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1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690489
Albert Grotewohl
After a short introductory consideration of wheel suspension layouts, the influence of the suspension on major vehicle characteristics in the steady-state condition is investigated and the theoretical results compared at various points with measurements made on the VW 411. In the second part of the paper, the front and rear suspension and the safety steering system of the VW 411 are described in detail.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690490
R.E. OWEN, M.R. LADD
Buick engineers are well pleased with their '69 Chassis. Benefits of a unique front suspension camber curve are documented. The effects of various suspension parameters on ride and handling are explained. These were varied independently of one another in the course of evaluating over 30 suspension configurations.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690488
T. Kohno, S. Tsuchiya, N. Komoda
This paper describes experimental and analytical approaches which were developed for the purpose of planning, designing and tuning up not only steady state but also dynamic characteristics of the vehicle maneuvering performance. As regards experimental approaches, outlines of the testing methods and relationship between the measured typical characteristics and the drivers' feeling are presented. They were investigated and developed in order to qualify the general characteristics of produced vehicle dynamics, effectively and accurately, and to apply the results to the vehicle design. As regards analytical approaches, the seven degrees' theoretical model is introduced. It is established for the purpose of analyzing the influences on vehicle performances by changes in design parameters, including the lateral rigidity of tires, the torsional rigidity of the steering system, and some nonlinear dampings in steering and suspension systems.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690497
C. A. Julien, H. M. Hung
The “identification of systems” is a generalized form of curve fitting pertaining to systems for which a mathematical model is known, and for which input/output data is empirically available, but for which actual values of parameters in the model are unknown and are sought. A technique for identification (that is, determination of parameters) in second-order, dynamic systems is presented and applied to a typical system; namely, a two-axle rubber-tired vehicle. The scheme is based on establishing a set of system model equations and their use with system response data to define one or more residue functions in a manner analogous to the defining of an error function in curve-fitting by the collocation method. A performance index is defined by treating the residue as a measure of least squares fit, and the parameters are then determined by finding the set of values which simultaneously makes all the first partial derivatives of this index with respect to the parameters vanish.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690439
Kermit o. Allard
A special dynamometer has been designed and developed by the Engineering Department of John Deere Waterloo Tractor Works of Deere and Co. to accurately load and measure torque on slow speed axle shafts. Quiet operation is attained using multiple disc wet brakes. Accurate torque measurement and control is obtained by a mechanical-hydraulic servomechanism commanded by a scale beam.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690444
Gerald L. Goldberg, Trevor N. James
Cast iron has been used as an engineering material for 2000 years. The concept of an integral hub is not new to the automotive engineer since it dates back at least 40 years. For economic considerations, the use of cast iron has been merged with the concept of an integral hub and disc for passenger car usage. This paper discusses the various problems involved in the utilization of cast iron and includes details of various tests and their results necessary to prove out this design.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690445
G. B. JACOBY
NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF BRAKE LINING Every piece of brake lining must meet standards which relate production lining to lining tested on the vehicle for approval. To accomplish this purpose limits have been set on Cure, Strength, Hardness, Specific Gravity and Appearance, and these characteristics must be measured on a production basis. New techniques developed to measure these characteristics rapidly and non-destructively are; Electrical Conductivity for Cure, Loaded Rollers for Strength and Gamma Radiation Gauges for Specific Gravity. These techniques, plus Gogan hardness and visual inspection, have been coupled with systematic recording of measurements on experimental lining.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690522
Joseph D. Walter, George L. Hall
Two improved versions of a recently developed miniature force transducer were used to measure cord loads at the crown, shoulder, and sidewall of bias and belted-bias automobile tires under different testing conditions. As a transducer at a given location passes through the footprint, a “basic shape” for the cord force pattern is generated for straight ahead rolling and cornering. Factors such as wheel load, inflation pressure, obstacle impact, tire speed, rim width, and frictional properties of the tire-drum interface can affect the total force excursion and/or the base line value but do not affect the basic shape of the patterns. For both bias and belted-bias constructions significant ply-to-ply cord force variations were detected, and the cord force pattern observed in the first ply as the transducer passes through the footprint is nearly a mirror image of that in the second ply at the same location.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690530
A. G. Imgram, Donald K. Miner
At the 1965 SAE Mid-Year Meeting in Chicago, fleet operators commented on hydraulic brake tube failures. Since little factual information was available on the effects of service life on the performance of hydraulic brake lines, a program was initiated to obtain this information. Results of the program indicate that corrosive deterioration of the steel hydraulic brake tubing now being used on cars and trucks creates maintenance problems and can be a safety hazard. The investigation also showed that the performance of presently used brake tubing becomes highly erratic after four to six years in service. Age of the vehicle appears to be more significant than mileage relative to brake tube corrosion. However, there are so many variables which influence brake line corrosion that attempts to correlate the results of the investigation with any one factor, such as age, are difficult.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690527
