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Viewing 9631 to 161 of 161
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670471
W. K. Klamp, W. J. Milligan
This paper examines certain of the mechanical properties and principles that make up the performance characteristics of the radial ply tire. Harshness, tread wear, skid, and traction are discussed as are stability, puncture resistance, standing height, and power consumption. Also discussed is the necessity for viewing tire performance only in respect to a particular vehicle.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670460
James Sidles, Armando Cardenas
Automobile owners get more luggage space when they use this space saving tire, and forgetful air inflators need never find themselves without a spare because this one is carried flat and needs only a little pressure boost to make it wheelworthy. Moreover, the capability of operating when deflated is a bonus characteristic. This is the thin tread emergency spare tire by Goodrich. Deflated, it is only slightly larger than its rim. Expanded, it is normal size and shape. The mechanics of expansion are explained here and operational data and test results are presented.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670501
Robert W. Kickel
In order to maintain designed mating compatibility of brake drum and lining, we rely on assistance from the field maintenance personnel and the vehicle operators. Specifically, they must recognize environmental and mechanical conditions that prevent the compatibility of the brake lining and brake drums and based on their all around knowledge of braking fundamentals and experience correct these conditions. This paper covers: theoretical braking concept; internal conditions contributing to noncompatibility of drum and linings; foreign conditions contributing to noncompatibility of drums and linings; corrections.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670506
B. L. Douglass
The rapidly increasing number of passenger car trailers using public highways has focused attention on trailer brake systems. One of these systems, the surge or momentum actuated type, has received particular attention because it offers automatic trailer braking inherently synchronized with different deceleration rates of the towing vehicle as well as with different gross trailer weights. This system presents new considerations that must be evaluated in establishing overall system performance and extent of application. This evaluation is described here.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670511
R. L. Gatrell, T. P. Schreiber
During a fundamental investigation aimed at the further improvement of organic disc brake linings, chemical studies were made of brake wear surfaces. Electron microprobe and infrared analysis were used to study the layer which forms on the lining and the film which forms on the drum when a new lining is broken in. Both the lining surface layer and the drum film are discontinuous and contain thermally decomposed asbestos. Calcined asbestos as an added ingredient in experimental linings resulted in markedly improved frictional performance.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670510
Albin J. Burkman, Frank H. Hishley
The laboratory evaluation of brake lining materials at General Motors Engineering Staff is discussed. Physical aspects that may occur during test which were of concern are swell, shrinkage, blistering, extrusion, and sloughing. The friction materials test machine and test procedures are described. Frictional characteristics considered in the testing are friction level, uniformity of output, shape of family curves, fade, fade and recovery, and resistance to moisture. Test results are presented in the form of sample plot sheets of good and poor lining performance. Good linings showed fairly uniform coefficient of friction and consistent grouping of the family curves, in contrast to the excessive spread and erratic values of the poor lining example.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670130
William G. Phile
Within the utility companies, the automotive groups are charged with responsibility of providing transportation and work vehicles for the operating plant and other departments. As such, the combined thinking of other departments quite often is taken into consideration when purchase of equipment is made. It is, therefore, planned to cover some of the problems encountered in selecting acceptable chassis for utility use up to 16,000 gvw. As a separate section, Appendix A “Loads Imposed on Aerial Lift Vehicles When Placing Self-Supporting Cable” and Appendix B “End Point Requirements for Aerial Lift Vehicles Used to Place Self-Supporting Cable, ” have been produced to guide both user and manufacturer in what is considered to be acceptable safety limits.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670172
B. W. Firth
Dimensional analysis is used to develop a general sinkage equation for probes of arbitrary shape, confirmed by a test in cohesionless sand giving a straight line over a range106 Existing equations for plate sinkage are special cases f the general one; but in contrast to the Reece equation the sinkage exponent will have approximately equal values or cohesive and frictional soil sent will have approximately equal values for cohesive and frictional soils. The general equation promises to facilitate both testing (in that it allows the use of sharp probes) and the application of theory to realistic shapes. It is implicit in the existence of an aspect ratio exponent that resistance to translation cannot, in general, be derived by integration of the work done in sinkage. A general equation for resistance is developed, and solved for the special cases of cylindrical and toroidal wheels in cohesionless and frictionless soils.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670174
S. A. Lippmann, J. D. Nanny
The forces generated by tires when traveling over irregular roads are related to the structure of the tire and to the geometry of the road surface in a useful mathematical relationship. Linearity and superposition principles allow an idealized and synthetic road irregularity to represent the response of a tire to realistic kinds of road irregularities. The association of the enveloping forces with factors related to the structure of tires facilitates the understanding of the enveloping responses. The analysis of the forces for the idealized road irregularity, coupled with the Fourier integral analysis of road surfaces, produces the spectrum of outputs for exciting modes of vibration in the tire itself and in vehicles.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670173
Donald L. Nordeen
