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2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0859
Haizhen Liu, Weiwen Deng, Changfu Zong, Jian Wu
Abstract This paper first presents an algorithm to detect tire blowout based on wheel speed sensor signals, which either reduces the cost for a TPMS or provides a backup in case it fails, and a tire blowout model considering different tire pressure is also built based on the UniTire model. The vehicle dynamic model uses commercial software CarSim. After detecting tire blowout, the active braking control, based on a 2DOF reference model, determines an optimal correcting yaw moment and the braking forces that slow down and stop the vehicle, based on a linear quadratic regulator. Then the braking force commands are further translated into target pressure command for each wheel cylinder to ensure the target braking forces are generated. Some simulations are conducted to verify the active control strategy. From the simulation results, it is shown that this active brake control strategy can not only ensure the flat tire vehicle stability, but also slow down the vehicle with a safe speed and for a shorter distance.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0864
Walid Oraby, Mahmoud Atef Aly, Samir El-demerdash, M. El-Nashar
Abstract Integral Control strategy for vehicle chassis systems had been of great interest for vehicle designers in the last decade. This paper represents the interaction of longitudinal control and lateral control. In other words the traction control system and handling control system. Definitely, tire properties are playing a vital role in such interaction as it is responsible for the generated forces in both directions. A seven degrees of freedom half vehicle model is derived and used to investigate this interaction. The vehicle body is represented as a rigid body with three degrees of freedom, lateral and longitudinal, and yaw motions. The other four degrees are the two rotation motion of the front wheel and the rear wheel. This two motions for each wheel are spin motion and the steering motion. The traction controller is designed to modulate engine torque through adjusting the throttle angle of the engine upon utilized adhesion condition at the driving road wheels. The active four steering (4WS) control system is designed to enhance vehicle lateral dynamics through controlling rear steer angle.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0863
Takamasa Shimodaira
Abstract The aim discussed in this paper is to show a technique to predict loads input to the wheels, essential to determining input conditions for evaluation of suspension durability, by means of full vehicle simulations using multi body analysis software Adams/Car. In this process, model environments were built to enable reproduction of driving modes, and a method of reproducing the set-up conditions of a durability test vehicle was developed. As the result of verification of the accuracy of the simulations in the target driving modes, good correlation for waveforms can be confirmed. And also confirm a good correlation in relation to changes of input load due to changes in suspension specifications.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0861
Axel Gallrein, Manfred Baecker, Michael Burger, Andrey Gizatullin
Abstract In the last two years, Fraunhofer has developed an advanced tire model which is real-time capable. This tire model is designed for ride comfort and durability applications for passenger cars and trucks, as well as for agricultural and construction machines. The model has a flexible belt structure with typically about 150 degrees of freedom and a brush contact formulation. To obtain sufficient computational efficiency and performance for real time, a dedicated numerical implicit time-integration scheme has been developed. Additionally, specific coordinate frames were chosen to efficiently calculate and use the needed Jacobian matrices. Independently from this, Fraunhofer ITWM has developed and installed the new driving simulator RODOS (RObot based Driving and Operation Simulator), which is based on the industrial robot KUKA KR1000. The main application area of this driving simulator are interactive human-in-the-loop simulations with agricultural and construction machines, but also with trucks and passenger cars.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0867
Diana Hernandez-Alcantara, Luis Amezquita-Brooks, Ruben Morales-Menendez
Abstract Semi-active suspension systems aim to improve the vehicle safety and comfort. For these systems control laws are required to achieve the desired performance improvements. On the other hand, the instrumentation of the vehicle suspension typically consists only in accelerometers, which are used to measure the vertical accelerations. However, velocities and/or displacements are required to implement the most common control algorithms for semi-active suspension systems. For instance, Skyhook and Groundhook controllers require the knowledge of the suspension vertical velocities. In this article several vertical velocities estimation approaches are studied and compared. In practical applications, it is common to use simple integrators to estimate these variables; nonetheless, it is well known that integrator-based estimations present errors due to drift. In applications where high performance is required, a better estimation of the state variables of the suspension system is essential.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0865
