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Viewing 9631 to 9660 of 10606
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650145
Walter B. Horne, Upshur T. Joyner
Pneumatic tire hydroplaning is described and related research and facilities are reviewed. It is shown that present tire tread design techniques and pavement surface treatment can substantially alleviate hydroplaning effects on pneumatic tires over most vehicle operating speed ranges when the pavement is wet or slightly flooded. The results also show that when pavements are deeply flooded, neither the best tire tread design nor the best pavement surface treatment can prevent hydroplaning at the critical hydroplaning speed; however, the use of air jets to remove fluid from the pavement in front of the tire shows promise as a means of alleviating hydroplaning under this condition.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650666
N. R. Brownyer
Tests to date have shown that the Instantor brake system developed by the Rockwell-Standard Corporation successfully eliminates the need for power assist on both passenger cars and trucks equipped with four-wheel hydraulic brakes. In the case of the motor truck, the Instantor is built into the front brakes; in the passenger car, it is built into the rear brakes. The advantages of installing the Instantor system in a vehicle are discussed, particularly the enhanced safety features, lower initial and maintenance costs, and reduced space requirements.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650323
Robert D. Rothi
The newest addition to the Douglas family of airplanes is the short to medium haul DC-9. This paper includes a brief description of the DC-9 hydraulic systems highlighting special design criteria. Also included is a discussion of some of the new built-in design features which have been incorporated to assist the airlines in trouble shooting and maintenance. The attendant reduction in unnecessary component removals will not only reduce operating costs and overhaul time but will also result in a marked improvement in reliability.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650257
D. Hodkin
This paper reviews the position of vehicle handling analysis in Great Britain today, with reference to product design; points out areas for further progress; and describes facilities and developments in research meeting the present and future needs of the vehicle engineer. Equipment and techniques for measuring vehicle steady-state control characteristics and tire handling data are described in principle, and reference is made to the radial ply tire, aerodynamic stability, and driver response behavior.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650622
D. Brian Wheeler
It is important that both the operator and vehicle manufacturer accurately analyze the operational demands of different types of commercial vehicles. In order to insure satisfactory and efficient engine performance, each individual component comprising the vehicle power train must be compatible with the other. Several of the factors involved in the proper selection of such components as the engine, transmission, rear axle, and brakes are discussed in terms of the type of service required. Some of these components must be selected on the basis of experience gained either in a given fleet or similar fleets in the area where operation is intended.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650627
Ira Maxon
This paper introduces a new tandem suspension suitable for trucks or highway tractors, with advantages in superior ride and lower weight. Multileaf steel springs are used in conjunction with unusually effective cams, producing a two-rate spring with the higher rate four times that of the lower rate. Newer materials such as nodular or ductile iron are used extensively. Rubber bearings are used to eliminate lubrication. Specific data are given with respect to selection of materials as well as stresses imposed in service.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650726
Lloyd D. Masser
Independent equalizing air suspensions are being added to trucks, tractors, and trailers in order to increase their capacity. That is, independent air suspensions are being combined with standard production suspensions so as to economically produce vehicles with greater versatility. Axle load equalization is obtained by regulating air pressure to the air suspension, which controls the load on the independent axle. This paper describes the design and application of the independent equalizing air suspension as used by the trucking industry.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650725
A. N. Schuppert
The tri-drive vehicle was developed to fill a specific need by operators (primarily construction operators), to allow them to take advantage of increased maximum gross vehicle weights permissible in several states. In order to take advantage of these increased legal weights and furnish adequate vehicle capacity and mobility, new components and new application standards were developed. This paper describes the problems encountered and what was done to solve them.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650184
S. A. Lippmann, W. A. Piccin, T. P. Baker
The paper describes the enveloping properties of truck tires as consisting of two components of force, one in the vertical direction and another in the direction of travel. The responses to irregular surfaces are mathematically accountable in terms of the response to a step in pavement elevation. Tires may therefore be readily characterized through their reactions to step functions. Curves display the differences in enveloping properties available in the 10.00–20 size on the open market.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650183
R. N. Janeway
This paper is a summary of thinking on analytical approaches to the highway truck problems, and the effects of any combination of suspension conditions. The author attempts to coordinate various contributions into a set of guidelines for continuing ride developments. The author comments upon and summarizes six papers appearing in SP-260, “Tandem Truck Ride and Vibration Problems.”