Force and moment tire data are not always easy to interpret. Tire characteristics unacceptable for one vehicle may be desirable for another. Tire data cannot be fully evaluated without considering the vehicle on which the tires are to be used. This paper describes a simple method by which tire data as applied to a particular vehicle can be evaluated. The analysis includes an approximate calculation of the steady-state directional control characteristics of the vehicle. The calculations are simple and straightforward, and assist in interpretation of the effect of the tire forces on the vehicle steady-state characteristics. This method of analysis cannot replace the more elaborate dynamic analysis of vehicle handling, but can assist by eliminating those combinations of vehicle parameters and tire characteristics which cannot provide the desired directional control characteristics.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670022
Donald F. Livermore
When a stationary automobile is on a horizontal road, the car and its suspension linkages are in static equilibrium under the actions of gravity loading, road reactions, and internal spring forces. When this same system is acted on by steady cornering and/or axial acceleration loads, in addition to gravity loading, the equilibrium configuration of the suspension will be changed substantially from its gravity-load-only condition, affecting the driving characteristics of the automobile. This paper presents a general computer-based method for determining displacement relations and equilibrium configurations of mechanisms which are restrained by springs and subjected to steady external loading. The method is illustrated by its application to several suspension systems of varying complexity.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670080
Roy L. Gealer, Bobby H. Biggers
Pyrolytic gas chromatography (PGC) has been applied to the characterization of the organic constituents of brake linings. The test involves the pyrolysis of a sample followed by the instrumental separation and sensing of the products of decomposition. A study of experimental variables, such as pyrolysis temperature, has allowed the selection of conditions which yield excellent reproducibility and sensitivity. The preferred test conditions, which have been incorporated in Ford's brake lining quality control specifications, result in a relatively rapid, meaningful test for constancy of composition.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670079
A. E. Anderson, Serge Gratch, Hayden P. Hayes
A compact new laboratory friction and wear test machine has been developed. Test procedures have been established for this machine in a constant output (that is, constant friction force) mode of operation. These procedures have been shown to be particularly well suited for quality control of brake lining materials. The test, designated Friction Assessment Screening Test (FAST), has been shown to yield highly reproducible results which correlate well with vehicle performance. The results are highly sensitive to those variations in brake lining properties which are most significant in brake performance.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670281
S. J. Sitko
Earthmover tire technology has expanded in recent years not only in construction and compounding but also in furnishing larger and larger sizes to provide the required capacity for new high capacity scrapers, trucks, dozers, and loaders. Actual service results show that the theory and economics of large tire usages on high capacity equipment is well established and on a sound footing.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670280
R. L Wann
Testing techniques involving tires and tire components are discussed. New developments such as Super Deep tread design, improved repairs, and portable scale are covered as they relate to improved off-the-road tire performance. These new techniques and developments are the result of extensive investigation and testing in both laboratory and field. The weighing device described here is an effective tool in selecting type, load, and air pressure of high performance tires.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670283
Richard C. Bueler
Vehicle braking systems consist of four basic elements: generation, storage, control, and transmission of braking effort. The method of energy storage used as well as the interrelationship between it and the three remaining system elements, and the vehicle operator and foundation brakes greatly affect system reliability. Control should remain with the operator for both service and emergency actuation, except in extenuating circumstances wherein the driver fails to act.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670279
Charlie E. Sanders
Although tires represent a major portion of the operating cost on rubber-tired earthmoving equipment, these costs are not as scientifically predictable as explosive costs or ripper teeth replacement costs when estimating a job. Tires have not developed at the same rate equipment manufacturers have improved the design and resulting performance of rubber tired equipment. Each year the construction jobs grow more rugged. The nature of jobs is such that tires for haulage equipment must be suitable for the short haul as well as the long haul type jobs. Although excellent haul roads can be maintained between the cut and fill areas, work at the cut and fill expose the tires to severe cutting. An integral part of the development of a suitable tire construction technique should be a low cost method of repairing a damaged carcass, thereby providing an extension of the tire life.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670470
F. E. Buddenhagen
The radial ply tire has been established as a growing factor in the American tire market because of the many basic advantages the radial ply concept offers as compared to the conventional bias tire. There still remains much work to be done, however, before the full potential of this concept -- an efficient and economic means of combining materials to perform the function of a tire -- is realized. In addition, disadvantages must be minimized or eliminated. Modifications in construction and design are means toward these goals and are considered in some depth in this paper. It should be noted that construction and design features consistent with bias tire experience must be carefully re-examined when applied to the radial tire principle.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670472
J. L. Martin
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670560
Kennerly H. Digges, Aivars V. Petersons
In recent years the AFFDL has actively attempted to develop improved techniques and criteria for providing aircraft with a capability for landing on substandard fields. A number of R&D programs have been conducted to this end. These programs have involved the participation of not only the AFFDL Landing Gear Test Facility, but also the Vicksburg Waterways Experiment Station, and various aircraft and landing gear contractors. The scope of approaches investigated includes expandable tires, extra wide tires, low pressure tires, track gear, air cushion gear, and basic flotation criteria. This paper summarizes the significant results of these programs. The paper briefly summarizes the presently available criteria for ground flotation on bare soil and indicates approaches for improving aircraft ground flotation characteristics. Also included are the results of AFFDL tests of conventional tires tested at high deflection, and of unconventional (expandable) tires which collapse for stowage.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670561
