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2017-04-26
WIP Standard
AS1145D
This specification covers minimum requirements for brake temperature monitoring equipment whenever used on any type and model of civil aircraft. It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to determine the compatibility of these requirements with the application aircraft and to specify requirements in excess of these minimums as necessary.
2017-04-25
WIP Standard
J1462
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for testing of external automatic brake adjusters as they are used in service, emergency, or parking brake systems for on-highway vehicle applications.
2017-04-17
Article
More on-board processing power is needed to enable the next generation of vehicle systems, said Dr. Holger Klein, ZF's Head of Car Chassis Technology.
2017-04-14
WIP Standard
J2684
This Recommended Practice is derived from the FMVSS 105 vehicle test and applies to two-axle multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks and buses with a GVWR above 4 540 kg (10 000 lbs) equipped with hydraulic service brakes. There are two main test sequences: Development Test Sequence for generic test conditions when not all information is available or when an assessment of brake output at different inputs are required, and FMVSS Test Sequence when vehicle parameters for brake pressure as a function of brake pedal input force and vehicle-specific loading and brake distribution are available. The test sequences are derived from the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 105 (and 121 for optional sections) as single-ended inertia-dynamometer test procedures when using the appropriate brake hardware and test parameters.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9177
N. Obuli Karthikeyan, R. Dinesh Kumar, V. Srinivasa Chandra, Vela Murali
Abstract In the modern automotive sector, durability and reliability are the most common terms. Customers are expecting a highly reliable product but at low cost. Any product that fails within its useful life leads to customer dissatisfaction and affects the reputation of the OEM. To eradicate this, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol, either in proving ground or in lab. This paper details on developing an accelerated lab test methodology for steering gearbox bracket using fatigue damage and reliability correlation by simulating field failure. Initially, potential failure causes for steering gearbox bracket were analyzed. Road load data was then acquired at proving ground and customer site to evaluate the cumulative fatigue damage on the steering gearbox bracket. To simulate the field failure, lab test facility was developed, reproducing similar boundary conditions as in vehicle.
2017-04-06
WIP Standard
J2848/1
This SAE recommended practice defines the system and component functions, measurement metrics, testing methodologies for evaluating the functionality and performance of tire pressure systems, and recommended maintenance practices within the known operating environments. This document is applicable to all axle and all wheel combinations for single unit powered vehicles exceeding 7257 kg (16 000 US lb) gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR), and multi-unit vehicle combinations, up to three (3) towed units, which use an SAE J560 connector for power and/or communication, or equivalent successor connector technology, or which use a suitable capacity wireless solution. Examples of included single chassis vehicles would be – utility and delivery vans, tow trucks, rack trucks, buses, recreational vehicles, fuel trucks, trash trucks, dump trucks, cement trucks, and tractors.
2017-04-02
WIP Standard
J974
This SAE Standard covers the general requirements and the test requirements for a flashing warning lamp for agricultural equipment.
2017-03-30
Magazine
Thought leadership at WCX17 Proliferating electrification and performance. Clarity of purpose Honda's 2017 Clarity Fuel Cell has impressive performance, zero emissions and zero range anxiety. Clarity is ready for the mainstream, but is hydrogen fuel? Lightweighting hinges on the details Multi-material design approaches require careful integration of all adjacent constituents. Haptic feedback for gesture-control HMI Mid-air gesture controls rely on sophisticated sensing to aid the human-machine interface and help keep drivers' eyes on the road. Road-efficient mud machine Jeep's new Compass benefits from a trick AWD system co-developed with GKN. Past as prelude to the future SAE's Mobility History Committee brings a trove of knowledge- and cool technology. The new Fellow from Ricardo Prof. Neville Jackson will be recognized as an SAE Fellow at WCX17.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1466
Claudia De La Torre, Ravi Tangirala, Michael Guerrero, Andreas Sprick
Abstract Studies in the EU and the USA found higher deformation and occupant injuries in frontal crashes when the vehicle was loaded outboard (frontal crashes with a small overlap). Due to that, in 2012 the IIHS began to evaluate the small overlap front crashworthiness in order to solve this problem.A set of small overlap tests were carried out at IDIADA’s (Institute of Applied Automotive Research ) passive safety laboratory and the importance of identifying the forces applied in each structural element involved in small overlap crash were determined. One of the most important structural elements in the small overlap test is the wheel. Its interaction in a small overlap crash can modify the vehicle interaction at the crash, which at the laboratory the interaction is with a barrier. That interaction has a big influence at the vehicle development and design strategy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1727
Yumin Lin, Bo-Chiuan Chen, Hsien-Chi Tsai, Bi-Cheng Luan