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650186
D. H. Carson
The uniformity characteristics of wide base and conventional truck tires are established and the effects on ride of unbalance and radial runout in both types of tires are evaluated. Tire profile relationship -- aspect ratio -- is related to ride characteristics to establish the directional influence of a change in tire profile on vehicle ride.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650187
W. C. Long
A compilation of vibration producing elements in large and medium truck and trailer wheel, hub, and drum assemblies. Current values and practices are shown, along with hitherto unpublished data from major United States manufacturers.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650188
Bruce D. Van Deusen, Stanley H. Backaitis
The authors summarize information on effects of tires on tandem truck ride and vibration problems. An appraisal of research and a request to face the challenge of acquiring better engineering measurements of vehicle vibration are given.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650103
Mario Persia, Giuseppe Faraggiana
Abstract European road freight transport, already important in the late 1930s, had a great growth after World War II and a further one during the 1950s, following the increase in commercial volume inside and outside the European Economic Community (EEC), or Common Market. The strong and sometimes fundamental differences among regulations of the various European countries have up to now made impossible the use of a specific type of truck for long distance haulage. After discussing the background of transport in Europe and examining present truck design, the major characteristics of the long distance haulage truck or truck tractor are described.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650134
Morgan W. Dawley
Abstract The range of automotive components that are affected by air flow around the car is surveyed, with examples of the application of aerodynamic knowledge to brake and engine cooling, wind noise, dirt accumulation, wiper lift, body ventilation, and air leakage. Air pressure distribution patterns over an automobile are shown along with air flow visualization techniques.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650153
J. E. Heywood, G. H. Muller, M. L. Jurosek
This paper discusses the new independent front suspension used in the 1965 Ford light trucks, in relation to desirable suspension objectives. For each objective the new suspension provides an optimum means of attainment. Satisfaction of qualification criteria required use of the most efficient techniques of environmental measurement, testing, and design. Specific examples of innovative areas are load determination over long routes, using FM tape recording and automatic data processing; fatigue testing of systems rather than component testing; careful attention to correlation of laboratory and track testing; and extensive use of plastic models for rapid stress analysis of alternate design proposals.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650160
CHARLES F. MADDOX, JOHN G. McQUAID
This paper describes the design and build of an experimental super transport truck for high-speed, long distance freight hauling on the interstate highway system of the 1970's. The tractor, powered by a 600-hp gas turbine engine, pulls two 40-foot tandem axle trailers at a G.C.W. of 170,000 lbs. Details of the turbine engine development are covered in SAE paper, No. 991B. One of the features of the super transport truck is the cab, which is designed for long-distance, non-stop, two-man operation. It is provided with sleeping accommodations, washroom conveniences, food facilities, and a complete heating and air-conditioning system. The 13-foot high cab roof is flush with the top of the trailers, providing a substantial aerodynamic advantage. Other features and components of the truck are described, and observations made during the 5500-mile national tour are discussed.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650154
Jacques Bajer
This paper is concerned with “low aspect ratio”* passenger car tires, the development and testing program prior to their acceptance for general use, and the overall characteristics of these tires from a vehicle manufacturer's standpoint. The paper presents a general review of the evolution of the pneumatic tire, and the importance of the tire/vehicle system approach in solving tire/wheel and chassis development problems. The paper also gives a brief report of the progress being made to establish uniform, industry-wide standards for tires, and for rim uniformity grading machines.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650180
W. T. Trisler, W. E. Rice
The construction of superhighway systems will increasingly influence the need for ride improvement. Many basic principles, such as universal joint operating principles, propeller shaft runout and balance, handling and shipping, and others, will become more important. This paper is a discussion of the principles which will have to be considered in order to provide more comfortable ride.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650027
Minoru Shimizu
This paper describes experiments to find the source of the road noise in automobiles and methods for correcting it. To find the major source of road noise, the time lag of the sound waves was measured. Characteristics of a tray frame construction car were found by comparing the vibration modes of its frame with those of body-frame and unit construction cars. As a result of experiments, it was found that the tray frame construction car combines desirable features of both body-frame and unit construction cars.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650060
Lloyd L. Baldwin
This paper points out that some of the most important factors causing reduction in tire mileage are the increase of horsepower, speed, and torque of modern tractors and trucks as compared to those in popular use 7 to 10 years ago. The importance of maintenance to the vehicle toward the end of reducing tire costs to a minimum is emphasized. These factors include front wheel alignment and loading, wheel and tire assembly concentricity, lateral and radial runout, balance, drive and trailer axle alignment problems, suspension maintenance problems; wide-spread axle operation, tag axles, shock absorbers, warning systems, brakes, wheel bearings, belts, and seals.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650061
