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Viewing 9631 to 454 of 454
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650520
L. M. Wallace
Tires impose a variety of natural and forced vibrations upon a vehicle, which responds according to its actual sensitivity. This paper covers the significant tire and tire-automobile vibrations and design considerations to minimize such disturbances.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650521
J. A. Davisson
Some of the factors covering the effects of design and manufacture on tire uniformity are related. It is shown that the current level of uniformity is dependent on the continuous rigid control of all processes throughout manufacture and the constant evaluation of materials, components, and finished tires for conformance to specification. The importance of correct design and selection of materials to minimize nonuniformities is presented and the effects of various factors of design and manufacture are illustrated on graphical recordings obtained from various uniformity measuring machines. In addition, several fundamental shape and dimension relationships characteristic of conventional tire manufacturing are reviewed to emphasize the significance of irregularities caused by some of the factors.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650626
W. S. Nagel
This paper describes the Fuller truck retarder and some of its development problems. The equipment is designed as a braking device for large on-highway trucks operating in mountainous terrains with steep descent grades. Since such braking accounts for most of brake lining wear, the retarder will considerably reduce cost of relining and downtime. Up to 5% grades the retarder effects 100% of the braking; on steeper grades it contributes the major portion. Since new highway restrictions limit grades to 5%, it may be expected that the retarder will drastically cut costs in this area.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650033
V. E. Gough, F. B. Jones, W. S. Udall
Increased resistance to tread wear, improved road holding and safety, reduction of wander at ridges in road surfaces, lower spring rate, reduced transmission of road roar generated on rough textured road surfaces, and reduced fuel consumption have all encouraged the introduction of the radial ply, rigid breaker tire on the European market to the extent that it is being used as original equipment on a number of modern vehicles. Although satisfactory endurance and standing wave performance have been reached, there are several areas which still present problems and the need exists for high precision in manufacture. This new type of tire is probably most suited to a vehicle designed to meet its specific characteristics.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650275
Zora Arkus-Duntov, Arnold R. Brown, Arthur R. Shaw
The four-wheel brake system with separate parking brake was made available as standard equipment on the Chevrolet Corvette. This new system developed by Chevrolet and Delco Moraine meets specific sports car requirements such as increasing total braking effectiveness, giving more stopping power, and improving vehicle control through increased braking feel. The disc brake gives virtual fade free performance which is achieved through use of a ventilated disc which dissipates heat rapidly and keeps brake linings within their working temperature range. Intensive proving ground and road tests, as discussed in this paper, prove the overall performance of the disc brake system.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650146
J. H. Cox
The new ASTM-E17 specification on the Standard Pavement Skid Test Tire is explained, along with examples of how the standard tire is used today. Traction characteristics of the tire footprint and the adhesion-hysteresis concept of the mechanism of rubber friction is discussed. Examination of wet pavement traction test data, covering different designs and compounds on a wide range of road surfaces, disclose that the basic road surface is far more important than any variation in design or compound.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650145
Walter B. Horne, Upshur T. Joyner
Pneumatic tire hydroplaning is described and related research and facilities are reviewed. It is shown that present tire tread design techniques and pavement surface treatment can substantially alleviate hydroplaning effects on pneumatic tires over most vehicle operating speed ranges when the pavement is wet or slightly flooded. The results also show that when pavements are deeply flooded, neither the best tire tread design nor the best pavement surface treatment can prevent hydroplaning at the critical hydroplaning speed; however, the use of air jets to remove fluid from the pavement in front of the tire shows promise as a means of alleviating hydroplaning under this condition.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650666
N. R. Brownyer
Tests to date have shown that the Instantor brake system developed by the Rockwell-Standard Corporation successfully eliminates the need for power assist on both passenger cars and trucks equipped with four-wheel hydraulic brakes. In the case of the motor truck, the Instantor is built into the front brakes; in the passenger car, it is built into the rear brakes. The advantages of installing the Instantor system in a vehicle are discussed, particularly the enhanced safety features, lower initial and maintenance costs, and reduced space requirements.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650323
Robert D. Rothi
The newest addition to the Douglas family of airplanes is the short to medium haul DC-9. This paper includes a brief description of the DC-9 hydraulic systems highlighting special design criteria. Also included is a discussion of some of the new built-in design features which have been incorporated to assist the airlines in trouble shooting and maintenance. The attendant reduction in unnecessary component removals will not only reduce operating costs and overhaul time but will also result in a marked improvement in reliability.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650257
D. Hodkin
