This SAE Standard covers hose fabricated from fabric braid and synthetic rubber, assembled with end fittings for use in automotive power steering applications at pressures as indicated in Table 1B, as flexible connections within the temperature range of -40 ×C (-40 ×F) to 121×C (250 ×F) average, 135 ×C (275 ×F) maximum peaks. These hoses are intended for use in applications where reduction in amplitude of pump pressure pulsations is not required.
This SAE Recommended Practice defines an Inertia Dynamometer Test procedure that assesses the effectiveness behavior of a friction material with regard to pressure, temperature and speed for motor vehicles fitted with hydraulic brake actuation. The main purpose of SAE J2522 is to compare friction materials under the most equal conditions possible. To account for the cooling behavior of different test stands, the fade sections are temperature-controlled.
Mazda Motor Corp. on Wednesday evening unveiled the fourth-generation MX-5 Miata, which adopts both SkyActiv technology and Mazda’s “Kodo” (or "Soul of Motion") design language. The MX-5, first introduced 25 years ago, maintains Mazda’s original aim of offering the pure driving fun that only a lightweight sports car can provide.
Over the years, the DARPA Challenges in the United States have galvanized interest in autonomous cars, making them a real possibility in the mind of the public, but autonomous and unmanned vehicles have been increasingly employed in many roles on land, in the water, and in the air. Military applications have received a great deal of attention, with weaponized unmanned aircraft (drones) being the most prominent. However, unmanned vehicles with varying degrees of autonomy already have many civilian applications. Some of these are quite familiar (such as the Roomba autonomous vacuum cleaner), while others remain largely out of the public eye (such as autonomous farm equipment). Additional applications and more capable vehicles are rapidly coming to the markets in the years ahead. This book examines a number of economically important areas in which unmanned and autonomous vehicles, also understood here as autonomous technologies, are already used or soon will be. Co-published by SAE International and AUVSI, Autonomous Technologies: Applications That Matter will assist the reader in identifying profitable opportunities and avoiding costly misconceptions with respect to civilian applications of autonomous vehicle technologies as it brings together chapters on how air, water, and ground vehicles are becoming ever more used and appreciated.
2015 New Vehicle & Technology Preview Automotive Engineering editors take a look at some of the more intriguing new models, including GM's full-size SUVs, BMW's i8 plug-in-hybrid sports car, Acura's TLX sedan, and Ford's F-150 full-size pickup truck. Picturing the map for smoother rides Next-gen A/C As conventional vapor-compression cooling technology faces phase-out, what could take its place? The U.S. Department of Energy's ARPA-e has funded research to help answer this question.
NIRA Dynamics AB has developed friction algorithms for where the rubber meets the road, and is seeking partners to put them into action for improved safety. Existing driver-assistance systems are “steps in the right direction, but with the new algorithms by NIRA cars can take a large step further and get even smarter,” the company says in an Aug. 28 press release.
This SAE Standard covers motor vehicle brake fluids of the nonpetroleum type, based upon glycols, glycol ethers, and borates of glycolethers, and appropriate inhibitors, for use in the braking system of any motor vehicle such as a passenger car, truck, bus, or trailer. These fluids are not intended for use under arctic conditions. These fluids are designed for use in braking systems fitted with rubber cups and seals made from styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), or a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene, and a diene (EPDM).
This SAE Standard covers motor vehicle brake fluids of the nonpetroleum type, based upon glycols, glycolethers and appropriate inhibitors, for use in the braking system of any motor vehicle such as a passenger car, truck, bus, or trailer. These fluids are not intended for use under arctic conditions. These fluids are designed for use in braking systems fitted with rubber cups and seals made from styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), or a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene, and a diene (EPDM).
This SAE Standard covers the minimum requirements for nonmetallic tubing as manufactured for use in air brake systems which tubing is different from that described in SAE J844. It is not intended to cover tubing for any portion of the system which operates continuously below - 40 degrees C or above +93 degrees C, above a maximum working gage pressure of 1.0 MPa, or in an area subject to attack by battery acid. This tubing is intended for use in the brake system for connections, which maintain a basically fixed relationship between components during vehicle operation. Coiled tube assemblies required for those installations where flexing occurs are covered by this document, SAE J1131 and SAE J2494-3, to the extent of setting minimum requirements on the essentially straight tube and tube fitting connections which are used in the construction of such assemblies.