Yuhang Chen, Yunfeng Ji, Konghui Guo
Abstract In this paper, a sliding mode observer for estimating vehicle slip angle and tire forces is developed. Firstly, the sliding mode observer design approach is presented. A system damping is included in the sliding mode observer to speed the observer convergence and to decrease the observer chattering. Secondly, the sliding mode observer for vehicle states is developed based on a 7 DOF embedded vehicle model with a nonlinear tire model ‘UniTire’. In addition, since the tire lateral stiffness is sensitive to the vertical load, the load transfers are considered in the embedded model with a set of algebraic equations. Finally, a simulation evaluation of the proposed sliding mode observer is conducted on a validated 14 DOF vehicle model. The simulation results show the model outputs closely match the estimations by the proposed sliding mode observer.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0763
Suhas Kangde, Vishal Shitole, Ashish Kumar Sahu
Abstract Automotive Suspension is one of the critical system in load transfer from road to Chassis or BIW. Using flex bodies in Multi body simulations helps to extract dynamic strain variation. This paper highlights how the MBD and FE integration helped for accurate strain prediction on suspension components. Overall method was validated through testing. Good strain correlation was observed in dynamic strains of constant amplitude in different loading conditions. Combination of different direction loading was also tested and correlated. Method developed can be used in the initial phase of the vehicle development program for suspension strength evaluation. Suspension is one of the important system in vehicle which is subjected to very high loading in all the directions. To predict the dynamic stresses coming on the suspension system due to transient loads, faster and accurate method is required. To accelerate the suspension design process it become necessary to get good accuracy in the results.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1050
Massimiliana Carello, Andrea Giancarlo Airale, Alessandro Ferraris
Abstract The use of composite materials is very important in automotive field to meet the European emission and consumption standards set for 2020. The most important challenge is to apply composite materials in structural applications not only in racing vehicles or supercars, but also in mass-production vehicles. In this paper is presented a real case study, that is the suspension wishbone arm (with convergence tie and pull-rod system) of the XAM 2.0 urban vehicle prototype, that it has the particular characteristics that the front and rear, and left and right suspension system has the same geometry. The starting point has been an existing solution made in aluminum to manufacture a composite one. The first step was the development of a dynamic model of the vehicle to understand the suspension loads and to define the suspension weight and stiffness target with respect to the solution made on aluminum, because it was necessary to understand the tensil strain on the component to simplify and optimize the geometry.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0206
Rolf Schneider, Andre Kohn, Karsten Schmidt, Sven Schoenberg, Udo Dannebaum, Jens Harnisch, Qian Zhou
Abstract The infrastructure in modern cars is a heterogeneous and historically grown network of different field buses coupling different electronic control units (ECUs) from different sources. In the past years, the amount of ECUs in the network has rapidly grown due to the mushrooming of new functions which historically were mostly implemented on a one-ECU-per-function basis resulting in up to a hundred ECUs in fully equipped luxury cars. Additionally, new functions like parking assist systems or advanced chassis control functions are getting increasingly complex and require more computing power. These two facts add up to a complex challenge in development. The current trend to host several functions in single ECUs as integration platforms is one attempt to address this challenge. This trend is supported by the increased computing power of current and upcoming multi-core microcontrollers. In this paper, our emphasis is on the practical realization of integration platform ECUs in the chassis domain, which is characterized by higher functional safety, and in the future, high security requirements.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0467
Gary A. Davis
Abstract The critical speed method uses measurements of the radii of yawmarks left by vehicles, together with values for centripetal acceleration, to estimate the speeds of the vehicles when the yawmarks were made. Several field studies have indicated that equating the centripetal force with braking friction produced biased estimates, but that the biases tended to be small (e.g. within 10%-15% on average) and led to underestimates, suggesting that the method can be useful for forensic purposes. Other studies, however, have challenged this conclusion. The critical speed method has also seen use in safety-related research, where it is important to have a reliable assessment of the uncertainty associated with a speed estimate. This paper describes a variant of the critical speed method, where data from field tests lead to an informative prior probability distribution for the centripetal acceleration. Using Bayes theorem, this distribution is combined with the measured radius to produce a posterior probability distribution for the desired speed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0445