This paper reviews the position of vehicle handling analysis in Great Britain today, with reference to product design; points out areas for further progress; and describes facilities and developments in research meeting the present and future needs of the vehicle engineer. Equipment and techniques for measuring vehicle steady-state control characteristics and tire handling data are described in principle, and reference is made to the radial ply tire, aerodynamic stability, and driver response behavior.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650622
D. Brian Wheeler
It is important that both the operator and vehicle manufacturer accurately analyze the operational demands of different types of commercial vehicles. In order to insure satisfactory and efficient engine performance, each individual component comprising the vehicle power train must be compatible with the other. Several of the factors involved in the proper selection of such components as the engine, transmission, rear axle, and brakes are discussed in terms of the type of service required. Some of these components must be selected on the basis of experience gained either in a given fleet or similar fleets in the area where operation is intended.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650627
Ira Maxon
This paper introduces a new tandem suspension suitable for trucks or highway tractors, with advantages in superior ride and lower weight. Multileaf steel springs are used in conjunction with unusually effective cams, producing a two-rate spring with the higher rate four times that of the lower rate. Newer materials such as nodular or ductile iron are used extensively. Rubber bearings are used to eliminate lubrication. Specific data are given with respect to selection of materials as well as stresses imposed in service.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650726
Lloyd D. Masser
Independent equalizing air suspensions are being added to trucks, tractors, and trailers in order to increase their capacity. That is, independent air suspensions are being combined with standard production suspensions so as to economically produce vehicles with greater versatility. Axle load equalization is obtained by regulating air pressure to the air suspension, which controls the load on the independent axle. This paper describes the design and application of the independent equalizing air suspension as used by the trucking industry.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650725
A. N. Schuppert
The tri-drive vehicle was developed to fill a specific need by operators (primarily construction operators), to allow them to take advantage of increased maximum gross vehicle weights permissible in several states. In order to take advantage of these increased legal weights and furnish adequate vehicle capacity and mobility, new components and new application standards were developed. This paper describes the problems encountered and what was done to solve them.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650184
S. A. Lippmann, W. A. Piccin, T. P. Baker
The paper describes the enveloping properties of truck tires as consisting of two components of force, one in the vertical direction and another in the direction of travel. The responses to irregular surfaces are mathematically accountable in terms of the response to a step in pavement elevation. Tires may therefore be readily characterized through their reactions to step functions. Curves display the differences in enveloping properties available in the 10.00–20 size on the open market.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650183
R. N. Janeway
This paper is a summary of thinking on analytical approaches to the highway truck problems, and the effects of any combination of suspension conditions. The author attempts to coordinate various contributions into a set of guidelines for continuing ride developments. The author comments upon and summarizes six papers appearing in SP-260, “Tandem Truck Ride and Vibration Problems.”
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650186
D. H. Carson
The uniformity characteristics of wide base and conventional truck tires are established and the effects on ride of unbalance and radial runout in both types of tires are evaluated. Tire profile relationship -- aspect ratio -- is related to ride characteristics to establish the directional influence of a change in tire profile on vehicle ride.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650187
W. C. Long
A compilation of vibration producing elements in large and medium truck and trailer wheel, hub, and drum assemblies. Current values and practices are shown, along with hitherto unpublished data from major United States manufacturers.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650188
Bruce D. Van Deusen, Stanley H. Backaitis
The authors summarize information on effects of tires on tandem truck ride and vibration problems. An appraisal of research and a request to face the challenge of acquiring better engineering measurements of vehicle vibration are given.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650103
Mario Persia, Giuseppe Faraggiana
Abstract European road freight transport, already important in the late 1930s, had a great growth after World War II and a further one during the 1950s, following the increase in commercial volume inside and outside the European Economic Community (EEC), or Common Market. The strong and sometimes fundamental differences among regulations of the various European countries have up to now made impossible the use of a specific type of truck for long distance haulage. After discussing the background of transport in Europe and examining present truck design, the major characteristics of the long distance haulage truck or truck tractor are described.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650134
Morgan W. Dawley
Abstract The range of automotive components that are affected by air flow around the car is surveyed, with examples of the application of aerodynamic knowledge to brake and engine cooling, wind noise, dirt accumulation, wiper lift, body ventilation, and air leakage. Air pressure distribution patterns over an automobile are shown along with air flow visualization techniques.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650153
