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Viewing 151 to 180 of 10216
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1601
Long Chen, Mingyuan Bian, Yugong Luo, Keqiang Li
Abstract This paper proposes an estimation method of road-tire friction coefficient for the 4WID EV(4-wheel-independent-drive electric vehicle) in the pure longitudinal wheel slip, lateral sideslip and combined slip situations, which fuses both estimated longitudinal and lateral friction coefficients together, compared with existing methods based on a tire model in one single direction. Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is introduced to estimate one-directional friction coefficient based on a modified Dugoff tire model. Considering the output results for each direction as a signal for the same target with different noise, MSE-weighted fusion method is proposed to fuse these two results together in order to reach a higher accuracy. The tire forces are estimated with the benefits of the 4WID EV that the driving torque and rolling speed of each wheel can be accurately known. The sideslip angles and slip ratios of each tire are calculated with a vehicle kinematic model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1522
Takahiro Yokoyama, Koji Hiratsuka, Shinya Notomi
Abstract Vehicle dynamic performance on snow-covered roads is one aspect of performance that is influenced by tire performance. Much research concerning a vehicle's performance on snow-covered roads has focused on being directed to vehicle control technology that increases control when the tire-slip ratio is larger, such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS) and electronic stability control (ESC). There has been little research, regarding performance when the slip ratio on a snow- covered road is smaller. We studied the friction performance of tires on snow-covered roads to predict vehicle performance within the grip range. We propose a technology for predicting vehicle performance within the small slipangle range and also verify its effectiveness. We established the tire characteristics that assure the grip range on a snow-covered road using performance indicators.
2015-04-13
Article
The basic concept of the tire hasn’t changed since stone rollers used to help build the pyramids--it’s the way we make them and the design that has changed, says Ydo Doornbos of Trelleborg Wheel Systems Americas.
2015-04-10
Standard
J3081_201504
This document is written to address acceleration and deceleration control issues related to Heavy Duty Trucks and Buses greater than 10 000 GVW.
2015-04-08
WIP Standard
ARP1907C
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the functional, design, construction, and test requirements for Automatic Braking Systems. Installation information and lessons learned are also included.
2015-04-07
Article
The new Spicer AdvanTEK tandem axle concept is optimized for trucks that implement engine “downspeeding,” combining the traction offered by a 6x4 configuration with the reduced drivetrain losses of a 6x2.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0101
Piyapong Premvaranon, Jenwit Soparat, Apichart Teralapsuwan, Wuttipong Sritham, Chi-na Benyajati, Nathapol Taweewong
Abstract Due to recent oil price crisis and an ever-increasing public awareness on environmental issues, an interest in electric vehicles (EV) has increased tremendously in Thailand and other Asian countries over the last few years. In this study, a prototype of 9-metre battery electric vehicle (BEV) bus was chosen as a vehicle of interest to undergo a series of field test by operating the lead acid battery powered electric bus in order to estimate a power demand of the bus as well as to evaluate a battery performance characteristic Two different types of battery were employed in this study i.e. a flooded-type deep cycle lead acid battery and a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. The effect of different driving modes available from the drive motor i.e. normal, max power, max range, as well as regenerative braking feature would be investigated while an influence of drivers were also taken into account to ensure the repeatability of the obtained results.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0090
Cherdsak Chuaymung, Chi-na Benyajati, Sutee Olarnrithinun
Abstract A vehicle of interest in this paper was a light agriculture truck. In order to obtain reliable predictions of stress generated in the frame under loads, a combination of experimental tests and computer simulations was arranged. Since the focused deformations were bending and torsion modes, the truck driven up one-wheel ramp and two-wheel ramp was investigated. Strains results obtained from both tests and simulations were compared. The discussions and conclusions were made regarding the accuracy and further improvements of the simulations.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0081
Hsin Guan, Chunguang Duan, Pingping Lu, Jun Zhan, Yunting He
Abstract With the development of computer and vehicle research to high frequency, the driving simulator plays an important role on vehicle research and pre-development. The driving simulator have already been used for research about human factors, advanced active system (ABS, ESP et al), the vehicle dynamics and intelligent transportation systems (ITS) et al. The crucial requirement for a driving simulator is that it should have realistic behavior. The realistic behavior base on high-fidelity dynamics models especially tire model. “Tire/road” model is of special importance model for its influence on vehicle performances. The forces for accelerating, braking and steering are all came from tire road contact. The simulator simulation faces all possible driving scenes as driving in the real word, like parking on the hill, stop and start again, sharp steering and sharp braking et al.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0082
Husain Kanchwala, Carlos Bordons
Abstract Electric vehicles (EVs) have been gaining a lot of focus and attention as they run clean and are environment friendly. EVs use in-hub motors, which can be independently controlled, improving this way the maneuverability and allowing augmented control actions. This paper discusses the development of a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) to improve vehicle handling characteristics. Wheel torques are independently controlled using direct yaw moment and side slip control method to pro-actively improve vehicle handling. At high values of side slip the steering is no more capable of generating yaw moment and vehicle becomes laterally unstable. By unequal torque distribution a restoring yaw moment is generated and vehicle stability is ensured. The MPC computes the optimal couple traction/braking torque of the four in-wheel motors, from basic driving slogans, which are, steering angle and desired speed.