Flaura Winston, Catherine McDonald, Venk Kandadai, Zachary Winston, Thomas Seacrist
Abstract Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Yet, few simulator protocols have been validated for their ability to assess driving performance under conditions that result in actual collisions. This paper presents results from a new Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA), a 35- to-40-minute simulated assessment delivered on a Real-Time® simulator. The SDA was developed to represent typical scenarios in which teens crash, based on analyses from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). A new metric, failure to brake, was calculated for the 7 potential rear-end scenarios included in the SDA and examined according two constructs: experience and skill. The study included an inexperienced group (n=21): 16-17 year olds with 90 days or fewer of provisional licensure, and an experienced group (n=17): 25-50 year olds with at least 5 years of PA licensure, at least 100 miles driven per week and no self-reported collisions in the previous 3 years.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0466
Jakub Zebala, Wojciech Wach
Abstract The objective of the paper is to present the results of an investigation of the effect of reduced tire pressure on car lateral dynamics in lane change maneuver. The intended aim was attained by performing bench and road tests. The aim of the bench tests was parameterization of the mathematical model of the tested car. The road tests covered the vehicle motion with reduced and no tire pressure on a curvilinear track adequate for bypassing an unexpected appearing obstacle. Next, simulations in PC-Crash were performed, and the results were compared with those obtained in experiments.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0411
Yuan Qu, Wang Hongbin, Dechao Zhang, Linbo Zhang, Shen Wu
Abstract The understeer of vehicle is desired for the vehicle's handling performance, and the roll rate of rear suspension is one of the key characteristics to achieve the understeer performance. A proper roll rate of the rear suspension is required to assure a certain level of understeer. Generally, in the vehicle dynamic tuning process, several methods are available for improving understeer performance, e.g., changing the hard-points of suspensions, adjusting stiffness of bushings, etc. On the other hand, structure optimization of components can be used in some case to improve the performance. In this paper, the optimization method is applied to the twist beam of rear suspension. The change in local geometry by optimized design leads to appropriate adjustment of the roll rate. Finally the vehicle understeer performance reaches design target.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0399
Mohamed Sithik, Rama Vallurupalli, Barry (Baizhong) Lin, Subash Sudalaimuthu
Abstract In recent trend, there is a huge demand for lightweight chassis frame, which improves fuel efficiency and reduces cost of the vehicle. Stiffness based optimization process is simple and straightforward while durability (life) based optimizations are relatively complex, time consuming due to a two-step (Stress then life) virtual engineering process and complicated loading history. However, durability performances are critical in chassis design, so a process of optimization with simplified approach has been developed. This study talks about the process of chassis frame weight optimization without affecting current durability performance where complex durability load cases are converted to equivalent static loadcases and life targets are cascaded down to simple stress target. Sheet metal gauges and lightening holes are the parameters for optimization studies. The optimization design space is constrained to chassis unique parts. The optimized design is verified for detailed load case and life target.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0714
Sanghun Cho, Taewan Gu, Eunyoung Yoo, Youngkyu Jeong, Baegsu Joo
Abstract In automotive software developments, since the types of software functionalities are depending on automotive engineering domains such as powertrain, body, and chassis, software logic and data processing, code complexity, and its reliability are also depending on them. Therefore, it has some challenges that monolithic code quality measures are applied to software code for all domains. In addition, imprecise criteria for the measures also can make software developers and testers confused whether their code verifications are enough or not. This paper proposes domain-specific code quality measures and precise criteria by combining a new functionality model, named Abstract Function Model (AFM), and shows results of automotive software functionality analysis using the model. Using 8 real automotive software projects, we derived statistics of software code on specific automotive engineering domain and identified code quality measures from the statistics. For the identified code quality measures, we tactically modified the legacy software code quality measures to be more reasonable and suitable for domain-specific code verification in terms of coding rule checking, potential semantic error checking, and code structural metrics.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0057