W. S. McDowell, C. I. Reynolds
The ability of a commercial truck operator to achieve a satisfactorily low cost per tire mile can depend in large part on the effectiveness of his retread program. An understanding of the factors affecting retreadability is a prerequisite to the establishment of such a program. A truck tire carcass has a certain amount of service built into it. The number of retreads that are both possible and practical depends in large part on the type and length of service during the original tread life, as well as the type of tire. A good record system is essential.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650057
W. L. Campbell
This paper covers methods of determining tire cost per mile, plus the effect of proper scrap analysis and fleet logistics analysis upon tire cost, in a typical over-the-road dry freight fleet. The conclusion is that it is reasonable to expect a fleet of this type, operating under optimum conditions, to realize a tire cost of 0.7 mills per mile.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650058
William Denton
Two conditions must be fulfilled in selecting truck tires for over-the-road service: tires must be adequate for the service, and tire costs must be minimal. Four types of truck tires available for over-the-road service are: highway tires -- usable for all highway service except where extra traction is required; “extra tread” highway tires -- usable to obtain higher tread miles when tire temperature is not excessive; “cross lug” highway tires --usable on drive wheels to obtain higher tread miles and extra traction; and special service mud-snow tires -- usable on drive wheels to provide added traction in mud or snow or other limited off-the-road service.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650059
George A. Kling
The paper describes how a proper maintenance program can increase tire life. The function of a maintenance manager is discussed, as is the importance of keeping inspection and repair records. Several forms are illustrated. Maintenance equipment and procedures are described, and repair procedures are also discussed.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650799
ROY C. CARTER
Landing gear weight, wheel well volume, and allowable traffic are compared for selected one, two, three, four, six, and eight wheel landing gears on 100,000 to 400,000 lb airplanes. The relative ground flotation capabilities of each gear type was determined by the CBR* method of flexible pavement analysis. Tire pressure was varied from 60 to 360 psi. For equal weight and/ or wheel well volume the gears with four, six, and eight tires per strut had approximately equal capabilities and were appreciably better than the one, two, and three wheel gears. Tire spacing rather than tire pressure had the most effect on flotation.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650420
H. W. Schmidt
The design and development of a 4300 hp mainline diesel-hydraulic locomotive, compatible and able to operate in multiple leading or trailing with existing diesel-electric locomotives, and to be serviced and maintained with the same facilities and personnel as now exists. The ultimate possible goal is a locomotive providing higher adhesion, lower possible continuous speed than a diesel-electric locomotive of equal horsepower per axle, and with lower maintenance on the transmission system. The design includes maximum number of expendable components such as wheels, brake shoes, oil filters, air filters, drawgears, etc. The design also allows the replacement of any component of the power train without detrucking or removing either the engine or transmission from the locomotive.
1965-02-01
Standard
J75_196502
Motor vehicle brake fluid must conform to the requirements of SAE J1703 or J1704, not only when manufactured, but also after extended storage in any commercial packaging container. The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to generate an awareness of the major problems involved in the storage of brake fluids and, to some extent, provide means of circumventing them. It is also the purpose of this document to relate to experience and to test data accumulated and to list certain conclusions which should aid in the proper selection of containers for brake fluid.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650522
Clarence Hofelt, H. D. Tarpinian, C. Z. Draves
Tire uniformity measurements may be interpreted with some reservations to provide information regarding automobile ride disturbances at frequencies less than 60 cps (tire shake and roughness) and one type of handling disturbance (tire pull). A list of precautions and recommendations based on present or potential tire specifications is given in the first part of this paper, along with some machine and tire variables influencing numerical force variation values. In the second part, the waveforms of four uniformity measurements, radial force-variation, lateral force-variation, loaded radial runout, and free radial runout, are compared with the sites of splices in tires and substantial agreement is shown. Are-port on the capabilities and limitation of present day radial and lateral force-variance measuring as shown by the statistical analysis of a series of repeat measurements on two typical lots of passenger tires is given in the third part.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650734
Donald L. Nordeen, Richard E. Rasmussen
Tire nonuniformities are a major source of vibration problems in vehicles. There is considerable disagreement on which tire uniformity parameters are important to vehicle noise and vibration problems, and on how these uniformity parameters should be measured. This paper is concerned primarily with the effects of the nonuniformities of the tire structure which cause contact patch force variations as the tire is rolled in a straight line at constant axle height. Experimental results showing the effects of mean radial load and roll size on these structural, or static, nonuniformities are presented which indicate that these force variations should be measured on a large roll at rated load. Mathematical analyses of certain vehicle vibrations show that radial and lateral force variation are important uniformity parameters. The amplitude of the first harmonic of these force variations contributes to vehicle shake.
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