Tadashi Okada, Takeo Sagishima
Theoretical calculation and experiments are made to make clear the transient response of a front wheel drive vehicle to change in tractive force. If the tractive force acting on the front wheel is reduced suddenly from a large stationary value, the turning radius decreases rapidly, and the stability and controllability of the vehicle decreases. The following means are effective to improve stability and controllability: establish relations ∂C1/∂D1 > 0 and ∂T/∂D1 < 0; make the value of C1 + C2 as large as possible; maintain a relation C1 < C2; and increase rigidities of shafts and links of steering system, where C1, C2, T, and D1 are the cornering coefficient of the front wheel, that of the rear wheel, the aligning torque of the front wheel, and the tractive force at the front wheel, respectively.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690555
Ralph W. Holmes
This paper describes the application of hyifraulically powered wheels to a logging trailer which is pulled by a 225-HP tractor. It discusses the advantages of the hydrostatic transmission as a means empowering the trailer. The hydraulic circuitry and its operation is examined. A cutaway view of the wheel is used to explain the operating features. Performance figures are displayed and component arrangement on the tractor are shown. Other applications of the same hydraulic wheel are presented.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690563
A. R. Kaduk, G. Mladsi, E. D. Clise
Utility vehicles perform a specialized job, and consequently require special design consideration. Frame, spring, and axle selection for this type of vehicle can no longer be based solely on gross vehicle weight, but must be tailored to do the required job.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690501
M. W. DEVERS, W. B. LARSON
With the advent of disc brakes as standard equipment on some vehicles, an integral ductile iron steering knuckle has been developed to replace the assembly of a separate forged knuckle, steering arm, and disc brake housing bracket. The flexibility of the casting process has been applied to take advantage of the properties of ductile iron and to permit combination of components. The simplicity of the integral knuckle concept, which eliminates assembly operations and fasteners, makes the design inherently more reliable. A series of non-destructive tests has been devised to assure casting quality. The paper describes the general approach to designing castings in ductile iron for this application, considering both functional and manufacturing requirements.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690500
R. J. TEMPLIN, J. T. HOBAN, C. J. CISLO
A new concept of a ductile iron integral steering arm, brake caliper support, and steering knuckle has been developed. This has inherently higher reliability, fewer fasteners, and fewer human variables than the assembly it replaces.
1969-02-01
Magazine
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690726
D. L. Christen
Four-wheel drive agricultural tractors are finding wide acceptance in the large tractor market. There are two basic design concepts, rigid frame and articulated, both of which have distinct advantages. At present the relatively low production volumes demand a modular design approach. The future will see a trend toward integrated components. There are seven manufacturers presently offering models that together cover the range of 100-220 drawbar hp. This paper presents a comparison of marketing and component features.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690780
J. G. Huffman, A. W. Percy
An all-electric, weatherized chassis dynamometer has been built utilizing solid state control circuits. The facility allows operation up to 120 mph and can handle all passenger cars (front or rear wheel drive) and single drive axle truck units. Air conditioning allows operation from 40 F up with humidity control as well. Unique instrumentation allows digital readout of all important variables.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690075
Frank J. Cimprich
Tire cooling apparatus has been invented which cools the tire evenly during the conventional post-cure inflation cycle after removal of the tire from the press. It consists of a hollow tube in the form of a ring having a series of holes located around its inside periphery to direct cooling air over the entire surface of the tire. In addition to the mechanical nonuniformities in tires, tires made with thermoelastic cords exhibit another class of nonuniformity due to temperature differences across the tire cooling unevenly in free air. The coupling of these two nonuniformities prohibits proper grading and testing of tires. The apparatus offers a post-cure inflation treatment of vulcanized nylon and polyester tires providing a uniformity of quality throughout the tire with a higher percentage of acceptability when measured for force variation uniformity.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690376
L. S. McBee
Aircraft ground congestion is mounting as a result of air transportation growth and runway limitation. Because highly reliable aircraft braking can contribute to good ground control and alleviation of congestion, effective braking is a key to air transportation growth. To attain a vantage point for a view of the future, the progress of aircraft braking systems is reviewed. Current areas of study relating to systems, brakes, tires, and runway interface are discussed. Studies are under way by companies and agencies, both foreign and domestic, for improvement of braking efficiencies to meet future needs. These studies include the topics of brake design, heat-sink material, braking control, tire-runway interface, and tire design. The specific subject of tire-runway interface has received considerable attention during the past few years. The interface phenomenon involves many facets.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690213
R. H. Madison, Hugh E. Riordan
The history, system philosophy, design evolution, and performance of the Sure-Track anti-lock automotive braking system are presented and discussed. Considerations of performance, driver skill, reliability, and commercial acceptance resulted in the choice of a vacuum-electronic rear wheel anti-lock system that incorporates individual wheel speed sensing and control of braking as a pair. The system provides superior directional stability under “panic” braking conditions while maintaining stopping distance equal to or shorter than those for locked wheels under most road conditions.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690224