Abstract A model-based sensor fault detection algorithm is proposed in this paper to detect and isolate the faulty sensor. Wheel speeds are validated using the wheel speed deviations before being employed to check the sensor measurements of the vehicle dynamics. Kinematic models are employed to estimate yaw rate, lateral acceleration, and steering wheel angle. A Kalman filter based on a point mass model is employed to estimate longitudinal speed and acceleration. The estimated vehicle dynamics and sensor measurements are used to calculate the residuals. Adaptive threshold values are employed to identify the abnormal increments of residuals. Recursive least square method is used to design the coefficients of the expressions for adaptive threshold values, such that the false alarms caused by model uncertainties can be prevented. Different combinations of estimations are employed to obtain 18 residuals.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1509
L. Daniel Metz
Abstract We examine the characteristics, properties and potential idealized delamination failure modes of tires in this work. Calculations regarding tire failure stresses during tire failure scenarios, as well as during normal operation, are made. The calculations, though idealized, indicate that large chassis loads can result from the idealized failures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1371
Hao Pan, Xuexun Guo, Xiaofei Pei, Xingzhi Dong
Abstract Brake pedal feel plays an important role in the driver's comprehensive subjective feeling when braking, which directly affects the active safety and riding comfort of passenger car. A systematical mathematical model of the vehicle brake system is built in according with the structure and system characteristics of hydraulic servo brake system. A complete hydraulic servo brake system simulation model composed of brake pedal, vacuum booster, brake master cylinder, brake pipe, brake wheel cylinders, brake calipers is established in AMESim. The effects of rubber reaction plate stiffness, rubber valve opening, brake master cylinder piston, brake caliper, brake pipe deformation and friction liner deformation on brake pedal feel are considered in this model. The accuracy of this model is verified by real road vehicle tests under static and dynamic two different conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0084
Jiantao Wang, Bo Yang, Jialiang Liu, Kangping Ji, Qilu Wang
Abstract Studies show that driving in foggy environment is a security risk, and when driving in foggy environment, the drivers are easy to accelerate unconsciously. The safety information prompted to the driver is mainly from fog lights, road warning signs and the traffic radio. In order to increase the quality of the safety tips to prevent drivers from unintended acceleration and ensure the security of driving in foggy environment, the study proposes a safety speed assessment method for driving in foggy environment, combining the information of driving environment, vehicle’s speed and the multimedia system. The method uses camera which is installed on the front windshield pillar to collect the image about the environment, and uses the dark channel prior theory to calculate the visibility. And by using the environment visibility, the safety speed can be calculated based on the kinematics theory. And it is appropriate for vehicles which have different braking performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0436
Tianjun Zhu, Bin Li
Abstract A new extended planar model for multi-axle articulated vehicle with nonlinear tire model is presented. This nonlinear multi-axle articulated vehicle model is specifically intended for improving the model performance in operating regimes where tire lateral force is near the point of saturation, and it has the potential to extend the specific axles model to any representative configuration of articulated vehicle model. At the same time, the extended nonlinear vehicle model can reduce the model's sensitivity to the tire cornering coefficients. Firstly, a nonlinear tire model is used in conjunction with the 6-axle planar articulated vehicle model to extend the ranges of the original linear model into the nonlinear regimes of operation. Secondly, the performance analysis of proposed nonlinear vehicle model is verified through the double lane change maneuver on different road adhesion coefficients using TruckSim software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0433
Yang Xing, Chen Lv, Wang Huaji, Hong Wang, Dongpu Cao
Abstract Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, two types unsupervised clustering methods are used to build a driver braking intention predictor. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. The proposed unsupervised learning algorithms can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different algorithms which are K-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) will be compared.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0410
Aref M. A. Soliman
Abstract Although active suspension improved vehicle ride comfort, their two main drawbacks are the required high component costs and energy input levels for active suspension. The semi-active and twin accumulator suspensions are proposed which addresses these two drawbacks. Ride performances for passive, twin accumulator and semi-active are examined theoretically using half vehicle model. The power consumed in rolling resistance and power dissipation in suspension for passive, twin accumulator and semi-active suspension systems are evaluated. The effect of road disturbance on the vehicle ride performance for twin accumulator and semi-active suspension systems is studied. The rolling resistance power losses are also investigated. The results showed that the optimum twin accumulator suspension system over all road roughness/speed conditions would have adaptable spring stiffness and damping coefficients which could be changed depending on the road conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0413
Mustafa Ali Arat, Emmanuel Bolarinwa