This document has been declared "Stabilized" by the SAE Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee and will no longer be subjected to periodic reviews for currency. Users are responsible for verifying references and continued suitability of technical requirements. Newer technology may exist. This SAE Recommended Practice establishes performance requirements for the service brake systems of all classes of motorcycles intended for highway use.
This SAE Standard applies to self-propelled, rider operated, sweepers and scrubbers as defined in SAE J2130 with maximum machine level surface speeds up to 32 km/h. Machines capable of speeds equal to and greater than 32 km/h are not covered by this document.
To achieve weight savings in vehicles, OEMs and component suppliers are increasingly using ultra-high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium, plastics, and composites. One strategy is to develop components using a multi-material concept. Ashok Leyland researchers used this approach when developing a bimetal brake drum with cast-iron inner ring and aluminum outer shell.
Rick Phillips, Senior Director, Commercial and OTR Sales, for Yokohama Tire Corp., provides his thoughts on the company's first U.S. commercial tire plant, scheduled to open in October 2015, as well as what the market can expect in the coming years.
Replacing the TSX and TL models, the all-new 2015 TLX is positioned at the heart of the Acura sedan lineup, boasting two advanced new powertrains, including a “world’s first” eight-speed DCT with torque converter, and next-generation handling technologies.
The J1939 Digital Annex The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. For all other SPNs and PGNs which are published in a document other than SAE J1939-71, J1939DA lists only basic details along with a reference to the document that contains the complete technical details. J1939DA replaces, and expands upon, the 1939 Companion Spreadsheet (CS1939), which was last published through November 2012. The data fields included in J1939DA for PGNs are: PGN Parameter Group Label Acronyn EDP DP PF PGN Length PS PGN Description Multipacket Transmission Rate PGN Data Length Default Priority PGN Reference PGN Document The data fields included in J1939DA for SPNs are: SPN SPN Name SPN Description SPN Length Resolution Offset Data Range Operational Range Units SLOT Identifier SPN Type SPN Reference SPN Document The J1939 Digital Annex is current through Second Quarter 2014 and can be purchased separately or as part of the SAE J1939 Standards Collection on the Web.
Researchers aim to develop a composite crashbox suitable for 1000 parts/day production at low cost and adapted to current mass-market vehicle design. Various matrixes, preform types, and manufacturing processes have been evaluated by axial and 15° off-axis crash tests. Solutions for short-term development are proposed, with 66% weight reduction compared to current steel parts, and an estimated price of less than €5 per saved kg.
Abstract The paper introduces the results of the development of anti-lock brake system (ABS) for full electric vehicle with individually controlled near-wheel motors. The braking functions in the target vehicle are realized with electro-hydraulic decoupled friction brake system and electric motors operating in a braking mode. The proposed ABS controller is based on the direct slip and velocity control and includes several main blocks for computing of predictive (feedforward) and reactive (feedback) brake torque, wheel slip observer, slip target adaptation, and the algorithm of brake blending between friction brakes and electric motors. The functionality of developed ABS has been investigated on the HIL test rig for straight-line braking manoeuvres on different surfaces with variation of initial velocity. The obtained experimental results have been compared with the operation of baseline algorithm of a hydraulic ABS and have demonstrated a marked effect in braking performance.
This recommended practice contains dimensions and tolerances for spindles in the interface area. Interfacing components include axle spindle, bearing cones, bearing spacer, seal and wheel hub. This recommended practice is intended for axles commonly used on Class 7 and 8 commercial vehicles. Included are SAE axle configurations FF, FL, I80, L, N, P, R, U, and W.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the design approaches used for current applications of aircraft Brake-by-Wire (BBW) control systems. The document also discusses the experience gained during service, and covers system, ergonomic, hardware, and development aspects. The document includes the lessons that have been learned during application of the technology. Although there are a variety of approaches that have been used in the design of BBW systems, the main focus of this document is on the current state of the art systems.
ZF Friedrichshafen AG has formed a joint venture with YTO, a leading manufacturer of construction and agricultural machines, on the production of tractor steering axles for vehicles from 25 to 230 hp (19 to 172 kW).
WABCO recently opened a new Application Engineering Center in Pune, the supplier’s second such facility in India. The new center will allow WABCO’s team of application and test engineers to work closely with global commercial vehicle (CV) manufacturers in India to jointly develop customized products and solutions across a broad range of vehicle platforms, the company said in a release.