2015-03-23
Article
The company has expanded its additive manufacturing material capabilities to support metal 3-D printing of complex high-hardness parts and the ability to customize properties layer-by-layer through “gradient material design.”
2015-03-19
Standard
J2634_201503
This SAE practice is intended for the sample preparation of test pieces for automotive wheels and wheel trim. The practice provides a consistent scribing method for use on test panels and or component parts with substrate chemical pretreatment and coating systems. Test specimens can then be subjected to various corrosion tests in order to evaluate performance without significant variations of the degree of exposure of the substrate. The scribing is used to create a break in the coating/finishing as can occur in the field through gravel and other damaging conditions. Significant variability is attributed to surface contour, coating hardness/softness, operator reproducibility, and the scribing tool and it's condition.
2015-03-19
Standard
J2633_201503
This SAE lab test procedure should be used when performing the following specialized weathering tests for wheels; Florida Exposure, QUV, Xenon and Carbon Weatherometer. In addition to these procedures, some additional post-weathering tests may be specified. Please refer to customer specifications for these requirements.
2015-03-13
Standard
J1965_201503
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to fasteners/fixing nuts as specified in SAE J694 and SAE J1835 used for disc wheels and demountable rim attachment respectively. Only the test methods necessary to assure proper wheel or rim assembly are specified. Fasteners for less common and special applications are not included.
2015-03-11
Article
Novel aluminum-rich steel alloy could find structural use in road vehicles and even aircraft.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0036
Christopher Nunneley
Abstract Performance abilities that exceed the physical capability of current safety features and design compromises can be achieved in the future by adding new active safety devices externally to autonomous vehicles (autonomous car safety efforts centered on improving problem detection and reaction times are beyond the scope of this paper). This paper shows that multiple physical improvements are now available to car designers including increased braking friction/capability on dry roads, the ability to dry/clear-out wet surfaces, active anti-rollover protection, active anti-over-steer, spin prevention, and automated jacking/lift capability.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0016
Changxin Wang, Wenku Shi, Zan Li, Fuxiang Guo
Abstract This paper presents the study of chassis tuning of a commercial vehicle, which has a rear suspension with dual stage leaf spring assembly and a front suspension with double wishbone torsion bar. To balance the handling and ride performance of the vehicle, it is necessary to tune the key suspension parameters of the chassis including the dual stage stiffness of the leaf spring, the contact load of the leaf spring, the torsional rigidity of the torsion bar, the force curve of the front and rear dampers etc. The chassis tuning process of a physical commercial vehicle was first put forward. In the proposed flowchart, the kinematics and statics of front & rear suspensions were checked at the beginning of the tuning. Then the tire mechanical characteristics were tested by using a plate-type tire tester and the inertial parameters of the vehicle were indirectly measured. The K&C characteristics of front and rear suspensions were also tested and compared with the benchmark vehicle's.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0017
Yufeng Wang, Zhizhong Wang, Liangyao Yu, Jian Song
Abstract Many types of brake by wire systems have been developed in past years, such as EMB (Electro-mechanical Brake) [1, 2], DEHB (Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System) [3] and EWB (Electric Wedge Brake) [4]. When the vehicle need braking in long period such as waiting for traffic light or downhill braking in those brake systems, the current will sustain very long time with very high level. This current will result in high temperature in motor, and will damage the power supplier. When a new DEHB is developing, a holding function is added in this DEHB. The holding function is self-energized when holding the brake, and automatic released after the brake. Advantageously, after activation of the holding function, the current delivered to the motor for braking is substantially decreased, especially, will be zero when the brake torque is not need to adjust.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0025
Jaeyong Park, Joonhong Park, JinHee Lee, Yong-Sub Yi, TeaWon Park
