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Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gary A. Davis
Abstract The critical speed method uses measurements of the radii of yawmarks left by vehicles, together with values for centripetal acceleration, to estimate the speeds of the vehicles when the yawmarks were made. Several field studies have indicated that equating the centripetal force with braking friction produced biased estimates, but that the biases tended to be small (e.g. within 10%-15% on average) and led to underestimates, suggesting that the method can be useful for forensic purposes. Other studies, however, have challenged this conclusion. The critical speed method has also seen use in safety-related research, where it is important to have a reliable assessment of the uncertainty associated with a speed estimate. This paper describes a variant of the critical speed method, where data from field tests lead to an informative prior probability distribution for the centripetal acceleration. Using Bayes theorem, this distribution is combined with the measured radius to produce a posterior probability distribution for the desired speed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Walid Oraby, Mahmoud Atef Aly, Samir El-demerdash, M. El-Nashar
Abstract Integral Control strategy for vehicle chassis systems had been of great interest for vehicle designers in the last decade. This paper represents the interaction of longitudinal control and lateral control. In other words the traction control system and handling control system. Definitely, tire properties are playing a vital role in such interaction as it is responsible for the generated forces in both directions. A seven degrees of freedom half vehicle model is derived and used to investigate this interaction. The vehicle body is represented as a rigid body with three degrees of freedom, lateral and longitudinal, and yaw motions. The other four degrees are the two rotation motion of the front wheel and the rear wheel. This two motions for each wheel are spin motion and the steering motion. The traction controller is designed to modulate engine torque through adjusting the throttle angle of the engine upon utilized adhesion condition at the driving road wheels. The active four steering (4WS) control system is designed to enhance vehicle lateral dynamics through controlling rear steer angle.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yuhang Chen, Yunfeng Ji, Konghui Guo
Abstract In this paper, a sliding mode observer for estimating vehicle slip angle and tire forces is developed. Firstly, the sliding mode observer design approach is presented. A system damping is included in the sliding mode observer to speed the observer convergence and to decrease the observer chattering. Secondly, the sliding mode observer for vehicle states is developed based on a 7 DOF embedded vehicle model with a nonlinear tire model ‘UniTire’. In addition, since the tire lateral stiffness is sensitive to the vertical load, the load transfers are considered in the embedded model with a set of algebraic equations. Finally, a simulation evaluation of the proposed sliding mode observer is conducted on a validated 14 DOF vehicle model. The simulation results show the model outputs closely match the estimations by the proposed sliding mode observer.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Massimiliana Carello, Andrea Giancarlo Airale, Alessandro Ferraris
Abstract The use of composite materials is very important in automotive field to meet the European emission and consumption standards set for 2020. The most important challenge is to apply composite materials in structural applications not only in racing vehicles or supercars, but also in mass-production vehicles. In this paper is presented a real case study, that is the suspension wishbone arm (with convergence tie and pull-rod system) of the XAM 2.0 urban vehicle prototype, that it has the particular characteristics that the front and rear, and left and right suspension system has the same geometry. The starting point has been an existing solution made in aluminum to manufacture a composite one. The first step was the development of a dynamic model of the vehicle to understand the suspension loads and to define the suspension weight and stiffness target with respect to the solution made on aluminum, because it was necessary to understand the tensil strain on the component to simplify and optimize the geometry.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andrew Nevin, Eric Daoud
Abstract Traditional tread depth measurements require manual utilization of a mechanical device to acquire measurements at each location of interest on a tire. Drive-over machine-vision sensors are becoming available as a means for measuring tread depth. These sensors typically consist of a laser and a camera contained in an environmentally-sealed sensor housing. Tires approach the sensor over the supporting surface, while a laser projects an illuminating line across the tread surface for capture in a digital image. This scan is evaluated to provide a single 2D contour of tread depth at the illuminated line. Advanced machine-vision sensors acquire a sequence of images, which results in a multitude of data points over a 3D region of the tread surface. Post-processing of the acquired images illustrates the observed tread pattern and establishes multiple tread depth measurements. Measurements determined by the advanced sensors from hundreds of tires were compared to manual measurements acquired with analog and digital mechanical gauges.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
