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Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Aref M.A. Soliman
The integrated control between the vehicle chassis subsystems (suspension, brake, and steering) became one of the most important aspects for current developments to improve the dynamics of the vehicles. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the preview control of the active suspension on the vehicle ride and braking performance. The vehicle performance was examined theoretically using a longitudinal half vehicle model with four degrees of freedom considering the rotational motion of the tires. The active suspension system model, tire-road interface model and braking system model are included in the vehicle model. In order to study the influence of the preview control on the vehicle ride and braking performance, an active suspension system control algorithm employing the lock-ahead preview information and the wheel-base time delay based on the optimal control theory is derived. On the other hand, the ABS control algorithm is designed based on the slip-control strategy.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mina Kaldas, Kemal Caliskan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Abstract New developments in road profile measurement systems and in semi-active damper technology promote the application of preview control strategies to vehicle suspension systems. This paper details a new semi-active suspension control approach in which a rule-optimized Fuzzy Logic controller is enhanced through preview capability. The proposed approach utilizes an optimization process for obtaining the optimum membership functions and the optimum rule-base of the preview enhanced Fuzzy Logic controller. The preview enhanced Fuzzy Logic controller uses the feedforward road input information and the feedback vehicle state information as the controller inputs. An eleven degree of freedom full vehicle model, which is validated through laboratory tests performed on a hydraulic four-poster shaker, is used for the controller synthesis. The cost function including both ride comfort and road holding performance of the full vehicle is minimized through a discrete optimization process utilizing Genetic Algorithm (GA).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mario Hrgetic, Josko Deur, Vladimir Ivanovic, Eric Tseng
Abstract This paper presents the extended Kalman filter-based sideslip angle estimator design using a nonlinear 5DoF single-track vehicle dynamics model with stochastic modeling of tire forces. Lumped front and rear tire forces have been modeled as first-order random walk state variables. The proposed estimator is primarily designed for vehicle sideslip angle estimation; however it can also be used for estimation of tire forces and cornering stiffness. This estimator design does not rely on linearization of the tire force characteristics, it is robust against the variations of the tire parameters, and does not require the information on coefficient of friction. The estimator performance has been first analyzed by means of computer simulations using the 10DoF two-track vehicle dynamics model and underlying magic formula tire model, and then experimentally validated by using data sets recorded on a test vehicle.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tomislav Lovric, Manuel Schneider-Scheyer, Samir Sarkic
Abstract Today's Automotive ECU development is a global engineering exercise. It requires efficient planning, design and implementation. Time to market, innovative customer functions and cost effective design are key to success. Not only the technical realization with compressed time schedules and frequent change requests, but also the documentation, and the proof of compliance to ISO-26262 requires efficient solutions to be applied. Key to successful ECU development of complex safety critical systems inside a global team is a systematic approach to identify the ideal realization out of multiple design alternatives. This is why TRW Electronics Engineering for its Braking ECU products decided to design the new product generation with the help of Model Based System Engineering methods (MBSE). With these methods the team is realizing the opportunities provided by top-down driven development considering Requirements Engineering, Semi-formal Architecture Description, and early support to create evidence to conform to ASIL D in accordance to ISO 26262.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Haizhen Liu, Weiwen Deng, Changfu Zong, Jian Wu
Abstract This paper first presents an algorithm to detect tire blowout based on wheel speed sensor signals, which either reduces the cost for a TPMS or provides a backup in case it fails, and a tire blowout model considering different tire pressure is also built based on the UniTire model. The vehicle dynamic model uses commercial software CarSim. After detecting tire blowout, the active braking control, based on a 2DOF reference model, determines an optimal correcting yaw moment and the braking forces that slow down and stop the vehicle, based on a linear quadratic regulator. Then the braking force commands are further translated into target pressure command for each wheel cylinder to ensure the target braking forces are generated. Some simulations are conducted to verify the active control strategy. From the simulation results, it is shown that this active brake control strategy can not only ensure the flat tire vehicle stability, but also slow down the vehicle with a safe speed and for a shorter distance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jianmin Dang, Hui Chen, Bolin Gao, Qi Li, Minhao Li, Takeshi Watanabe, Ryouhei Hayama, Liming Lou, Shirou Nakano