Norman S. Currey
With airplanes becoming progressively heavier, and runways already being damaged by present-day aircraft, it is apparent that more thought must be given to flotation. There is a great need for high flotation landing gears on both military and commercial aircraft. High flotation was a basic parameter in the C-5A landing gear design when it was first conceived and a computerized study of 2600 landing variants revealed the present design to be optimum for an airplane, with the weight and mission concept of the C-5A. Reviewed in this paper are its history, design, and capabilities.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670562
E. W. Smith, R. S. Woodward
OV-10A LANDING GEARS - The landing gears of the OV-10A have been designed to meet extremely severe landing and operating conditions. The articulated main gear and semi-articulated nose gear assemblies have proven to be well suited to meeting the requirements for high sink rate landings onto bumps, steps and holes in addition to taxiing and making take-offs over undulating contours. Development data on the landing gear shock struts in laboratory airframe drops and actual flight test landings show good agreement with predicted performance.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670914
J. Banshoya, H. Okoshi, S. Asano, K. Okamoto
Mainly intended for small passenger cars which have more dimentional restrictions than large ones do, a new energy-absorbing column is developed utilizing frictional and plastic deformation resistance as absorbing means. This paper presents its design details, test results on various specifications and conditions, discussions on various factors which affect the performance, analysis of column compression both statically and dynamically, testing methods and equipments for components and complete assembly, confirming that its intended features of relatively low peak load and reasonable compression length has been achieved.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670968
Thomas R. Wheaton
The free turbine type of gas turbine engine, because of its light weight, compactness, and inherent torque characteristics, permits the design of a new type of passenger train with light weight, high performance, and good economy. Conversely, the inherent advantages of the turbine can be realized only in a vehicle designed as a system. The United Aircraft TurboTrain is such a system design. In addition to turbine powerplants, it incorporates high strength lightweight structure, a lightweight banking suspension system, aerodynamic streamlining, and modern conveniences.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670933
Wesley R. Master
This paper discusses hydrostatic drives for heavy duty trucks. These have been employed on auxiliaries such as cranes, transit mixers, and winches on a production basis for several years, and they are now moving into the drive area. Typical among these would be front wheels, rear wheels, utilizing both powered axles and powered wheels. This paper discusses these drives, both fixed and steerable, and makes some comparison between the powered wheel and the powered axle. Some typical components and circuits are discussed and the future of this drive is outlined.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670070
Joseph J. Ihnacik,, Jerome F. Meek
The design and development of Mark II GT brake system within the parameters dictated by the Mark I chassis presented many problems. The Mark II GT with its larger 427 cubic inch engine had more weight and much higher performance than the Mark I. Space limitations of the carryover wheels and suspension imposed a severe handicap on individual brake component design. This was compounded by shortening the normal one year development time to a three month period. Part I of this paper is devoted to the consideration of factors which control the design of a brake. The concept of kinetic energy and its effects on brake performance is reviewed briefly. Use of the ventilated rotor design is explained for applications where severe heat is a problem, as in the case of the Mark II GT. The development of the brake system from the 24 hour Daytona endurance race to the Le Mans Grand Prix race is reviewed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670131
Howard C. Hansen
The wide acceptance in the last 10 years of utility equipment, such as hydraulic derricks and aerial devices, has pointed out many long existing problems in mounting equipment to truck chassis. The newer equipment developments have brought to light many new problems. Many of these problems are herein documented, together with possible solutions.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670144
D. W. Howard, J. L. Winge
The multiple dynamometer described in this paper is capable of testing complete four-wheel braking systems similar to the actual vehicle operation by the use of magnetic tape programming techniques. Vehicle tests up to 6 hr in length can be accommodated on a single reel of tape. The use of digital programming permits a high degree of test flexibility coupled with excellent test repeatability. Secondary advantages include the capability of performing these tests on an unattended basis, thereby effecting a savings in manpower. The paper tape and magnetic tape programs can be cataloged and stored, and the test procedure can be duplicated at a later time if so desired. The instrumentation system furnishes precise measurements of the braking parameters, thereby providing accurate test data for the design engineering group.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670204
Paul J. Brown
Abstract The Office of Vehicle Systems Research of NBS is concerned with the research, development. testing, and evaluation necessary to provide the technical basis for recommended safety performance standards of motor vehicle systems issued by the National Traffic Safety Bureau. It will also develop the test methods required to determine compliance to these standards. This paper describes the three areas NBS will concentrate on initially: tire systems, occupant restraint systems. and braking systems. In developing its research data, NBS is looking to building on work already done by the automotive industry. The author comments on the mutual benefits to be obtained from the exchange of research data.
Viewing 9631 to 161 of 161

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