Display:

Results

Viewing 211 to 240 of 10252
2015-02-11
WIP Standard
J2792
This document proposes methods for the testing and evaluation of aluminum wheel and wheel trim surface finishes for compatibility with various types of tire, wheel and car wash cleaning materials, and other chemicals that might come into contact with these automotive components. It is recognized that each end user of this methodology might seek answers to questions that are unique to his business or situation. Therefore, the procedure is written in a generic sequence that could be strictly followed, repeated, or modified in order to provide the user with the best results. Example decision tree are provided to help the user select a sequence of exposure steps that would best suit his needs, (reference Figures 1, 2). This procedure should not be utilized if the intent is to evaluate the compatibility of wheel finishes to any flammable products, because those chemistries would require special laboratory safety and handling precautions.
2015-02-10
WIP Standard
AIR5800A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) applies to landing gear tires and airframe structure for all types and models of civil and military aircraft having tires as part of the landing gear. This report describes the advantages and disadvantages of prerotating tires prior to landing, and explains why this practice is not generally adopted. Two potential benefits of this practice are considered: 1) Tire wear and 2) Spin-up loads on the landing gear and aircraft structure.
2015-02-06
WIP Standard
J3090
This SAE Standard specifies the performance tests and requirements for hydraulic brake hose assemblies used in the underhood hydraulic braking system of a road vehicle. This standard does not apply to brake hose used in jounce applications (wheel mounted brake hose assemblies).
2015-02-04
WIP Standard
J1410
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes minimum performance requirements for new pneumatic valves when tested in accordance with the test procedure outlined in SAE J1409. The performance requirements will include: a. Input-output performance b. Leakage characteristics c. Low temperature performance d. Elevated temperature performance e. Corrosion resistance performance f. Endurance testing g. Structural integrity
2015-02-04
WIP Standard
J1409
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures for air brake systems pneumatic valves with respect to: a. Input-Output Performance b. Leakage Characteristics c. Low Temperature Evaluation d. Elevated Temperature Evaluation e. Corrosion Resistance Evaluation f. Endurance Testing g. Structural Integrity h. Vibration Testing
2015-02-03
Standard
J44_201502
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes performance requirements for hand-operated brake systems on recreational, noncompetition snowmobiles.
2015-01-30
Article
Freescale Semiconductor’s FXTH87 tire-pressure monitoring system family provides low-power consumption and functional integration in a compact package.
2015-01-15
WIP Standard
J1095
This SAE Recommended Practice provides uniform laboratory procedures for fatigue testing of spoke wheels and hubs intended for normal highway use on trucks, buses, truck trailers, and multipurpose passenger vehicles. The hubs included have bolt circle diameters from 165.1 to 335.0 mm (6.50 to 13.19 in). It is up to each hub and/or spoke wheel developer to determine what test method, accelerated load factor and cycle life requirements are applicable to obtain satisfactory service life in a given application. When deviations from the procedures recommended herein are made, it is the responsibility of the hub and/or spoke wheel developer to modify other parameters to obtain satisfactory service life.
2015-01-14
Article
Car put on display is based on electrical and mechanical components from a Renault electric vehicle "city car" simply as a proof of process. Much testing and refinement remain. Help is being provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and SABIC.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0004
Jitendra Shah
Abstract A first step towards autonomous rear-end collision avoidance is to start providing natural support to driver in avoiding collision by steering and braking intervention. The proposed system detects slower-moving and stationary vehicles ahead and classifies the risk of having a rear-end-collision. If the risk is high and there is insufficient space to avoid a collision by braking only, the system helps the driver to steer around the obstacle by steering rear toe angle of the wheels individually. A lot of research already exist in the rear wheel steering but the role of rear wheel steering in collision avoidance is not researched yet in great details. Rear wheel steering is used to increase agility and manoeuvrability of vehicle at lower vehicle speed and stability of vehicle at higher vehicle speed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0059
Rahul R Kartha, Mohammad Jamadar, Kishor Kumar Kavathekar, S D Rairikar, S. S Ramdasi, S.S Thipse, N. V Marathe
Abstract The paper deals with the simulation of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) using vehicle performance algorithms. This method speeds up the product development process. Also by using these kind of methodology in vehicle simulation there is much noticeable reduction in cost of testing. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle and also to attain objectives such as to optimize transmission ratio, full load acceleration, maximum tractive force, gradient performance, fuel consumption and the exhaust emission. In this case study, simulation model of a CNG, LCV is used to analyze the performances similar to that done in a chassis dynamometer. The simulation leads to the prediction and evaluation of various parameters such as fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, full load acceleration, gradient performance & maximum tractive effort for Indian Driving Cycle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0062
Pankaj Kumar Verma, Shashi Bhushan Singh, Kalyan Vedula