To overcome the shortcomings of subjective evaluation, there have been several studies to examine the correlations between subjective and objective evaluations of on-center steering feel, and some useful results are obtained. However, it is still not clear how to design the steering characteristic based on the correlations. In this paper, we propose a methodology of identifying the optimal on-center steering force characteristic based on the correlations between subjective and objective evaluations. Firstly, significant correlations between subjective and objective evaluations regarding on-center steering feel are established and verified. These verified correlations are then used to design the steering force characteristic. With desired ratings of the subjective evaluation items set as optimization goals, the ideal values of objective evaluation indices are obtained by use of an optimal design method. At last, the optimal steering force characteristic is designed based on the ideal objective indices.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jakub Zebala, Wojciech Wach
Abstract The objective of the paper is to present the results of an investigation of the effect of reduced tire pressure on car lateral dynamics in lane change maneuver. The intended aim was attained by performing bench and road tests. The aim of the bench tests was parameterization of the mathematical model of the tested car. The road tests covered the vehicle motion with reduced and no tire pressure on a curvilinear track adequate for bypassing an unexpected appearing obstacle. Next, simulations in PC-Crash were performed, and the results were compared with those obtained in experiments.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yutaka Horiuchi, Takashi Yanagi
Honda has developed an “Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System” that can achieve stable cornering performance and agile handling. We believe the issue that should be resolved in the next generation of ESC is the expansion of stability and agility into the general operation area. We examined how to accomplish this aim, and control of the independent rear toe angle was decided to be an appropriate method. In addition, a method for mounting the system without using a dedicated suspension was proposed. If left and right toe angles can be controlled independently, toe angle control and normal 4WS control become possible at the same time. In this paper, we will discuss the fundamental principle of independent toe angle control and the system configuration. Also, “INOMAMA Handling” (at driver's will) achieved by this system, as well as the fun and safe driving that are achieved as a result will be shown.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yugong Luo, Kun Cao, Yifan Dai, Wenbo Chu, Keqiang Li
The current global chassis control (GCC) frequently makes use of decoupled control methods which depend on driving condition partition and simple rule-based vertical force distribution, and are insufficient to obtain optimal vehicle dynamics performance. Therefore, a novel hierarchical global chassis control system for a distributed electric vehicle (DEV), which is equipped with four wheel driving/steering and active suspension systems, is developed in this paper. The control system consists of three layers: in the upper layer, the desired forces/moments based on vehicular driving demands are determined; in the middle layer, a coordinated control method of longitudinal/lateral/vertical tire forces are proposed; in the lower layer, the driving/steering/suspension control is conducted to realize each distributed tire force. As the most outstanding contribution of this paper, a non-convex optimization problem with multiple constraints for coordinated control of longitudinal/lateral/vertical tire forces is solved, in which (1) tire force distribution problem is theoretically concluded as a constrained non-convex optimization problem, (2) a unique objective function that combines the tire workload and the dynamic ratio of the vertical forces is designed to evaluate tire force distribution, (3) 14 constraints including vehicular driving demands, tire friction limitations and actuator natures are involved to bound each tire force reasonably, and (4) an algorithm that combines constrained optimization and feasible region planning is proposed to solve the constrained non-convex optimization problem.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Philip Axer, Daniel Thiele, Rolf Ernst, Jonas Diemer, Simon Schliecker, Kai R. Richter
Ethernet is the hottest candidate for future in-car communication architecture, promising much higher bandwidth, flexibility and reduced costs. In the coming years, Ethernet will likely evolve from a separate communication medium for special applications like surround-view cameras and infotainment to a central communication infrastructure as a backbone technology. To make this transition, many difficult design decisions have to be made in order to make the technology suitable for the stricter time and safety requirements of todays and future cars. There are a lot of potential real-time effects that must be taken into account. To guide these design decisions, it is necessary to analyze the various architecture concepts with respect to load, performance and real-time capabilities. In this paper, we present different design space axes of Ethernet and propose a methodology of assessing and comparing them. This includes a formal worst-case timing analysis approach and a set of metrics that make the timing analysis results comprehensible and comparable across different design options.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Boyuan Li, Haiping Du, Weihua Li