Akihito Yamamoto, Haruhiko Sugai, Ryo Kanda, Shuuichi Buma
Abstract This paper reports the results of a study into a preview control that uses the displacement of the road surface in front of the vehicle to improve for front and rear actuator responsiveness delays, as well as delays due to calculation, communication, and the like. This study also examined the effect of a preview control using the eActive3 electric active suspension system, which is capable of controlling the roll, pitch, and warp modes of vehicle motion.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0065
Hiroki Taniguchi, Takeshi Kimura, Yuya Takeda, Taku Suzuki, Akihiro Kaneko, Tomohiro Jinbo
Abstract This paper describes a control method to improve straight-line stability without sacrificing natural steering feel, utilizing a newly developed steering system controlling the steering force and the wheel angle independently. It cancels drifting by a road cant and suppresses the yaw angle induced by road surface irregularities or a side wind. Therefore drivers can keep the car straight with such a little steering input adjustment, thus reducing the driver's workload greatly. In this control method, a camera mounted behind the windshield recognizes the forward lane and calculate the discrepancy between the vehicle direction and the driving lane. This method has been applied to the test car, and the reduction of the driver's workload was confirmed. This paper presents an outline of the method and describes its advantages.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0066
Ben Wen, Gregory Rogerson, Alan Hartke
Abstract Tire rolling resistance is one of tire performance indicator that represents a force needed to maintain the constant rolling of a tire. There are quite few methods and standards to measure tire rolling resistance, such as ISO-28585, ISO-18164, SAE-J1269, SAE-J2452, …. These tests have been used by tire companies, vehicle manufactures, and government agencies to evaluate tire rolling resistance performance. SAE-J1269 and SAE-J2452 are two popularly used multi-condition rolling resistance tests for passenger and light truck tires. Examining the test conditions and procedures of these two test standards showed that some key procedures and conditions from both standards are similar although there are many difference as well. The study presented here is to analyze test results from both tests and their correlation under certain conditions. If the correlation exists, one test may provide test results for both test conditions, therefore, test efficiency can be improved.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0069
Andrew Nevin, Eric Daoud
Abstract Traditional tread depth measurements require manual utilization of a mechanical device to acquire measurements at each location of interest on a tire. Drive-over machine-vision sensors are becoming available as a means for measuring tread depth. These sensors typically consist of a laser and a camera contained in an environmentally-sealed sensor housing. Tires approach the sensor over the supporting surface, while a laser projects an illuminating line across the tread surface for capture in a digital image. This scan is evaluated to provide a single 2D contour of tread depth at the illuminated line. Advanced machine-vision sensors acquire a sequence of images, which results in a multitude of data points over a 3D region of the tread surface. Post-processing of the acquired images illustrates the observed tread pattern and establishes multiple tread depth measurements. Measurements determined by the advanced sensors from hundreds of tires were compared to manual measurements acquired with analog and digital mechanical gauges.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0070
Ralph S. Shoberg, Jeff Drumheller
Abstract Reliable wheel attachment must start with proper tightening of the lug nuts in order to achieve the clamping force necessary to hold the vehicle's wheels securely for all operating conditions. It is the purpose of this paper to provide a complete overview of the theory and practice of using torque-angle signature analysis methods to examine the installation and audits of wheel lug nuts. An accurate estimate of clamp load can be determined without actually measuring the clamp load. The torque-angle signature analysis, known as “M-Alpha”, performed on tightening and loosening curves provides a powerful tool to understand the integrity of a bolted joint when clamp load data is not available. This analysis technique gives insight into the frictional effects, material properties, and geometric factors that can affect the clamp load attained during the installation process.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0073
Ken Archibald, William Schnaidt, Rick Wallace, Kyle Archibald