Troy, MI-based Meritor, Inc. and brake system supplier Brakes India, Ltd. have signed a licensing and technology assistance agreement for the manufacture and sale of Meritor ELSA air disc brakes in India.
No scope available.
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to offer simplified and prioritized guidelines for collecting and preserving on-scene data related to motor vehicle accidents. It is intended that these guidelines improve the effectiveness of data collection, which will assist subsequent analysis and reconstruction of a particular incident. The document is to guide early data collectors whose objectives include documenting information related to the incident. it may be used by law enforcement personnel, safety officials, insurance adjusters and other interested parties. The document identifies categories of scene physical features that deteriorate relatively quickly and recomends documentation task priorities. Detailed methods of collecting data are not part of this document. However, some widely used methods are described in the references in Seciton 2.
This specification covers minimum design and test requirements for aircraft tire inflation-deflation equipment for use on all types of aircraft. It shall be the responsibility of the airframe manufacturer to determine the compatibility of the requirement with the applicable aircraft and to specify requirements in excess of these minimums as necessary.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides guidelines for procedures and practices used to obtain and record measurements and to analyze and present results of frictional drag tests of a vehicle with its brakes fully applied at a given roadway location. It is for use at accident sites and test sites and is applicable to straight-line stopping of vehicles such as passenger cars, light trucks and vans under fully braked conditions including locked-wheel skids for vehicles with a conventional braking system and for vehicles with full or partial antilock braking systems (ABS). The average deceleration resulting from a given series of tests is intended to be representative of a frictional drag factor for the conditions under which the test was conducted such as the type of vehicle, type and condition of tires, roadway material and roadway surface conditions. The frictional drag factor is intended to conform to use with the stopping distance formula (Fricke, 1990) as stated in Equation 1. Two methods are included: Stopping Distance Method (measurement of the distance required to bring a vehicle to a complete stop from a known initial speed) and Average Acceleration Measurement (using acceleration measuring devices and data analysis to determine the average drag factor).
Experimental Method for Extracting Dominant Suspension Mode Shapes Coupled with Automotive Interior Acoustic Mode Shapes
A finite element (FE) model of vibro-acoustic coupling analysis, such as a vehicle noise and vibration, is utilized for the improvement of the performance in the vehicle development phase. However, the accuracy of the analysis is not enough for substituting a prototype phase with a digital phase in the product development phases. Therefore, conducting the experiments with the prototype vehicle or the existed production vehicle is still very important for the performance evaluation and the model validation. The vehicle noise transfer function of the road noise performance cannot be evaluated with the existed excitation equipment, such as the 3 or 6 directional electromagnetic shaker. Therefore, this paper proposes new experimental method to measure the road noise vehicle transfer function. This method is based on the reciprocity between the tire contact patch and the driver's ear location. The reaction force sensor of the tire contact patch is newly developed for the reciprocal loud speaker excitation at the passenger ear location.
Investigation of Tire-Road Noise with Respect to Road Induced Wheel Forces and Radiated Airborne Noise
Abstract Low interior noise levels in combination with a comfortable sound is an important task for passenger cars. Due to the reduction of many noise sources over the last decades, nowadays tire-road noise has become one of the dominant sources for the interior noise. Especially for manufactures of luxury cars, the reduction of tire-road noise is a big challenge and therefore a central part of NVH development. The knowledge of the noise transmission behavior based on the characteristics of the relevant sources is a fundamental of a modern NVH - development process. For tire-road noise the source characteristics can be described by wheel forces and radiated airborne noise. In combination with the related vehicle transfer functions it is possible to describe the noise transmission behavior in detail. A method for estimating wheel forces and radiated airborne noise is presented. The method is based on TPA (= Transfer Path Analysis) via matrix inversion and involves the measurement of the vehicle transfer functions.
Industry experts at Hyundai and Ford address the opportunities and challenges involved with moving toward composite-intensive vehicles. The Ford Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle project, a collaboration with the U.S. DOE and Vehma International, illustrates the automaker's efforts to move toward lighter-weight materials such as carbon fiber, aluminum, and advanced high-strength steels.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) sets forth criteria for the installation, inflation, inspection, and maintenance of aircraft tires as well as criteria for the maintenance of the operating environment so as to achieve the purpose stated in 1.1. (Definitions of terms related to aircraft tires are found in 2.2.)