] software was prepared dynamic movement that subjects front independent suspension system that establishes a Cartesian routine that maps 977 points, much higher than 9 points from previous studies, comprising a more accurate path performed by the hose.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0189
Luiz Roberto Guimarães, Robson Demétrius Araújo Abreu, Claudio Junior Ferreto
Abstract The automotive industry currently has a big concern with the vibro-acoustic comfort. The growth of concurrence and the clients requirement becomes necessary the researches in new techniques for analysis and improvement. Hence many vibro-acoustic phenomena causes uncomfortable noises in a vehicle. One of this noises is descendant of braking system and is known as Bus Noise. This paper presents a methodology which uses Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) to survey the dynamic behavior of suspension and brake systems at the Bus Noise occurrence condition.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0204
Julio Cesar Lelis Alves, Flavio Koiti Maruyama, Leonardo José Della Volpe, Filipe Fabian Buscariolo, Felipe Magazoni
Abstract Within the advances in Computer Fluid Dynamics algorithms and High Performance Computing, large clusters become available at low costs allowing virtual simulations that were not possible some years ago at reasonable costs and time. This work uses intensively this condition and applies these advances on brake system optimization. The methodology developed in the present work verifies the best angular position for caliper inside the wheel to reduce the rotor temperature during braking process such as downhill procedure. Thus, this method is applied to a mini-VAN vehicle, where the best position is found, based on two design parameters: rotor temperature and convection heat transfer coefficient. This study shows that the most suitable position for initial selection is the first one.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0172
João Fernando Mendes Amparo, Marcos Rogério Santos Barbetti, Paulo Alexandre Galarce Zavala, George Ballardie, Roberto Moriya
Abstract This paper has the objective to present the study made on a front wheel drive passenger car with “3 Points Pendular Mounts System” to minimize the “Power Hop effect” (powertrain forced oscillation) and reduce the loads on Powertrain Mounts System. In this study, we used the Taguchi Method (Design of Experiments) to optimize the number of tests performed to evaluate the influence of powertrain mounts system design characteristics, as well as axle shafts stiffness, and tire/wheels assemblies size. The data acquisition work was all done in a physical hardware (vehicle) on test track used instrumented parts and load cells. Accelerometers were used in previous tests to get qualitative understanding of the behavior of all interface components (mounts and wheels hubs) during the power hop event.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0176
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Abstract Environmental concerns and limited fossil fuels reserves have fostered an increased interest in alternative propulsion systems. In this scenario, electric traction, with its inherent zero local emissions, high efficiency and improved operational performance (acceleration and hill climbing potential), emerges as a desired option for public transport systems. Transit buses, the prevailing transport system in cities, and, hence, strong contributors to traffic environmental impact on urban areas, can reduce considerably their environment burden with the use of electric traction. This means less local pollutants, specially particulate matter - PM and nitrogen oxides - NOx, currently the “Achilles heel” of diesel engines, as well as CO2 greenhouse emissions - GHG.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0182
Eduardo Domingo Morales
Abstract There are many variables involved in the design of a front suspension, such as hardpoints' coordinates, steering geometry or even an anti-roll bar, which could make design difficult and time consuming. The MacPherson strut, due to the simplicity of its construction, less occupied space and low manufacturing cost, is widely used in vehicles in contrast to double wishbone and multi-link suspensions. Although its tuning process still demands time, it can be done with the aid of multibody dynamics simulations, by testing several configurations in a virtual way. In this work, a front suspension model with MacPherson strut is studied, so that the influence of variation of its parameters is analyzed in its elastokinematics behavior and in handling performance of a vehicle.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0184
Eduardo Domingo Morales
Abstract The twist-beam suspension is widely used in vehicles due to the simplicity of its construction, less occupied space and its low manufacturing cost in comparison with multi-link suspension. The difficulties related to the design of a twist-beam axle concern the large number of possible configurations for twist-beam profile and the stiffness adjustment of axle beam and suspension arms. However, design process can be done with the aid of multibody dynamics simulations, by testing several configurations in a virtual way. In this work, a simplified twist-beam suspension model is studied, and the influence of variation of its parameters is analyzed in its elastokinematics behavior and in handling performance of a vehicle.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0400