James Gramling
Abstract It is very important to note that most present-day CVT's drive with a friction element. Unlike gears that can be produced with any size necessary for the torque load they must transfer, CVT's are limited in torque capacity and are only marginally suitable for small vehicle applications. A system is described using two variable-inertia flywheels to not only supply the heavy torque requirements during acceleration of a vehicle but also operate in reverse capturing the otherwise wasted decelerating torque (I.E. braking torque). This system (called Kinetic Energy Power Transmission System or KEPTS) provides all of the documented benefits of the use of an IVT for motor vehicle acceleration and also incorporates regenerative braking. The significance of the system is that besides providing a complete KERS (kinetic energy recovery and storage) system, all accelerating and braking torque is provided by the two variable-inertia flywheels, thus allowing the main motive engine (ICE, electric traction motor, gas turbine, etc.) to operate at a fixed angular velocity (rpm) isolated from large torque variances, and the CVT elements can be minimized in size (I.E. low-torque).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Meng Huang
A disc-pad system is established to study impacts of surface topography on brake squeal from the perspective of statistical analysis. Firstly, surface topographies of brake disc and pad are precisely measured on the scale of micron and are statistically analyzed with a three-dimensional evaluation system. Secondly, the finite element model of brake disc and pad without surface topographies is created and verified through component free modal tests. Thereby the valid brake squeal model for complex modal analysis is built with ABAQUS. An effective method is developed to apply interface topographies to the smooth contact model, which consequently establishes sixty brake squeal models with topographies. Thirdly, impacts of surface topography on brake squeal are studied through comparison and statistical analysis of prediction results with and without topographies. The analysis manifest that topography amplitudes and evaluation index deviations of brake pad far exceed those of the disc, indicating the surface of brake pad is relatively much rougher.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Takehito Shiraishi, Yasuo Shimizu
In the automobile industries, weight reduction has been investigated to improve fuel efficiency together with reduction of CO2 emission. In such circumstance, it becomes necessity to make an electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight. In this study, we aimed to have a smaller and lighter EPS gear size by focusing on an impact load caused at steering end. In order to increase the shock absorption energy without increase of stopper bush size, we propose new theory of impact energy absorption by not only spring function but also friction, and a new stopper bush was designed on the basis of the theory. The profile of the new stopper bush is cylinder form with wedge-shaped grooves, and when the new stopper bush is compressed by the end of rack and the gear housing at steering end, it enables to expand the external diameter and produce friction. In this study, we considered the durability in the proposed profile. In particular, the theoretical study was made on the effect due to sliding from the standpoint of the contact pressure and the sliding distance, and durability testing was carried out to check for the durability of the performance after predetermined operation time.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shinichi Nishizawa, Takahiro Nakamura, Kazuo Furukawa, Senri Moriyama, Ryuichi Sato
In McPherson strut applications for automotive suspension systems, the desired coil spring reaction force vector (FLP: force line position) that minimizes damper friction and king pin moment is typically determined by Statics/Kinematics calculations. There is not a device available on the open market today which can mimic the coil spring reaction force vector within the suspension system. Such a programmable coil spring reaction force vector generator, named “Universal Spring”, was developed in 2003 (USPG2003), and was then improved in 2013 (USPG2013) from the standpoint of accuracy, durability and reliability. The device is actuated by six hydraulic cylinders constructing a Stewart platform type parallel mechanism. Accuracy of FLP generated by USPG2013 is 1.1mm at maximum in ϕ80mm area around strut axis. Using this modified device, the relationship between the spring reaction force vector and damper friction, as well as spring reaction force vector and king pin moment, can be experimentally studied to confirm vehicle characteristics without actually producing any prototype coil springs.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Amir Khajepour, Ankur Agrawal
A control algorithm is developed for active/semi-active suspensions which can provide more comfort and better handling simultaneously. A weighting parameter is tuned online which is derived from two components - slow and fast adaptation to assign weights to comfort and handling. After establishing through simulations that the proposed adaptive control algorithm can demonstrate a performance better than some controllers in prior-art, it is implemented on an actual vehicle (Cadillac STS) which is equipped with MR dampers and several sensors. The vehicle is tested on smooth and rough roads and over speed bumps.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lu Fan, Bing Zhou, Harry Zheng