Abstract Most ground vehicles related accidents occur when the friction demand to perform a maneuver with a certain vehicle and tires exceeds the coefficient of friction of the pavement surface. As generally known, the forces and moments acting on the vehicle body are mainly generated at the tire-road surface interface. The common characteristics of tire forces on any surface include a linear region where the forces vary linearly with respect to the relative slip values; and a nonlinear region where the forces saturate and may even start decreasing. The experience of most of the daily drivers on the roads is limited within this linear region where the dynamic behavior of the vehicle remains proportional to the driver’s inputs. Therefore, an unexpected change in tire or surface characteristics (due to a change in surface friction, large driver inputs, etc.) may easily cause the driver to panic and/or to lose his/her ability to maintain a stable vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0401
Ye Yuan, Junzhi Zhang, Yutong Li, Chen Lv
Abstract As the essential of future driver assistance system, brake-by-wire system is capable of performing autonomous intervention to enhance vehicle safety significantly. Regenerative braking is the most effective technology of improving energy consumption of electrified vehicle. A novel brake-by-wire system scheme with integrated functions of active braking and regenerative braking, is proposed in this paper. Four pressure-difference-limit valves are added to conventional four-channel brake structure to fulfill more precise pressure modulation. Four independent isolating valves are adopted to cut off connections between brake pedal and wheel cylinders. Two stroke simulators are equipped to imitate conventional brake pedal feel. The operation principles of newly developed system are analyzed minutely according to different working modes. High fidelity models of subsystems are built in commercial software MATLAB and AMESim respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0428
Tianqi Lv, Yan Wang, Xingxing Feng, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Steering returnability is an important index for evaluating vehicle handling performance. A systematic method is presented in this paper to reduce the high yaw rate residue and the steering response time for a light duty truck in the steering return test. The vehicle multibody model is established in ADAMS, which takes into consideration of the frictional loss torque and hydraulically assisted steering property in the steering mechanism, since the friction, which exists in steering column, spherical joint, steering universal joint, and steering gear, plays an important role in vehicle returnability performance. The accuracy of the vehicle model is validated by road test and the key parameters are determined by executing the sensitivity analysis, which shows the effect of each design parameter upon returnability performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0430
Bangji Zhang, Kaidong Tian, Wen Hu, Jie Zhang, Nong Zhang
Abstract This paper introduces a vehicle model in CarSim, and replaces a portion of its standard suspension system with an HIS model built in an external software to implement co-simulations. The maneuver we employ to characterize the HIS vehicle is a constant radius method, i.e. observing the vehicle’s steering wheel angle by fixing its cornering radius and gradually increasing its longitudinal speed. The principles of the influence of HIS systems on cornering mainly focus on two factors: lateral load transfer and roll steer effect. The concept of the front lateral load transfer occupancy ratio (FLTOR) is proposed to evaluate the proportions of lateral load transfer at front and rear axles. The relationship between toe and suspension compression is dismissed firstly to demonstrate the effects of lateral load transfer and then introduced to illustrate the effects of roll motion on cornering.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0414
Bin Li, Xiaobo Yang, James Yang, Yunqing Zhang, Zeyu Ma
Abstract In this paper, a detailed three dimensional (3D) flexible ring tire model is first proposed which includes a rigid rim with thickness, different layers of discretized belt points and a number of massless tread blocks attached on the belt. The parameters of the proposed 3D tire model can be divided into in-plane parameters and out-of-plane parameters. In this paper, the relationship of the in-plane parameters between the 3D tire model and the 2D tire model is determined according to the connections among the tire components. Based on the determined relationship, it is shown that the 3D tire model can produce almost the same prediction results as the 2D tire model for the in-plane tire behaviors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0416
Vishal Barde, Baskar Anthonysamy, Ganeshan Reddy, Senthil S, Visweswara lenka, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Abstract New trend in steering system such as EPS is coming up, but still hydraulic power steering system is more prevalent in today’s vehicles. Power steering pump is a vital component of hydraulic power steering system. Failure of steering pump can lead to loss of power assistance. Prediction of hub load on pump shaft is an important design input for pump manufacturer. Higher hub loads than the actual designed load of pump bearing may lead to seizure of pump. Pump manufacturer has safe limits for hub load. Simulations can assist for optimization of belt layout and placement of accessories to reduce the hub load. Lower hub load can have direct effect on improvement of pump durability. This paper deals with dynamic simulation of belt drive system in MSC.ADAMS as well as vehicle level measurement of hub load on power steering pump.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1636
Lukas Preusser
Abstract Along with the development and marketability of vehicles without an internal combustion engine, electrically heated surfaces within these vehicles are getting more and more important. They tend to have a quicker response while using less energy than a conventional electric heater fan, providing a comfortable temperature feel within the cabin. Due to the big area of heated surface it is important to spread the heating power in a way that different heat conduction effects to underlying materials are considered. In case an accurate sensor feedback of the targeted homogeneous surface temperature cannot be guaranteed, a thermal energy model of the heated system can help to set and maintain a comfortable surface temperature. For a heated steering wheel development project, different models have been created to meet that aim using mechanistic approaches starting with a predominantly first-order dynamics model and ending with a distributed parameter multi-feedback system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1626