The omni-directional vehicle is an innovative vehicle, in which the in-wheel steering motor and in-wheel driving motor are integrated into each wheel of the vehicle so that each wheel can be independently controlled to have traction, braking, and turning motions to improve the vehicle's mobility, handling and stability. To realize good performance, various control strategies have been proposed, like the active steering control and the direct yaw moment control, where the accurate slip angle information is critical to these control strategies. However, in practice, the side slip angle is hard or expensive to be measured for a passenger vehicle, therefore, different estimation methods have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, a novel side slip angle estimation method is proposed for the omni-directional vehicle that has four independent steering motors. This method includes the estimation of total alignment torque and side slip angle, and only needs the measurements of steering angles and steering motor currents, which are available by using angle sensors and current sensors embedded with the in-wheel steering motors.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael Flad, Simon Rothfuss, Gunter Diehm, Sören Hohmann
Brake pedal feedback is important for driver's perception during the driving task as well as the pedal feel is an important factor in customer satisfaction. Therefore, a force emulation device is beneficial during the design phase to evaluate the pedal characteristic. Such a system is also needed for driving simulators. Usually, brake feedback systems in simulators rely on passive elements like springs and dampers to emulate the force. This does not allow the implementation of an arbitrary nonlinear pedal force characteristic. In this paper we propose an active pedal feedback simulator which can emulate an arbitrarily customizable and online adjustable brake pedal characteristic. The particular advantage of our pedal simulator is that the system can also emulate the exact pedal dynamics. This is advantageous compared to other active brake feedback simulators which rely on hydraulic actors. We show the mechatronic, electronic and software concept along with the required control framework and state observer.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tau Tyan, Jeff Vinton, Eric Beckhold, Xiangtong Zhang, Jeffrey Rupp, Nand Kochhar, Saeed Barbat
This paper presents the final phase of a study to develop the modeling methodology for an advanced steering assembly with a safety-enhanced steering wheel and an adaptive energy absorbing steering column. For passenger cars built before the 1960s, the steering column was designed to control vehicle direction with a simple rigid rod. In severe frontal crashes, this type of design would often be displaced rearward toward the driver due to front-end crush of the vehicle. Consequently, collapsible, detachable, and other energy absorbing steering columns emerged to address this type of kinematics. These safety-enhanced steering columns allow frontal impact energy to be absorbed by collapsing or breaking the steering columns, thus reducing the potential for rearward column movement in severe crashes. Recently, more advanced steering column designs have been developed that can adapt to different crash conditions including crash severity, occupant mass/size, seat position, and seatbelt usage.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Renaud Deborne, Skárlet Khouri Silva, Andras Kemeny
Abstract By the action on the steering wheel, the driver has the capability to control the trajectory of its vehicle. Nevertheless, the steering wheel has also the role of information provider to the driver. In particular, the torque level at the steering wheel informs the driver about the interaction between the vehicle and the road. This information flow is natural due to the mechanical chain between the road and the steering wheel. Many studies have shown that steering wheel torque feedback is crucial to ensure the control of the vehicle. In the context of uncoupled steering (steer-by-wire vehicle or driving simulators), the torque rendering on the steering wheel is a major challenge. In addition, of the trajectory control, the quality of this torque is a key for the immersion of drivers in virtual environment such as in driving simulators. The torque-rendering loop is composed of different steps. At first, a vehicle dynamics model computes the torque level at the steering wheel regarding the vehicle state (steering wheel position, vehicle speed, etc.).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Klaus Greven, Manikandan Loganathan