Abstract In the view point of driving safety, the crosswind sensitivity of a vehicle becomes more important, as the driving speed in highway gets higher in these days. The sensitivity of a vehicle to crosswind depends on many factors, including the design of the suspension and aerodynamics of the body, etc. However, the knowledge about this phenomenon has still to be improved, in order to develop vehicle with optimum characteristics for crosswind stability. In this research, the physics behind the sensitivity of a vehicle is discussed in detail through various kinds of virtual test using computer aided engineering (CAE) simulation scheme. In the first, a reliable simulation model for vehicle, driver, wind generator and interactions among them is built. This simulation model is verified by comparison with test results of real vehicle. Then, the sensitivity analysis is carried out to find out the most influential design parameters.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0026
Wenku Shi, Changxin Wang, Zan Li
Abstract In order to improve the handling and stability of a light bus at high speed, a virtual model was established in Adams-Car and its anti-roll bar and bushing parameters were virtually optimized. The tyre mechanical characteristics were firstly tested by using a plate-type tyre tester and the Magic Formula parameters of the tyre were obtained. Then the virtual bus model's handling performance were studied by the simulation of central steering test and steady static circular test. An optimal matching method was put forward. By using genetic algorithm to conduct optimization, the optimised parameters were obtained. After that the anti-roll bar and bushing samples were respectively manufactured. At last, the comparative trials were performed in an automotive proving ground, and the subjective evaluation of the light bus's handling and stability was taken by three specialized assessors.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0021
Lauri Ohra-aho, Joshua Chan, Walter My
Abstract Computer aided engineering (CAE) methods have been part of Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system development since its introduction to the market in 1995, especially in the testing and verification phase. Over time, additional CAE tools and methods have been introduced, ranging from small self-learning algorithms to automatic tuning tools for individual functions. Since the end of 2009, ECE regulations have allowed the use of CAE methods for ESC homologation, and in North America, the exemption from FMVSS126 compliance for aftermarket parts was phased out in 2012. Following these legislative changes, several original equipment manufacturers, aftermarket companies and ESC suppliers are using vehicle dynamics computer simulation methods to predict ESC performance and homologate vehicles.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0042
Changxin Wang, Wenku Shi, Yiming Wang, Teng Shi
Abstract This paper presented one calculation method of the contact load, which is the load acted on the spring at the moment when the second-level stiffness of the spring just begins to work. In the proposed method, the contact load calculation mainly based on the dynamic load of the unsprung mass and the road grades and the commonly driving speed were also considered. A semiempirical formula of the contact load was put forward. Then the contact load of the commercial bus's rear suspension was respectively calculated by using the proposed formula and traditional methods(geometric mean method and average load method) to compare each other and to verify the new method. Later, the spring samples were respectively manufactured based on the calculation results. At last, the validation tests were respectively performed in an automotive proving ground.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0045
Mohahammed Bawahab, Han Xiao, Xu Wang
Abstract The objective of this research paper is to design and develop a linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorber for automotive suspension system. The significance of the arrangement of magnetic and coil materials as components of the linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorber is to generate continuous electric energy to deliver power to a vehicles electronics. Different magnets and coil arrangements will be reviewed and analysed. Additionally, a novel design of linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers will be modeled by using the computer aided design software program (SolidWorks®) and tested using apparatus such as a shock absorber dynamometer. The linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorber system was simulated by using Matlab® and Simulink®. The simulation model was established and validated via experiments. The validated simulation model was then used for the analysis of the system parameter sensitivity.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0044