Tomas Poloni, Jianbo Lu
Abstract This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1408
Satoshi Kozai, Yoshihiko Takahashi, Akihiro Kida, Takayuki Hiromitsu, Shinji Kitaura, Sadamasa Sawada, Gladys Acervo, Marius Ichim
Abstract A Rear Cross Traffic Auto Brake (RCTAB) system has been developed that uses radar sensors to detect vehicles approaching from the right or left at the rear of the driver’s vehicle, and then performs braking control if the system judges that a collision may occur. This system predicts the intersecting course of approaching vehicles and uses the calculated time-to-collision (TTC) to control the timing of automatic braking with the aim of helping prevent unnecessary operation while ensuring system performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1399
Bin Wu, Xichan Zhu, Jianping Shen, Xuejun Cang, Lin li
Abstract A driver steering model for emergency lane change based on the China naturalistic driving data is proposed in this paper. The steering characteristic of three phases is analyzed. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the steering behaviors in collision avoidance and lateral movement phases can be described, and the stabilization steering principle of yaw rate null is found. Based on the steering characteristic, the near and far aim point used in steering phases is analyzed. Using the near and far aim point correction model, a driver steering model for emergency lane change is established. The research results show that the driver emergency steering model proposed in this paper performs well when explaining realistic steering behavior, and this model can be used in developing the ADAS system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1504
Peter Tkacik, Zachary Carpenter, Aaron Gholston, Benjamin James Cobb, Sam Kennedy, Ethan Blankenship, Mesbah Uddin, Surya Phani Krishna Nukala
Abstract Wind tunnel aerodynamic testing involving rolling road tire conditions can be expensive and complex to set up. Low cost rolling road testing can be implemented in a 0.3m2 Eiffel wind tunnel by modifying a horizontal belt sander to function as a moving road. This sander is equipped with steel supports to hold a steel plate against the bottom of the wind tunnel to stabilize the entire test section. These supports are bolted directly into the sander frame to ensure minimal vibrational losses or errors during testing. The wind tunnel design at the beginning of the project was encased in a wooden box which was removed to allow easier access to the test section for installation of the rolling road assembly. The tunnel was also modified to allow observers to view the testing process from various angles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1505
Andreas Hackl, Wolfgang Hirschberg, Cornelia Lex, Georg Rill
Abstract The present technical article deals with the modeling of dynamic tire forces, which are relevant during interactions of safety relevant Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Special attention has been paid on simple but effective tire modeling of semi-physical type. In previous investigations, experimental validation showed that the well-known first-order Kelvin-Voigt model, described by a spring and damper element, describes good suitability around fixed operation points, but is limited for a wide working range. When aiming to run vehicle dynamics models within a frequency band of excitation up to 8 Hz, these models deliver remarkable deviations from measured tire characteristics. To overcome this limitation, a nonlinear Maxwell spring-damper element was introduced which is qualified to model the dynamic hardening of the elastomer materials of the tire.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1503
Jared Johan Engelbrecht, Tony Russell Martin, Piyush M. Gulve, Nagarjun Chandrashekar, Amol Dwivedi, Peter Thomas Tkacik, Zachary Merrill
Abstract Most commercial heavy-duty truck trailers are equipped with either a two sensor, one modulator (2S1M) or four sensors, two modulator (4S2M) anti-lock braking system (ABS). Previous research has been performed comparing the performance of different ABS modules, in areas such as longitudinal and lateral stability, and stopping distance. This study focuses on relating ABS module type and wheel speed sensor placement to trailer wheel lock-up and subsequent impact to tire wear for tandem axle trailers with the Hendrickson air-ride suspension. Prior to tire wear inspection, functionality of the ABS system was testing using an ABS scan tool communicating with the SAE J1587 plug access port on the trailer. Observations were documented on trailers using the 2S1M system with the wheel speed sensor placed on either the front or rear axle of a tandem pair.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1284
Khushal Ahmad, Monis Alam
Abstract With the ever increasing number of vehicles on road and the rise of the electric and automated vehicles, it is important to minimize the consumption of energy by each vehicle, regenerative braking is in wide use today, however, the research in the field of regenerative suspension is limited. The regenerative suspension has huge capabilities in power generation especially on third world roads having rather bumpy rides. A huge amounts of energy is wasted in shock absorbers due to friction. This study emphasizes on the implementation of the energy present in the suspension system by replacing the Shock Absorber with a Energy transfer system Involving Hydraulic cylinder, Hydraulic Motor and Dynamo. The energy which is usually lost as heat due to friction in conventional Suspension is used to drive a dynamo through Hydraulic System designed in this paper and electricity is generated.
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