J. E. Heywood, G. H. Muller, M. L. Jurosek
This paper discusses the new independent front suspension used in the 1965 Ford light trucks, in relation to desirable suspension objectives. For each objective the new suspension provides an optimum means of attainment. Satisfaction of qualification criteria required use of the most efficient techniques of environmental measurement, testing, and design. Specific examples of innovative areas are load determination over long routes, using FM tape recording and automatic data processing; fatigue testing of systems rather than component testing; careful attention to correlation of laboratory and track testing; and extensive use of plastic models for rapid stress analysis of alternate design proposals.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650160
CHARLES F. MADDOX, JOHN G. McQUAID
This paper describes the design and build of an experimental super transport truck for high-speed, long distance freight hauling on the interstate highway system of the 1970's. The tractor, powered by a 600-hp gas turbine engine, pulls two 40-foot tandem axle trailers at a G.C.W. of 170,000 lbs. Details of the turbine engine development are covered in SAE paper, No. 991B. One of the features of the super transport truck is the cab, which is designed for long-distance, non-stop, two-man operation. It is provided with sleeping accommodations, washroom conveniences, food facilities, and a complete heating and air-conditioning system. The 13-foot high cab roof is flush with the top of the trailers, providing a substantial aerodynamic advantage. Other features and components of the truck are described, and observations made during the 5500-mile national tour are discussed.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650154
Jacques Bajer
This paper is concerned with “low aspect ratio”* passenger car tires, the development and testing program prior to their acceptance for general use, and the overall characteristics of these tires from a vehicle manufacturer's standpoint. The paper presents a general review of the evolution of the pneumatic tire, and the importance of the tire/vehicle system approach in solving tire/wheel and chassis development problems. The paper also gives a brief report of the progress being made to establish uniform, industry-wide standards for tires, and for rim uniformity grading machines.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650180
W. T. Trisler, W. E. Rice
The construction of superhighway systems will increasingly influence the need for ride improvement. Many basic principles, such as universal joint operating principles, propeller shaft runout and balance, handling and shipping, and others, will become more important. This paper is a discussion of the principles which will have to be considered in order to provide more comfortable ride.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650027
Minoru Shimizu
This paper describes experiments to find the source of the road noise in automobiles and methods for correcting it. To find the major source of road noise, the time lag of the sound waves was measured. Characteristics of a tray frame construction car were found by comparing the vibration modes of its frame with those of body-frame and unit construction cars. As a result of experiments, it was found that the tray frame construction car combines desirable features of both body-frame and unit construction cars.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650060
Lloyd L. Baldwin
This paper points out that some of the most important factors causing reduction in tire mileage are the increase of horsepower, speed, and torque of modern tractors and trucks as compared to those in popular use 7 to 10 years ago. The importance of maintenance to the vehicle toward the end of reducing tire costs to a minimum is emphasized. These factors include front wheel alignment and loading, wheel and tire assembly concentricity, lateral and radial runout, balance, drive and trailer axle alignment problems, suspension maintenance problems; wide-spread axle operation, tag axles, shock absorbers, warning systems, brakes, wheel bearings, belts, and seals.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650061
W. S. McDowell, C. I. Reynolds
The ability of a commercial truck operator to achieve a satisfactorily low cost per tire mile can depend in large part on the effectiveness of his retread program. An understanding of the factors affecting retreadability is a prerequisite to the establishment of such a program. A truck tire carcass has a certain amount of service built into it. The number of retreads that are both possible and practical depends in large part on the type and length of service during the original tread life, as well as the type of tire. A good record system is essential.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650057
W. L. Campbell
This paper covers methods of determining tire cost per mile, plus the effect of proper scrap analysis and fleet logistics analysis upon tire cost, in a typical over-the-road dry freight fleet. The conclusion is that it is reasonable to expect a fleet of this type, operating under optimum conditions, to realize a tire cost of 0.7 mills per mile.
1965-02-01
Technical Paper
650058
William Denton
Two conditions must be fulfilled in selecting truck tires for over-the-road service: tires must be adequate for the service, and tire costs must be minimal. Four types of truck tires available for over-the-road service are: highway tires -- usable for all highway service except where extra traction is required; “extra tread” highway tires -- usable to obtain higher tread miles when tire temperature is not excessive; “cross lug” highway tires --usable on drive wheels to obtain higher tread miles and extra traction; and special service mud-snow tires -- usable on drive wheels to provide added traction in mud or snow or other limited off-the-road service.
Viewing 9631 to 454 of 454

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