In vehicles equipped with conventional Electric Power Steering (EPS) systems, the steering effort felt by the driver can be unreasonably low when driving on slippery roads. This may lead inexperienced drivers to steer more than what is required in a turn and risk losing control of the vehicle. Thus, it is sensible for tire-road friction to be accounted for in the design of future EPS systems. This paper describes the design of an auxiliary EPS controller that manipulates torque delivery of current EPS systems by supplying its motor with a compensation current controlled by a fuzzy logic algorithm that considers tire-road friction among other factors. Moreover, a steering system model, a nonlinear vehicle dynamics model and a Dugoff tire model are developed in MATLAB/Simulink. Physical testing is conducted to validate the virtual model and confirm that steering torque decreases considerably on low friction roads. Finally, simulation results show that the new EPS assist control strategy successfully increases steering effort under slippery conditions without compromising ease of steering, while ensuring that road feel also increases with decreasing in road friction and/or increasing vehicle speed as an additional safety measure.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Haohua Hong, Lifu Wang, Minyi Zheng, Nong Zhang
This paper employs the motion-mode energy method (MEM) to investigate the effects of a roll-plane hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system on vehicle body-wheel motion-mode energy distribution. A roll-plane HIS system can directly provide stiffness and damping to vehicle roll motion-mode, in addition to spring and shock absorbers in each wheel station. A four degree-of-freedom (DOF) roll-plane half-car model is employed for this study, which contains four body-wheel motion-modes, including body bounce mode, body roll mode, wheel bounce mode and wheel roll mode. For a half-car model, its dynamic energy contained in the relative motions between its body and wheels is a sum of the energy of these four motion-modes. Numerical examples and full-car experiments are used to illustrate the concept of the effects of HIS on motion-mode energy distribution. The obtained simulation results show that the installed HIS system is able to reduce the energy level in the body-dominated roll motion-mode, and it has negligible effect in the bounce mode.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Narayanan Kidambi, R. L. Harne, Yuji Fujii, Gregory M. Pietron, K. W. Wang
Dynamic vehicle loads play critical roles for automotive controls including battery management, transmission shift scheduling, distance-to-empty predictions, and various active safety systems. Accurate real-time estimation of vehicle loads such as those due to vehicle mass and road grade can thus improve safety, efficiency, and performance. While several estimation methods have been proposed in literature, none have seen widespread adoption in current vehicle technologies despite their potential to significantly improve automotive controls. To understand and bridge the gap between research development and wider adoption of real-time load estimation, this paper assesses the accuracy and performance of four estimation methods that predict vehicle mass and/or road grade. These include recursive least squares (RLS) with multiple forgetting factors; extended Kalman filtering (EKF); a dynamic grade observer (DGO); and a method developed by this research: parallel mass and grade (PMG) estimation using a longitudinal accelerometer.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Scott Varnhagen, Donald Margolis
The use of electric motors to independently control the torque of two or four wheels of a vehicle has the potential to significantly improve safety and handling. One virtue of electric motors is that their output torque can be accurately estimated. Using this known output torque, longitudinal tire force and coefficient of friction can be estimated via a controller output observer. This observer works by constructing a model of wheel dynamics, with longitudinal tire force as an unknown input quantity. A known wheel torque is input to the physical and modeled system and the resulting measured and predicted wheel speeds are compared. The error between the measured and predicted wheel speed is driven towards zero by a robust feedback controller. This controller modulates an estimate of longitudinal tire force used as an input by the wheel dynamics model. The resulting estimate of longitudinal tire force quickly converges towards the actual value with minimal computational expense. Using this estimate, a methodology for controlling tire slip ratio is presented.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tao Sun, Yuping He, Jing Ren
To date, various control strategies based on linear vehicle models have been researched and developed for improving lateral stability of car-trailer (CT) systems. Is a linear-model-based controller applicable to active safety systems for CT systems under emergency operating conditions, such as an evasive maneuver at high lateral accelerations? In order to answer the question, the applicability of an active trailer differential braking (ATDB) controller designed using a linear CT model is tested and evaluated, while the controller being applied to a CT system represented by a linear and a nonlinear CT model. The current research leads to the following insightful findings: the ATDB controller designed using the linear model can effectively improve the lateral stability of CT systems under regular evasive maneuvers at low lateral accelerations, but the controller is not applicable to CT active safety systems under emergency evasive maneuvers at high lateral accelerations. The insightful findings resulted from the paper will provide valuable design guidelines for the development of active safety systems for CT systems.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jeremy Kolansky, Amandeep Singh, Jill Goryca