Abstract The Counter Pressure Casting (CPC) process is particularly suited for the production of aluminum suspension components like wheel carriers or steering knuckles. Using a typical AlSi7Mg alloy such as A356 or EN AC-42100, yield strength above 260 MPa and elongation rates above 8% are possible in a high volume production. Although these are very good values for aluminum castings, the yield strength has to be improved to increase the light weight potential of such components. The present work shows how this goal can be achieved by the development of a new aluminum casting alloy. Besides the modification of Si and Mg content, the addition of Cr leads to an additional dispersion hardening effect. In this way, yield strength above 310 MPa combined with an elongation of 7% can be assured in the CPC process after a T6 heat treatment. Fundamental microstructural investigations are shown as well as the results of tensile tests, high temperature strength, corrosion behavior and static and dynamic component testing.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Daewon Jang, Sungbae Jang
Abstract Today, all manufacturers of vehicle are up for the challenge to abide in automobile emission control laws. Weight reduction is one of the best solutions to reduce both fuel consumption and emissions. The most effective method for the said idea is to have lightweight materials to some of parts of vehicle using the FRP(Fiber Reinforced Plastics). In order to obtain good mechanical properties of FRP, continuous fiber should be used. But it is difficult to design and manufacture of FRP parts using continuous fiber because of material properties and molding process. In this paper, it is used CF(carbon Fiber) and Epoxy to make a composite material Properties of this CFRP can be predicted through analysis. Tests and simulations of specimen are performed as every steps progress for correlation. And spring can be designed to meet all requirements for specific performance. The CFRP spring is made by new devices and methods and can be applied to vehicle for practical using. Patents regard to this devices were registered.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ibrahim A. Badiru
The automotive industry is one of the most competitive enterprises in the world. Customers face an ever-expanding number of entries in each market segment vying for their business. Sales price, brand image, marketing, etc. all play a role in purchase decisions, but the factor distinguishing products that consistently perform in the market place is the ability to satisfy the customer. Steering character plays a critical role in the customer driving experience and can be one of the most heavily debated topics during a new vehicle program. The proliferation of EPS steering systems now allows engineers to calibrate steering feel to almost any desired specification. This raises a key question: What subjective & objective characteristics satisfy customers in a particular market segment? Answering this question requires continued research to develop objective metrics correlated to subjective steering attributes and increased understanding of customer preferences for objective performance parameters.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Daryl R. Poirier, Ravindra Patil, Robert Geisler, Joseph Schudt
Abstract The automotive industry is under great pressure to reduce vehicle mass for both cost and fuel economy gains. A significant contributor to body and suspension structure mass is peak vertical loads, primarily entering the body structure through the jounce bumper to body interface. This paper focuses on the successful development of “Loads Management Striker Caps” for the 2013 Cadillac ATS front and rear suspension. Component design and development of the striker caps was executed using explicit finite element analysis tools. Multi-body dynamics vehicle models were used to set component requirements and confirm striker cap performance for the vehicle during peak vertical events. The “Loads Management Striker Caps” ultimately reduced peak strut/shock tower loads by 40% in the front suspension and 25% in the rear suspension. This resulted in significant body and chassis mass savings, contributing to the Cadillac ATS's class leading curb weight.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jonathan M. S. Mattson, Michael Mangus, Christopher Depcik
Abstract A timing sweep to correlate the location of Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) was completed on a single-cylinder, direct injected compression ignition engine that was recently upgraded to a high-pressure rail injection system for better engine control. This sweep included emissions monitoring for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen for the calibration of a heat release model, as well as the opportunity to relate MBT timing to brake-specific emissions production. The result of this timing sweep was a relatively linear correlation between injection delay and peak pressure timing. In addition, a number of other MBT timing methodologies were tested indicating their applicability for immediate feedback upon engine testing, particularly mass fraction burned correlations. Emissions were either strongly correlated to MBT timing (with emissions being minimized in the vicinity of MBT), or were completely independent of MBT. In addition, the end of the MBT timing envelope was linked to increased fuel consumption, as well as a rise in aromatic hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ryan M. Ashby, JongYun Jeong, Shreesha Y. Rao, Gary J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther
This research was to model a 6×4 tractor-trailer rig using TruckSim and simulate severe braking maneuvers with hardware in the loop and software in the loop simulations. For the hardware in the loop simulation (HIL), the tractor model was integrated with a 4s4m anti-lock braking system (ABS) and straight line braking tests were conducted. In developing the model, over 100 vehicle parameters were acquired from a real production tractor and entered into TruckSim. For the HIL simulation, the hardware consisted of a 4s4m ABS braking system with six brake chambers, four modulators, a treadle and an electronic control unit (ECU). A dSPACE simulator was used as the “interface” between the TruckSim computer model and the hardware.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Zeyu Ma, Jinglai Wu, Yunqing Zhang, Ming Jiang
The main purpose of this research is to investigate the optimal design of pipeline diameter in an air brake system in order to reduce the response time for driving safety using DOE (Design of Experiment) method. To achieve this purpose, this paper presents the development and validation of a computer-aided analytical dynamic model of a pneumatic brake system in commercial vehicles. The brake system includes the subsystems for brake pedal, treadle valve, quick release valve, load sensing proportional valve and brake chamber, and the simulation models for individual components of the brake system are established within the multi-domain physical modeling software- AMESim based on the logic structure. An experimental test bench was set up by connecting each component with the nylon pipelines based on the actual layout of the 4×2 commercial vehicle air brake system. The experimental data of the transient pressure in both secondary and primary brake circuits was measured to verify the simulation accuracy and the positive results of the validation show a potential for investigating the most suitable parameter configuration of the pipeline diameter based on the computer-aided analytical dynamic models.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Zeyu Ma, Jinglai Wu, Yunqing Zhang, Ming Jiang
In this paper, a new computational method is provided to identify the uncertain parameters of Load Sensing Proportional Valve (LSPV) in a heavy truck brake system by using the polynomial chaos theory. The simulation model of LSPV is built in the software AMESim depending on structure of the valve, and the estimation process is implemented relying on the experimental measurements by pneumatic bench test. With the polynomial chaos expansion carried out by collocation method, the output observation function of the nonlinear pneumatic model can be transformed into a linear and time-invariant form, and the general recursive functions based on Newton method can therefore be reformulated to fit for the computer programming and calculation. To improve the estimation accuracy, the Newton method is modified with reference to Simulated Annealing algorithm by introducing the Metropolis Principle to control the fluctuation during the estimation process and escape from the local minima. The comparison between the introduced computational method and other estimation method indicates that the proposed method can be performed with higher convergence speed and robustness.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu, Giorgio Previati, Mario Pennati
The measurement of the contact forces between road and tires is of fundamental importance while designing road vehicles. In this paper, the design and the employment of measuring wheels for trucks and heavy vehicles is presented. The measuring wheels have been optimized in order to obtain high stiffness and the approximately the same mass of the wheels normally employed. The proposed multicomponent measuring wheels are high- accuracy instruments for measuring the dynamic loads during handling and durability testing. The measuring wheels can replace the wheels of the truck under normal operation. Such family of wheels plays a major role in modern road vehicles development. The measuring wheel concept design is based on a patented three-spoke structure connected to the wheel rim. The spokes are instrumented by means of strain gauges and the measuring wheel is able to measure the three forces and the three moments acting at the interface between the tire and the road. It uses an inboard digital system for wireless data transmission.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Guangzhong Xu, Nong Zhang
This paper presents the modeling and characteristic analysis of roll-plane and pitch-plane combined Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension (HIS) system. Vehicle dynamic analysis is carried out with four different configurations for comparison. They are: 1) vehicle with spring-damper only, 2) vehicle with roll-plane HIS, 3) vehicle with pitch-plane HIS and 4) vehicle with roll and pitch combined HIS. The modal analysis shows the unique modes-decoupling property of HIS system. The roll-plane HIS increases roll stiffness only without affecting other modes, and similarly pitch-plane HIS increases the pitch stiffness only with minimum influence on other modes. When roll and pitch plane HIS are integrated, the vehicle ride comfort and handling stability can be improved simultaneously without compromise. A detailed analysis and discussion of the results are provided to conclude the paper.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
David H. Myszka, Jonathan Lauden, Patrick Joyce, Andrew Murray, Christoph Gillum