Carlos Abílio Passos Travaglia, Luiz Carlos Rolim Lopes
Abstract Great numbers of studies in sliding wear phenomena use the wear rate to quantify material losses. However, in more recent works, some authors have been tried to characterize the wear phenomena by means of the energy dissipation between the contact surfaces of the bodies. The aim of this work is to create an analytical model capable to relate the total energy dissipated by a friction material during a bench wear test and data collected directly in a vehicle brake, in order to predict the durability of this component in service life. To attain this aim, the concept of specific wear volume, SWV, is adopted. The specific wear volume is the relationship between the material wear volume and the energy dissipated during a sliding wear process. In addition, a method to calculate the energy dissipation on friction materials is presented.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0444
L.C. Gertz, A.F.A. Rodrigues, A. Cervieri, J.I. Salis, J.S. Theis, G.S. Rolim, A.B. Oliveira
Abstract This study aims to determine the force acting on the rod ball end of an automotive suspension prototype from competition, participant in the Brazilian Tourism Championship 2016, used in training and to determine the fast lap time. The rod ball end is manufactured in SAE 4140 steel with heat treatment (body and ball) and the bush of polyacetal. To determine the force on the rod ball end the lower balance arm was converted into two load cells, through the setting of strain gage in each of the arms that compose it. It was recorded runway images with a camera in the cockpit and another camera placed inside the vehicle with the rear wheel housing, making possible to observe the suspension movement. When the prototype makes a chicane, the centripetal force is higher because the radius curve is small, when is accelerated it generates a force in line with the wheel, the front bar is compressed even more, and the rear is tensioned, that generates a load near to zero in this bar.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0457
Weber Ferreira Veloso, Marcela Rodrigues Machado Garcia, Sabrina Glicéria Firmino, Juliana Queiroga Gazaniga de Assis, Diego Palhares de Faria
Abstract Through a computing transient thermal analysis, the team evaluated the quality of the material and its resistance to thermal fatigue by a comparative method. With the steel used in 1020 failed in 2014, for the team Formula UFMG, the 1020 steel, 1045, 1070 and stainless steel 304 were compared, where the stainless steel was the parameter of better resistance to thermal cracking. The main calculated parameters were subjected to empiric validations and the best material has been applied and used in the 2015 season. The use of the disks in a competition and in a battery of tests superior to 2014, permitted the evaluation of the final result of applying the material.
CURRENT
2016-10-25
Standard
J2690_201610
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures for friction based parking brake components used in conjunction with hydraulic service braked vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 4500 kg (10 000 lb). The components covered in this document are the primary actuation and the foundation park brake. Various peripheral devices such as application dashboard switches or indicators are not included.
CURRENT
2016-10-21
Standard
ARP1619B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines recommended planning and substantiation procedures and associated reviewing and approval processes to confirm that proposed changes do not compromise the demonstrated safety of the originally certified aircraft, and performance and aircraft compatibility are appropriately addressed in aircraft documentation. Successful demonstration also requires that failure modes be identified and mitigation provided for each. These procedures apply to modifications made by the original component or assembly supplier as well as approval of an alternate supplier.
2016-10-20
Article
Leveraging junior racing to interest youngsters in engineering careers gets a boost in Europe as Renault launches a UK Clio Cup Junior Championship for 2017.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2233
Matthew C. Robinson, Nigel N. Clark
Abstract The free piston engine combined with a linear electric alternator has the potential to be a highly efficient converter from fossil fuel energy to electrical power. With only a single major moving part (the translating rod), mechanical friction is reduced compared to conventional crankshaft technology. Instead of crankshaft linkages, the motion of the translator is driven by the force balance between the engine cylinder, alternator, damping losses, and springs. Focusing primarily on mechanical springs, this paper explores the use of springs to increase engine speed and reduce cyclic variability. A numeric model has been constructed in MATLAB®/Simulink to represent the various subsystems, including the engine, alternator, and springs. Within the simulation is a controller that forces the engine to operate at a constant compression ratio by affecting the alternator load.
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