Ride control of military vehicles is challenging due to varied terrain and mission requirements such as operating weight. Achieving top speeds on rough terrain is typically considered a key performance parameter, which is always constrained by ride discomfort. Many military vehicles using passive suspensions suffer with compromised performance due to single tuning solution. To further stretch the performance domain to achieving higher speeds on rough roads, semi-active suspensions may offer a wide range of damping possibilities under varying conditions. In this paper, various semi-active control strategies are examined, and improvements have been made, particularly, to the acceleration-driven damper (ADD) strategy to make the approach more robust for varying operating conditions. A seven degrees of freedom ride model and a quarter-car model were developed that were excited by a random road process input modeled using an auto-regressive time series model. The proposed strategy shows promise as a cost-effective solution to improve the ride of a military vehicle over multiple stochastic terrains considering variation in operating weight.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Toshiya Hirose, Masato Gokan, Nobuyo Kasuga, Toichi Sawada
Collision avoidance systems for rear-end collisions have been researched and developed. It is necessary to activate collision warnings and automatic braking systems with appropriate timing determined by a monitoring system of a driver's braking action. Although there are various systems to monitor driving behavior, this study aims to create a monitoring system using a driver model. This study was intended to construct a model of a driver's braking action with the Time Delay Neural Network (TDNN). An experimental scenario focuses on rear-end collisions on a highway, such as the driver of a host vehicle controlling the brake to avoid a collision into a leading vehicle in a stationary condition caused by a traffic jam. In order to examine the accuracy of the TDNN model, this study used four parameters: the number of learning, the number of neurons in the hidden layer, the sampling time with 0.01 second as a minimum value, and the number of the delay time. In addition, this study made a comparative review of the TDNN model and the Neural Network (NN) model to examine the accuracy of the TDNN model.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shahyar Taheri, Corina Sandu, Saied Taheri
Studying the kinetic and kinematics of the rim-tire combination is very important in full vehicle simulations, as well as for the tire design process. Tire maneuvers are either quasi-static, such as steady-state rolling, or dynamic, such as traction and braking. The rolling of the tire over obstacles and potholes and, more generally, over uneven roads are other examples of tire dynamic maneuvers. In the latter case, tire dynamic models are used for durability assessment of the vehicle chassis, and should be studied using high fidelity simulation models. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) has been developed using the commercial software package ABAQUS. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tire dynamic behavior in multiple case studies in which the transient characteristics are highly involved. The process of running dynamic FE tire simulations starts by statically inflating and loading the tire using an implicit method with refined mesh in the contact patch.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bin Li, Xiaobo Yang, James Yang
A tire may be one of the most critical and complex components in vehicle dynamics and road loads analyses because it serves as the only interface between the road surface and the vehicle. Extensive research and development activities about vehicle dynamics and tire models have been published in the past decades, but it is still not clear about the applications and parameter identification associated with all of these tire models. In this literature review study, various published tire models used for vehicle dynamics and road loads analyses are compared in terms of their modeling approaches, applications and parameters identification process and methodologies. It is hoped that the summary of this literature review work can help clarify and guide the future research and development direction about tire modeling.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Guangqiang Wu, Shuyi Jin
During a car launch, the driving torque from driveline acts on brake disk, and may lead the pad to slip against the disk. Especially with slow brake pedal release, there is still brake torque applies on the disk, which will retard the rotation of disk, and under certain conditions, the disk and pad may stick again, so the reciprocated stick and slip can induce the noise and vibration, which can be transmitted to a passenger by both tactile and aural paths, this phenomenon is defined as brake groan. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear dynamics model of brake for bidirectional, and with 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOFs), and phase locus and Lyapunov Second Method are utilized to study the mechanism of groan. Time-frequency analysis method then is adopted to analyze the simulation results, meanwhile a test car is operated under corresponding conditions, and the test signals are sampled and then processed to acquire the features. Finally, the results of the simulation and those of the test are compared, and the mechanism of groan and its contributory factors are revealed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Pragadish Nandakumar