Abstract SAE J2562 defines the background, apparatus and the directions for modifying the Scaled Base Load Sequence for a given a wheel rated load for a wheel design. This practice has been conducted on multiple wheel designs and over one hundred wheel specimens. All of the wheels were tested to fracture. Concurrently, some of the wheel designs were found to be unserviceable in prior or subsequent proving grounds on-vehicle testing. The remainder of the wheel designs have sufficient fatigue strength to sustain the intended service for the life of the vehicle. This is termed serviceable. Using the empirical data with industry accepted statistics a minimum requirement can be projected, below which a wheel design will likely have samples unserviceable in its intended service. The projections of serviceability result in a recommendation of a minimum cycle requirement for SAE J2562 Ballasted Passenger Vehicle Load Sequence.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0076
Jongchol Han, Zong Changfu, Zhao Weiqiang
Abstract This article focuses on the research of control algorithm and control logic for the pneumatic EBS (Electronic Braking System) of commercial vehicle. An overall technical program was proposed which develops conventional braking and emergency braking for commercial vehicle EBS. According to the overall scheme, the methods of vehicle state estimation and driver's braking intention were determined, modeling and simulation for key components of commercial vehicle EBS were then carried out. This lead to the development of deceleration control, braking force distribution, brake assist and ABS control. Simulation models for key components of EBS and control strategy were validated through hardware-in-the-loop simulation tests. Simulation results show that the control strategy improves vehicle braking stability and vehicle active safety.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0082
Yang Qi, Nenggen Ding, Feng Gao, Guoyan Xu
Abstract This paper develops a control strategy for tractor semi-trailers by active trailer steering, aiming at minimizing the sweep width of the vehicle at low speeds. The metric of sweep width is defined to evaluate the maneuverability of tractor semi-trailers under a circular motion with constant speeds. The active steering angle of the trailer for each given front wheel steering angle of the tractor is determined to minimize the sweep width, based on solution of equilibrium equations of both the tractor and the trailer in the yaw plane at a very low speed such as 5 km/h. The two steering angles of the tractor and the trailer are fitted to form an open-loop active-steering control algorithm. A nonlinear tractor semi-trailer system model is built for co-simulation purpose by using TruckSim and MATLAB/SIMULINK to evaluate the active trailer steering algorithm. Simulation results show that, under the low-speed roundabout and double lane change maneuvers, the active trailer steering controller can significantly reduce the sweep width and thus improve the low-speed maneuverability.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0084
Mario Milanese, Ilario Gerlero, Carlo Novara
Abstract The vehicle sideslip angle is one of the most important variables for evaluating vehicle dynamics. The potential value of such a variable for obtaining significant improvements over current stability control systems is widely recognized. However, its direct measurement requires the use of complex and expensive devices which cannot be used in production cars. Large research efforts has been devoted to the problem of estimating the sideslip angle from other variables currently measured by standard Electronic Stability Control (ESC) sensors. However, at the best of author's knowledge, until now no application to production cars is known. In this paper, a new sideslip angle estimation technology is presented. Based on the innovative DVS methodology recently developed by the authors, a software algorithm, indicated as DVS/SA (Direct Virtual Sensor of Sideslip Angle), is designed, which estimates the sideslip angle from measurements of the yaw rate, lateral and longitudinal acceleration, wheel speed, steering angle, available from ESC sensors of most present production cars.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0087
Shinhoon Kim, John McPhee, Nasser Lashgarian Azad
Abstract A compact sized vehicle that has a narrow track could solve problems caused by vehicle congestion and limited parking spaces in a mega city. Having a smaller footprint reduces the vehicle's total weight which would decrease overall vehicle power consumption. Also a smaller and narrower vehicle could travel easily through tight and congested roads that would speed up the traffic flow and hence decrease the overall traffic volume in urban areas. As an additional benefit of having a narrow track length, a driver can experience similar motorcycle riding experience without worrying about bad weather conditions since a driver sits in a weather protected cabin. However, reducing the vehicle's track causes instability in vehicle dynamics, which leads to higher possibility of rollovers if the vehicle is not controlled properly. A three wheel personal vehicle with an active tilting system is designed in MapleSim. The vehicle is driven by constant rotational input which is applied to the rear wheel.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0093
Xiaomin Lin, Nenggen Ding, Guoyan Xu, Feng Gao