Abstract The Armoured fighting vehicle designers are continuously fighting for ways to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency, improve reliability, and reduce cost. Customized engineering design and materials are becoming more widespread on all fronts. Also, vehicle emission norms are getting stringent day by day and there is increasing pressure to reduce fuel consumption. One important method of achieving the fuel economy and improve vehicle performance is to reduce vehicle weight. In view of the above advanced materials like Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites are promising to be the material to look for when it comes to reduce weight of structural elements due to its high strength to weight and high stiffness to weight ratios and hence was used for the development of Bogie Wheel of a light tracked vehicle. This paper illustrates the developmental methodology of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Road wheel for 20 ton class of tracked vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0078
Parth Lunia, Mrigendra Prajapati, V Jayashankar, Varun Parakh, Samir Rawte
Abstract This paper is an attempt to compile a systematic approach which can be easily incorporated in the product development system used in the design and development of parking brake systems for passenger cars having rear drum brakes, which in turn can effectively reduce the lead time and give improved performance. The vehicle GVW, percentage gradient and maximum effort limits (as per IS 11852 - Part 3), tire and drum brake specifications were taken as front loading. This data is used for target setting of functional and engineering parameters, such as lever pull effort, lever ratio and angular travel of lever. Design calculations were performed to obtain theoretical values of critical parameters like lever effort and travel. The comparison between target and theoretical values give the initial confidence to the system engineer. Further, the outcome was taken to conceptualize the hard points of lever on vehicle for ergonomics.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0080
Wen Zhang, Bo Yang
Abstract Commercial vehicle plays an important role during transportation process under the demand of high speed, convenience and efficiency. So improving active safety of commercial vehicle has become a research topic. Due to the fact that braking characteristic is the basic and most closely related to safe driving of vehicle's performances, this paper aims to improve the braking performance by researching into an integrated control method based on the mature ABS products. Firstly, a strategy which gives priority to ABS and differential yaw moment control, complementary with the hydraulic active suspension control is proposed. In comparison with ABS, the combined control of brake system and suspension system is designed not only for preventing wheels lock. But the directional control to avoid roll or spin is more focused on. Then in order to run the novel method correctly, the controlled variables and evaluation criteria are illustrated briefly.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0084
Ishwar Patil, Kiran P Wani
Abstract The three main objectives that a suspension system of an automobile must satisfy are ride comfort, vehicle handling and suspension working space. The aim of this paper is to design and analyze the semi active suspension system models using skyhook, ground hook and hybrid control method. The two degree of freedom (2 DOF) quarter car model is used for analysis of vehicle body displacement, vehicle acceleration and suspension working space and dynamic tire deflection. Simulation of semi active control models are carried out in MATLAB SIMULINK which describes performance of passive system, skyhook on-off and continuous control, ground hook control and hybrid control methods. Time response analysis shows that, for road bump excitation of 70mm vertical displacement, skyhook on-off control improves ride comfort for the results of maximum peak to peak body displacement with 27.53% improvement than that of the passive suspension model.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0082
Jeevan N. Patil, Sivakumar Palanivelu, Vaibhav Aswar, Vipin Sharma
Abstract Pneumatic brake system is widely used in heavy truck, medium and heavy buses for its great superiority and braking performance over other brake systems. Pneumatic brake system consists of various valves such as Dual Brake Valve (DBV), Quick release Valve (QRV), Relay Valve (RV), Brake chambers. Dynamics of each valve is playing a crucial role in overall dynamic performance of the braking system. However, it is very difficult to find the contribution of each valve and pipe diameters in overall braking performance. Hence, it is very difficult to arrive a best combination for targeted braking performance as it is not possible to evaluate all combination on the actual vehicle. Hence, it is very important to have a mathematical model to optimize and evaluate the overall braking performance in early design phase. The present study is focusing on the mathematical model of a pneumatic brake circuit.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0085
Boris Belousov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Sergei Naumov
Abstract The modular designing principle is generally recognized in the automotive industry. However, the issue of building a wheel open-link locomotion module (OLLM) as a combination of steering (wheel turning), springing, traction drive and braking systems is not properly developed yet. An automated control system (ACS) is needed to able to unite and coordinate all the vehicle systems intended to manage the wheel. The automated control system intended to manage the steering and wheel springing parameters is a combination of an information and power channels, through which the wheel is electro-hydraulically driven, and the steering, springing and braking systems are controlled. The number of such channels in a wheeled mover of the vehicle or mobile robot is defined by the wheel type (driving, driven, steered or non-steered wheel). The plurality of such channels forms a complex of automated control systems of the wheeled mover.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0143