The fuel prices are increasing every day and so are the pollution caused by vehicles using fossil fuels. Moreover, in a car with an internal combustion engine, we get on average 25% efficiency, the other 75% is wasted, mostly through friction and heat. One important loss is the dissipation of vibration energy by shock absorbers in the vehicle suspension under the excitation of road irregularity and vehicle acceleration or deceleration. In this paper we design, manufacture and test a regenerative coil-over strut that is compact, simple in design and more economical. Since our strut is a modification of an existing strut design, it would be much more feasible to implement. We tested our prototype strut using a TATA Indica car under city road conditions. The damping characteristics and output voltage of the strut were recorded and compared with a normal coil over strut. Based on the test data, it was found that the strut was able to recover about 8-10 watts of electricity at 20kmph.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Youichi Kamiyama
Abstract Tire cavity noise has long been one of the main road noise issues. Various ideas for devices to reduce tire cavity noise have been patented or discussed in technical reports, but many issues remain for commercialization, and at present only some tires have appeared as products. Therefore, technology was developed for mounting Helmholtz resonators on the wheels, enabling reduction of tire cavity noise without placing restrictions on the tires. The advantage of this technology is that the cost and productivity targets needed for mass production can be satisfied without impairing the tire and wheel functions. The aim of this development was to construct low-cost device technology that is well-suited to mass production and enables reduction of tire cavity noise to an inaudible sound pressure without adversely affecting dynamic product marketability such as strength and durability performance and handling performance. In order to realize that aim, the device configuration employed a structure that assembles separate thin, lightweight plastic resonators in the wheel well.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ralph S. Shoberg, Jeff Drumheller
Abstract Reliable wheel attachment must start with proper tightening of the lug nuts in order to achieve the clamping force necessary to hold the vehicle's wheels securely for all operating conditions. It is the purpose of this paper to provide a complete overview of the theory and practice of using torque-angle signature analysis methods to examine the installation and audits of wheel lug nuts. An accurate estimate of clamp load can be determined without actually measuring the clamp load. The torque-angle signature analysis, known as “M-Alpha”, performed on tightening and loosening curves provides a powerful tool to understand the integrity of a bolted joint when clamp load data is not available. This analysis technique gives insight into the frictional effects, material properties, and geometric factors that can affect the clamp load attained during the installation process.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gang Tang, Jinning Li, Chao Ding, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract This paper describes a simplified model to identify sprung mass using golden section method, the model treats the unsprung mass vertical acceleration as input and the sprung mass vertical acceleration as output, which can avoid the nonlinear influence of trye. Unsprung mass can be also calculated by axle load and the identified sprung mass. This study carries out road test on the vehicle ride comfort and takes a scheme that the group of 20 km/h is used to identify sprung mass and the group of 80 km/h is used to verify the identification result. The similarity of the results from the simulation and experiments performed are, for the sprung mass, 98.59%. A conclusion can be drawn that the simple method to measure the sprung mass in the suspension systems in used vehicles, such as the vehicle shown here, is useful, simple and has sufficient precision.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sangzhi Zhu, Haiping Du, Nong Zhang, Lifu Wang
In this paper, a more sophisticated mathematical linear model for a roll-plane active hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system was developed. Model parameters tuning were then carried out, which resulted in a model that is capable of producing rather accurate estimation of the system, with significant improvements over models built previously. For the verification of the new model, two simulations and corresponding experiments are conducted. Data comparisons between the simulations and experiments show high consistent responses of the model and the real system, which validated the robustness and accuracy of the new mathematical model. In this process, the characteristics of the pressure response and the rise time inside the actuators have been revealed due to the presence of the flow.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yosuke Tanaka, Yasuo Shimizu