Abstract Most tractor-semitrailers are fitted with multi-axle trailers which cannot be actively steered, and such vehicles with an articulated configuration are inclined to exhibit instability such as trailer swing, jack-knifing, and rollover at high speed. Proposed in this paper is an optimal control of the yaw stability of tractor-semitrailers at high speed by applying an active trailer's steering angle. An optimal control algorithm is designed by employing a 3-DOF vehicle model in the yaw plane. The optimal linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach is used with a cost function including sideslip angles, yaw rates of both tractor and trailer, and trailer's steering angle. The yaw stability at the high speed is also quantified by the dynamic performance measurements of lateral path deviation, hitch angle and rearward amplification (RA). The algorithm is evaluated by co-simulations using TruckSim and Matlab/Simulink softwares. Simulation results under double lane change maneuvers show that trailer swing and jack-knifing are suppressed with a small path-tracking error and it is concluded that the optimal control of semi-trailer steering can improve the yaw stability at high speed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0098
Anthony Barkman, Kelvin Tan, Arin McIntosh, Peter Hylton, Wendy Otoupal-Hylton
This paper discusses a project intended as a design study for a team of college students preparing for careers in motorsports. The project's objective was to conduct a design study on the possible redesign of the suspension for a dirt-track sprint car. The car examined was typical of those which race on one-quarter to one-half mile dirt oval tracks across the United States. The mission of this concept study was to develop a different configuration from the traditional torsion bar spring system, for the front end. The design included moving the dampers inboard with the addition of a rocker to relate the movement through the front suspension system. For the rear end, components were designed to allow the radius rod to be adjustable from the cockpit, thus providing the driver with adjustability to changing track conditions. The project goal was to design functional front end and rear end changes that could provide a positive impact on handling as well as keeping the system easy to replace in a short period of time.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0109
Prashanth KR. Vaddi, Sandeep Vinjamuri, Kumar Cheruvu
Abstract Advanced research in ABS (Anti-lock Braking System), traction control, electronic LSD's (Limited Slip Differential) and electrical powertrains have led to an architecture development which can be used to provide a controlled yaw moment to stabilize a vehicle. A steer assistance mechanism that uses the same architecture and aims at improving the vehicle response to the driver steering inputs is proposed. In this paper a feed-forward approach where the steering wheel angle is used as the main input is developed. An optimal control system is designed to improve vehicle response to steering input while minimizing the H2 performance of the body slip angle. The control strategy developed was simulated on a 14 DOF full vehicle model to analyze the response and handling performance.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0331
Masayuki Naito, Yasuhiro Koike, Shintaro Osaki, Shinichiro Morishita, Nanhao Quan
Abstract HEV and EV markets are in a rapid expansion tendency. Development of low-cost regenerative cooperation brake system is needed in order to respond to the consumers needs for HEV and EV. Regenerative cooperation brake system which HEV and EV are generally equipped with has stroke simulator. We developed simple composition brake system based on the conventional ESC unit without the stroke simulator, and our system realized a low-cost regenerative cooperation brake. The key technologies are the quiet pressurization control which can be used in the service application, which is to make brake force depending on brake travel, by gear pump and the master cylinder with idle stroke to realize regenerative cooperation brake. Thanks to the key technologies, both the high regenerative efficiency and the good service brake feeling were achieved.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0394
Yong-Sub Yi, Joonhong Park, Kyung-Jin Hong
Abstract In the early stage of vehicle development process, it is customary to establish a set of goals for each kinematic and compliance (K&C) characteristic and try to find out design variables such as the location of hard points and bushing stiffness which can achieve these goals. However, since it is very difficult to find out adequate set of design variables which satisfy all the goals, many engineers should rely on their own experiences and intuitions, or repeat trial and error to design a new suspension and improve old one. In this research, we develop a suspension design process by which suspension K&C characteristic targets can be achieved systemically and automatically. For this purpose, design optimization schemes such as design of experiments (DoE) and gradient-based local optimization algorithm are adopted. Firstly, sensitivity analysis is carried out using DoE and then, according to the analysis results, the whole problem is divided into two partial problems which are independent of each other.
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