Navneet Chaudhari, K.V.V. Rao Srinivasa, Phillips Cecil
Abstract The purpose of a differential is to allow the wheels of an automobile to turn at different speeds so that it does not skid during turning. However when a vehicle runs on a slick or muddy surface (especially in Agricultural and constructional Field applications) that same feature causes the wheel with less traction to spin freely as this unit transmits power to the tire with least amount of traction. The function of a difflock is to lock the differential gears, by locking the differential, both the axles receive equal power and hence equal traction is available at both the tires. This Paper describes the positive locking of a differential by stopper, and also in detail the problems associated with its engagement and disengagement in tractors and construction equipment's. Additionally a concept for a difflock stopper which has been experimentally proven for tractors and construction equipment's is also discussed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0134
Jayant Sinha, Ajit Kharade, Shrihari Matsagar
Abstract An interior sound quality is one of the major performance attribute, as consumer envisage this as class and luxury of the vehicle. With increasing demand of quietness inside the cabin, car manufactures started focusing on noise refinement and source separation. This demand enforces hydraulic power steering pump to reduce noise like Moan and Whine, especially in silent gasoline engine. To meet these requirements, extensive testing and in-depth analysis of noise data is performed. Structured process is established to isolate noises and feasible solutions are provided considering following analysis. a) Overall airborne noise measurement at driver ear level (DEL) inside the cabin using vehicle interior microphone.b) Airborne and Pressure pulsation test by sweeping pump speed and pressure at test bench.c) Waterfall analysis of pump at hemi anechoic chamber for order tracking and noise determination.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0150
Sanjay Chaudhuri, Vikram Saini
Abstract Special purpose, high payload carrying capacity, live gooseneck, multi axles, hydraulic suspension semi trailer is abinitio designed for transportation and tilting of heavy cargo from horizontal to vertical by hydraulically actuated mechanism integrated on the trailer. The chassis is levelled on hydraulic jacks followed by tilting of cargo. Hence the chassis experiences variable forces during tilting and estimated from kinematic model of tilting mechanism. These forces are input for finite element based structural design of chassis. Structural deflection of a step is made as initial condition for certain load cases of the analysis. Live gooseneck of this semi-trailer consists of hydraulically actuated mechanism, interconnected with multiple hydraulic suspensions in appropriate ratios. Estimation of Axles and fifth wheel force distributions of such trailer is complex. Mathematical modelling made to estimate these forces and applied as inputs for finite element analysis.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0225
Sankarganesh Padmanaban, Prashant R Pawar
Abstract The tire is generally characterized on the basis of forces and moments being generated at the contact patch, which describes the friction potential of the tire in both longitudinal and lateral directions at different load conditions. The field conditions and applications under which the tires (especially commercial one) perform is diverse, which results in varied performance for the same product. To understand this there is a need to recognize the range of friction values the tire undergoes in different conditions. Though there are couple of methods and indoor test available to estimate the available friction potential, they are not only deficient in replicating the different real road scenarios but also prove difficult to reproduce different road surfaces. There is also a lack of availability and expense of out door test equipment in India.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0181
Mukund Trikande, Sujithkumar Muralidharan, Vinit Jagirdar
Abstract This study is made on a simplified pitch model of an armored fighting vehicle. Jerks and angular acceleration inside the vehicle compartment Affects accurate firing attack and reduced fatigue to the occupants in Vehicle. The Stability Augmentation Technique can enhance the stability and ride comfort of the vehicle platform from road and firing disturbance. The force requirement for stabilizing the platform is calculated from the displacement of vehicle body in terms of pitch angle and Heave displacement with respect to the equilibrium position, the equivalent force at suspension mounting points required to stabilize the platform is calculated using a force transformation technique. The required force is given by an active Damper for stabilization, within the limit of damper capacity.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0170
Chaitanya Pendurthi, Sourabh Tiwari, Sujit Chalipat, Ganesh Bhagwant Gadekar
Abstract Tire plays an important role in frontal impacts as it acts as a load path to transfer loads from barrier to side sill or rocker panels of passenger vehicles. In order to achieve better correlation and more reliable predictions of vehicle crash performance in CAE simulations, modeling techniques are continuously getting refined with detailed representation of vehicle components in full vehicle crash simulations. In this study, detailed tire modeling process is explored to represent tire dynamic stiffness more accurately in frontal impact crash simulations. Detailed representation of tire internal components such as steel belts, body plies, steel beads along with rubber tread and sidewall portion have been done. Passenger car tubeless radial tire was chosen for this study. Initially, quasi-static tensile coupon tests were carried out in both longitudinal and lateral direction of tread portion of tire.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0172
Girikumar Kumaresh, Thomas Lich, Moennich Joerg
Abstract In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 [1]. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0167