S. E. Stone
A number of fluid level warning indicators are currently available for adaptation to master cylinder reservoirs of the brake system. Their purpose is to provide warning of possibility of failure of the system in the immediate future. The types of indicators, degree of sophistication, advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690185
L. M. Patrick, D. J. Van Kirk
Data are presented for 19 frontal-force collisions involving vehicles with collapsible steering columns with collision severity rating from minor to very severe (1–7) and an injury severity index from minor to fatal. Injury results are compared to laboratory experiments in which a force of 1800 lb distributed over the rim and hub was measured for a fairly stiff wheel and collapsible column combination. When the steering wheel did not deform excessively and the force reached the 1800 lb level as evidenced by column collapse, there were no serious thoracic injuries. Gross deformation of the steering wheel with exposed sharp spoke ends or small diameter hub resulted in serious abdominal and thoracic injuries. Two cases of hood intrusion are presented, each of which resulted in fatalities.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690184
Donald F. Huelke, William A. Chewning
Investigations of 1967 and 1968 model cars indicate that the injuries sustained by driver impacts to the steering assembly are markedly reduced because of the energy absorbing steering column. Drivers, however, are sustaining facial injuries from impact to the steering wheel rim even in low speed crashes. In more severe head-on collisions, the driver is compressing the energy absorbing column and is striking his face on the upper padded instrument panel in front of the steering wheel. Relatively severe facial fractures are sustained by impacting this portion of the panel.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690183
L. C. Lundstrom, W. G. Cichowski
General Motors introduced in its 1967 passenger cars an innovation in the concept of vehicle safety called the “energy-absorbing steering column.” A statistical study of its performance has been conducted on 3000 1968 General Motors passenger cars which were involved in accidents. This field accident study is then compared with raw accident data obtained from ACIR. Various other aspects of the performance of the column are investigated in this summary of field accident experience.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690260
S.I. MacDuff, J.G. Rivard, E.J. McGlinn
Future automotive control systems are being strongly influenced by a changing environment. New technology advances are providing vehicle control system design concepts which are more ideally suited to the man-vehicle-environment system which must be considered. The emphasis in this paper is on the evolutionary nature of the changes possible with application of the new technologies. The ultimate realization of semiautomatic control systems and eventually the fully automatic control system will be preceded by improvements in the three basic vehicle controls. Advanced control concepts are being developed for adaptive braking, adaptive steering, and anti-slip traction power application.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690108
W. W. Curtiss
The paper discusses the property of rolling resistance as applied to pneumatic tires. Reference is made to the low power source vehicles presently under development and the importance of providing a tire compatible with this type of vehicle. The emphasis is placed on minimizing the power consumption in tires and the relationship of this minimization to the other performance properties of the tire. Basic relationships of rolling resistance are discussed as associated with structural and environmental factors in both low and high speed operation. The discussion covers only tire service over hard surfaces and is primarily concerned with passenger car tires.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690068
Derwyn M. Severy, Harrison M. Brink, Jack D. Baird
Scientific methodology and engineering techniques were applied to a series of thirteen automobile collision experiments involving the front-end impact exposures of full-size passenger vehicles rear ending identical sedans. The purpose was to evaluate the relative protective merits of seat designs, steering columns, windshields, restraints and general interior surface design with respect to the many variables common to front-end impacts. The front-end collisions reported in this paper provide additional design data for protection of motorists from collision-injuries for the wide range of exposure speeds from 10 through 55 mph.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690051
R. M. Grant, G. M. Brown
Holographic interferometry -- a unique and versatile new method of nondestructive testing (HNDT) -- is now available for industrial design and quality-control purposes. Coherent laser light is used in recording and reconstructing three-dimensional images and interference fringe patterns. HNDT can quickly, accurately, and reliably detect hidden flaws in tires, rubber-to-metal bonds, metal-to-metal bonds, and other objects of interest to automotive engineers responsible for design and testing. Through mild stressing (heat, pressure, creep, vacuum, vibration, etc.) of the test object, well below its elastic limit, subsurface anomalies are manifested in the form of minute surface displacements. These displacements, as small as a few microinches, are easily apparent in holographic interferograms, clearly indicating the location, size, and shape of a variety of common anomalies.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690123
Henry E. Lenaerts
Some recent developments in the area of elastomer applications in European automobiles are reviewed. The developments covered are limited to those recent ones which are different from parts and applications used in the United States as a result of the basic difference in design concept because of size, weight, power, and methods of transmitting power. The automobile components discussed include door seals, the ignition system, radiator and heater hose, engine and valve seals, camshaft and steering components, disc brakes, power transmission, transmission belts, and glazing.
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