This paper will discuss the stress reduction of the worm wheel for an electric power steering (EPS) system. The research discussed in this paper focused on the worm wheel, the EPS component that determines the maximum diameter of the system. If the stress of the worm wheel could be reduced without increasing in size, it would be possible to reduce the size of the worm wheel and EPS system. In order to reduce the stress of the worm wheel, the conventional design method has extended the line-of-action toward outside of the worm wheel to increase the contact ratio of the gears and these method lead to an increase in the outer diameter. In order to address this issue, past research proposes the basic concept to extend line-of-action toward the inside of the worm wheel. And this new meshing theory was named MUB (Meshing Under Base-circle) theory. In this paper, characteristics of meshing of the gear formed by MUB theory are determined in more detail. After that, an example of design guideline of the worm gear profile based on MUB theory is explained.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Christian Angrick, Sebastiaan van Putten, Günther Prokop
In investigation and development of road tires within passenger car development, temperature dependency of tire characteristics is often neglected. This research however explicitly focuses on investigation and identification of temperature dependency of tire characteristics and its interaction with other inner tire states. To this extent, a novel method using a thermographic camera for measurement of both tire core and surface temperature is used. On the basis of these measurements, the dependency of cornering stiffness, relaxation length and lateral coefficient of friction on either core or surface temperature is presented. Moreover, the effect of tire core temperature on inner pressure is investigated. By choice of appropriate operating conditions, the effects of temperature and inner pressure on tire characteristics is investigated separately. A mechanical-analytical analysis forms the basis for derivation of the relationship between material attributes and tire characteristics. Material measurements of a sample taken from the tire under investigation are performed utilizing a hydropulser test rig.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sukhwan Cho, Rebecca Anne Bandy, John Ferris, Joerg Schlinkheider, Marc Wimmershoff
A Location-Aware Adaptive Vehicle Dynamics System (LAAVDS) is developed to assist the driver in maintaining vehicle handling capabilities through various driving maneuvers. An integral part of this System is an Intervention Strategy that uses a novel measure of handling capability, the Performance Margin, to assess the need to intervene. Through this strategy, the driver's commands are modulated to affect desired changes to the Performance Margin in a manner that is minimally intrusive to the driver's control authority. Real-time implementation requires the development of computationally efficient predictive vehicle models. This work develops one means to alter the future vehicle states: modulating the driver's brake commands. This control strategy must be considered in relationship to changes in the throttle commands. Three key elements of this strategy are developed in this work. An algorithm is developed to determine when to switch from a throttle-only control strategy to a braking strategy.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andrew Pennycott, Leonardo De Novellis, Aldo Sorniotti, Patrick Gruber
The combination of continuously-acting high level controllers and control allocation techniques allows various driving modes to be made available to the driver. The driving modes modify the fundamental vehicle performance characteristics including the understeer characteristic and also enable varying emphasis to be placed on aspects such as tire slip and energy efficiency. In this study, control and wheel torque allocation techniques are used to produce three driving modes. Using simulation of an empirically validated model that incorporates the dynamics of the electric powertrains, the vehicle performance, longitudinal slip and power utilization during straight-ahead driving and cornering maneuvers under the different driving modes are compared. The three driving modes enable significant changes to the vehicle behavior to be induced, allowing the responsiveness of the car to the steering wheel inputs and the lateral acceleration limits to be varied according to the selected driving mode.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Masashi Tsushima, Eiichi Kitahara, Taichi Shiiba, Takumi Motosugi
The adoption of the electronic controlled steering systems with new technologies has been extended in recent years. They have interactions with other complex vehicle subsystems and it is a hard task for the vehicle developer to find the best solution from huge number of the combination of parameter settings with track tests. In order to improve the efficiency of the steering system development, the authors had developed a steering bench test method for steering system using a Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation (HILS). In the steering HILS system, vehicle dynamics simulation and the tie rod axial force calculation are required at the same time in the real-time simulation environment. The accuracy of the tie rod axial force calculation is one of the key factors to reproduce the vehicle driving condition. But the calculation cannot be realized by a commercial software for the vehicle dynamics simulation. A multibody kinematics model of strut suspension was developed for the tie rod axial force calculation.
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