Thomas Lich, Girikumar Kumaresh, Joerg Moennich
Abstract Motorized two wheelers, also known as powered two wheelers (PTW) are the most common mode of transportation in India. Around one in four deaths that occurred on the roads in India in 2012 involved a motorcyclist, according to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. This constitutes the highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. The European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist having a fatal accident is 20 times greater than for a car driver travelling the same route [2]. An investigation conducted by Bosch looked at the accident database of Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). This investigation revealed interesting facts about the Indian motorcycle accident situation, such as root causes of powered two wheeler collisions and riders behaviour including their braking patterns during the pre-crash phase of the accident.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0215
T Sukumar, Murugan Subramanian, Sathish Kumar Subramaniyan, Nandakumar Subramanian
Abstract Reliable sealing solutions are extremely important in commercial vehicle industry because sealing failures can cause vehicle breakdown, damage of equipment or even accident, incurring expenses that are substantially higher than the costs of just replacing the damaged seals. Consequently, new seal designs must be experimentally verified and validated before they can be implemented. In this study, Mooney - Rivlin hyper elastic material model is used to simulate the sealing behavior during dynamic conditions. The seal under study is a large diameter lip seal made of Neoprene® rubber (NBR) A finite element model to study the response of the seal under dynamic conditions was developed. The analysis took into account the mating parts dimensions and the lip seal parameters. Three designs were proposed and verified. The seal design is optimized using non-linear FEA and validated. Results include contact pressure, deflection and strain experienced by the seal during actuation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0205
N. Prabhakar, Suresh Gayakwad J, P. Lingeswaramurthy, P.S. Lakshman
Abstract The present investigation deals with the design and shape optimization of the steel insert used in the hand brake valve to withstand the impact load during brake off condition. This hand brake valve is used in the vehicles for parking brake application. It consists of a steel insert with a helical coil spring for locking and unlocking of a lever during brake on and off condition. Also a torsion spring with a cam mechanism is used for opening and closing of a hand brake valve. When the lever is locked the flexible elastic object (torsion spring) stores the mechanical energy when it is twisted. When it is unlocked (braking off) it exerts a force (actually torque) in the opposite direction, proportional to the angle it is twisted. During the braking off condition the steel insert gains the angular velocity from the stored mechanical energy of the torsion spring.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0068
Muthuraj Ramasamy, Vignesh E, Sundararajan Thiyagarajan
Abstract A “WHEEL” is one of those auto component in a vehicle which necessitates equal attention from safety, ergonomics and aesthetic perspectives. A conventional tube type wheel for commercial vehicles is made of steel with steel side rings (multi-piece construction). In course as headway in wheel design the single piece wheels were developed which used the tubeless tires. These wheels were made available in both steel and aluminum versions. Wherein the aluminum wheels were lighter in weight than steel, aesthetically more appealing and had other significant advantages. Despite the advantages of these tubeless tire wheels, the end user had to invest for both wheels and tubeless tires to replace conventional tube type steel wheels. The retro-fitment calls for higher exchange cost of wheel and tire and this process stands to be more capitalistic to the end user wherein the payback period was longer.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0206
Nikhil Mule, Dattatraya Pilane, Prashant Mahale, M P Raajha
Abstract Brake is a critical safety aspect of an automobile and hence its failsafe design is of prime importance. Modern vehicles, especially cars and SUVs, with high speed and high acceleration capacities require the braking system also to be equally robust and stable in all critical driving conditions. Typically, during braking, front brakes take up higher torque than rear brakes due to vehicle dynamics and associated load transfers. Generally, these are disc brakes using cast iron rotors. Rotor absorbs heat energy generated during braking and dissipates it into components in its vicinity and largely, into surrounding air. Due to stringent target of overall reduction in weight and cost of an automobile, rotors are fairly optimized on these aspects with a balance of needed braking performance. This optimization in weight of rotor limits the thermal absorption equally of rotor i.e heat dissipation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0186
Mohitkumar R. Chauhan, Girish Kotwal, Abhijeet Majge
Abstract The major concern in design of wheel is their potentiality to bear impact loads. Therefore, wheel impact test is required to fulfill the safety requirement. In this study, there are two objectives; first, the simulation of impact test for wheel is developed according to SAE wheel impact test. Often when vehicle interacts with guardrails, bridge rails and curbs the interaction between roadside hardware and wheel causes wheel damage. The test setup consists of vertically acting striker of mass 480 kg and having prescribed velocity. Energy based approach and total plastic work concept of ductile fracture mechanics is used to predict wheel impact failure. Explicit finite element method is used to investigate stress and displacement distribution and to obtain strain energy density of wheel at impact. Design modification is applied to the wheel to improve its impact performance. Simulation results are compared with experimental results.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 10252

Filter