Yuto Fukumori, Ryuzo Hayashi, Ryosuke Matsumi, Yoshihiro Suda, Kimihiko Nakano
Abstract Methods for motion control with a coupled suspension systems of automobile have been proposed and their effectiveness has been shown by the previous studies. However, it is not easy to couple hydraulic dampers because it requires designing and manufacturing complex pipelines. Recently, the electromagnetic damper, which is composed of an electric motor, a ball screw, and a nut, was proposed. The electromagnetic damper has high responsiveness, controllability, and energy saving performance, and it has been reported they improved ride comfort and drivability. The electromagnetic damper has various function depending on the electric circuit connected to its electric motor and can be connected to each other more easily than that by hydraulic dampers.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0037
Hong Sheng Zhong, Lifeng Guan, Wei You
Abstract The torque sensing module is an important part of EPS (Electronic Power Steering) system. There are various solutions in the market based on different technologies i.e. Potential meter, Inductive and Hall sensing. As a trend, more and more EPS system integrators adopt Hall-based torque sensing solution, most of which consist of a magnetic ring, a magnetic flux detector to read the magnetic flux from the magnetic ring and a flux conductor/concentrator to lead the magnetic signal to a Hall device to convert magnetic flux level to electronic signal. However, available solutions require high mechanical precision from the magnetic flux detector and conductor/concentrator. Also, the magnetic ring in the existing solution is magnetized after its preformation which causes a lower signal-to-noise ratio at the input of the entire system due to the process and brings about less accuracy of the torque sensing module.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0053
Rakesh Khanger, Amritashu Bardhan
Abstract Vehicles in India will soon come with star ratings, signifying how environment-friendly they are. The OEM's have braced to improve fuel economy of their existing & upcoming models. Tyre rolling resistance is one of the significant factors for vehicle fuel consumption. Improvement in Fuel consumption is always a prime focus area & to improve it all major factors are considered. In newly launched models, the low rolling resistance tyre development was initiated. The project is challenging as it requires not only achieving low rolling resistance in smaller size tyres (12″ to 13″) but also required to meet other critical vehicle performance parameters like ride, handling, NVH & durability. Effects of Tyre construction, rubber compound were analyzed to achieve lower rolling resistance and better durability of tyre.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0067
Dai Q Vo, Reza N. Jazar, Mohammad Fard
Abstract A variation in the camber of an automotive wheel is desired to compensate a side-slip force change owing to normal load transfer when the car is cornering. The camber of a steered wheel can be varied by adjusting caster or lean angle which are the representations of steering axis orientation. Thus, a smart camber can be created by a variable caster or lean angle. Choosing which parameter among the two angles to be variable is very important and dependent on its different effects. Here, homogeneous transformation is employed to establish camber as a function of caster, lean angle, and steering angle in the general case. A comparison between caster and lean angle based on different criteria is then made. The comparison shows that a variable caster is much better and more feasible than a variable lean angle in generating a smart camber.
2015-03-05
Article
One of the main goals of ThyssenKrupp’s InCar plus (phase 2) project is weight reduction, which experts achieved with new A- and B-pillar concepts.
2015-03-05
Article
Applus IDIADA listened to customer feedback in developing its new DynaWheel-III device, focusing on making the system even more reliable and easy-to-use. The wheel position measurement system is composed of two separate parts: the mechanical arms with six absolute optical encoders and the new electronic box (DW-Box), providing real-time calculation of wheel position.
2015-03-05
WIP Standard
J1402
This recommended practice covers minimum requirements for air brake hose assemblies made from reinforced elastomeric hose and suitable fittings for use in automotive air brake systems including flexible connections from frame to axle, tractor to trailer, trailer to trailer and other unshielded air lines with air pressures up to 1 MPa, that are exposed to potential pull or impact. This hose is not to be used where temperatures, external or internal, fall outside the range of -40 °C to +100 °C.
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