Automotive starting systems require substantial amounts of mechanical energy in a short period of time. Lead-acid batteries have historically provided that energy through a starter motor. Springs have been identified as an alternative energy storage medium and are well suited to engine-starting applications due to their ability to rapidly deliver substantial mechanical power and their long service life. This paper presents the development of a conceptual, spring-based starter. The focus of the study was to determine whether a spring of acceptable size could provide the required torque and rotational speed to start an automotive engine. Engine testing was performed on a representative 600 cc, inline 4-cylinder internal combustion engine to determine the required torque and engine speed during the starting cycle. An optimization was performed to identify an appropriate spring design, minimizing its size. Results predict that the test engine could be started by a torsional steel spring with a diameter and length of approximately 150 mm, similar in size, but lower weight than an electrical starting system of the engine.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ankang Jin, Weiguo Zhang, Shihu Wang, Yu Yang, Yunqing Zhang
The suspension system of a heavy truck's driver seat plays an important role to reduce the vibrations transmitted to the seat occupant from the cab floor. Air-spring is widely used in the seat suspension system, for the reason that its spring rate is variable and it can make the seat suspension system keep constant ‘tuned’ frequency compared to the conventional coil spring. In this paper, vibration differential equation of air-spring system with auxiliary volume is derived, according to the theory of thermodynamic, hydrodynamics. The deformation-load static characteristic curves of air-spring is obtained, by using a numerical solution method. Then, the ADAMS model of the heavy truck's driver seat suspension system is built up, based on the structure of the seat and parameters of the air-spring and the shock-absorber. At last, the model is validated by comparing the simulation results and the test results, considering the seat acceleration PSD and RMS value.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Austin Gurley
Abstract Selection of springs and dampers is one of the most important considerations when finalizing a race car suspension design. It is also one of most complex due to the dynamic interaction of the vehicle with the ground. Current tuning methods for spring and dampers' effect on vehicle ride can be based on simplified dynamic models of the vehicle, such as the quarter-car model. While efficient computationally, the traditional quarter-car model does not account for the non-linear variation in grip seen by a fluctuating contact-patch. Both amplitude and frequency of suspension oscillation contribute to loss of tire grip. The method can be improved by incorporation of a dynamic tire model, though resulting in non-linear effects. An improved ‘rolling quarter-car’ model is created, which includes the effect of dynamic tire forces in the analysis of improved grip. Using typical Formula SAE race car, characteristics as a test case, a linearized dynamic model is made. The effect of suspension parameters on the dynamic tire forces produced are surveyed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Chen Lv, Junzhi Zhang, Yutong Li, Ye Yuan
Abstract Regenerative braking, which can effectively improve vehicle's fuel economy by recuperating the kinetic energy during deceleration processes, has been applied in various types of electrified vehicle as one of its key technologies. To achieve high regeneration efficiency and also guarantee vehicle's brake safety, the regenerative brake should be coordinated with the mechanical brake. Therefore, the regenerative braking control performance can be significantly affected by the structure of mechanical braking system and the brake blending control strategy. By-wire brake system, which mechanically decouples the brake pedal from the hydraulic brake circuits, can make the braking force modulation more flexible. Moreover, its inherent characteristic of ‘pedal-decouple’ makes it well suited for the implementation in the cooperative regenerative braking control of electrified vehicles. With the aims of regeneration efficiency and braking performance, a regenerative braking control algorithm for electrified vehicles equipped with a brake-by-wire system is researched in this paper.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection focuses on new theory, formulation and modeling of amplitude-, frequency- and temperature-dependent nonlinear components/systems such as rubber and hydraulic mounts or bushings, shock absorbers, and any joint friction/damping; dynamic characterization through lab and field testing; Linearization methodology; Model validation, application, and sensitivity analysis in vehicle system/subsystem simulations; Nonlinear system identification, modeling, and application in testing accuracy improvement, etc.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection is focused on vehicle dynamics and controls using modeling and simulation, and experimental analysis of passenger cars, heavy trucks, and wheeled military vehicles. The papers address active and passive safety systems to mitigate rollover, yaw instability and braking issues; driving simulators and hardware-in-the-loop systems; suspension kinematics and compliance, steering dynamics, advanced active suspension technologies; and tire force and moment mechanics.
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