Display:

Results

Viewing 31 to 60 of 10850
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1489
Duanxiang Zhang, Bo Lin, Ahmet Kirli PhD, Chinedum Okwudire
Electric Power Assist Steering (EPAS) is widely adopted in modern vehicles to reduce steering effort. EPAS has been suffering from reliability issues of electrical and/or electronic (E/E) components, the failure of which may cause EPAS shutdown. In the event of EPAS failure, power assist becomes unavailable and the steering system reverts to a fully manual state, leading to excessive steering torque demands from drivers to maneuver the vehicle at lower speeds, usually under 30 mph. This situation has resulted in dozens of reported crashes and several OEM safety recalls in the past few years. Inspired by recent work which utilizes independent driving torque of in-wheel-motor vehicles to reduce steering torque, this paper proposes the use of Differential Braking Assist Steering (DBAS) to alleviate steep increases in steering torque upon EPAS failure. DBAS only requires software upgrades and minimal hardware modification, which is preferable for a backup system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1225
Martin Hosek, Jayaraman Krishnasamy
An advanced electric motor with hybrid-field topology has been developed for automotive traction applications. Departing from the conventional radial- and axial-field designs, the hybrid-field motor features three-dimensional magnetic flux paths in a geometry that maximizes the effective volume for magnetic flux flow. The three-dimensional flux paths are enabled by an isotropic soft magnetic material, which has been engineered to replace conventional laminated winding cores with solid isotropic components. The material is produced by a novel additive-manufacturing process based on spray forming. The paper introduces the spray-forming process for motor stator components and presents a conceptual design of the traction motor developed around them, including the motor topology, stator construction and rotor construction. The stator features a spray-formed core with three-dimensional magnetic flux paths, high-density windings and direct liquid cooling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1555
Mirosław Jan Gidlewski, Krystof JANKOWSKI, Andrzej MUSZYŃSKI, Dariusz ŻARDECKI
Lane change automation appears to be a fundamental problem of vehicle automated control, especially when the vehicle is driven at high speed. Selected relevant parts of the recent research project are reported in this paper, including literature review, the developed models and control systems, as well as crucial simulation results. In the project, two original models describing the dynamics of the controlled motion of the vehicle were used, verified during the road tests and in the laboratory environment. The first model – fully developed (multi-mass, 3D, nonlinear) – was used in simulations as a virtual plant to be controlled. The second model – a simplified reference model of the lateral dynamics of the vehicle (single-mass, 2D, linearized) – formed the basis for theoretical analysis, including the synthesis of the algorithm for automatic control. That algorithm was based on the optimal control theory.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0455
Harshad Hatekar, Baskar Anthonysamy, Saishanker V, LAKSHMI PAVULURI, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1507
Prashanta Gautam, Yousof Azizi, Abhilash Chandy
The tire noise is caused due to the complex interactions between the rotating tire and the road surface at the tire/road interface. It is usually caused due to a combination of individually complex noise generation mechanisms, which can be either structural or air related. The influence of each of these noise generation mechanisms may vary, depending on various conditions such as tire design, road surface and operating conditions. Due to the many variables that affect the many noise generation mechanisms in tires, it is usually a very complex task to isolate and categorize those that are present in the overall tire/road noise spectrum. Various approaches are used to categorize noise generation mechanisms in tires. In this paper, a statistical model is used, under the assumption that the tire noise acoustic pressure at a specific frequency band is related to the vehicle speed, in order to study tire noise at different speeds.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0459
Salah H. R. Ali, Badr S. N. Azzam, T. A. Osman, A. M. Moustafa
The frictional composite is an important material in braking system for automotive, trucks or heavy-duty vehicles. In this paper, a proposed frictional composite material has been developed to achieve the ISO requirements for heavy-duty vehicle brakes. This new frictional material has been fabricated with various compositions. Tribological, chemical, mechanical, thermal conductivity and acoustic noise level tests have measure its performance compared to other selected commercial samples under certain operating conditions. Additionally, surface characteristics of selected samples have been performed using optical photograph microscopic to insure the materials homogeny after operation. The results of test measurements showed that the proposed frictional material has satisfied the standard recommended values for the friction coefficient with maintaining a lower level of wear. The developed material has also satisfied a good strength and stiffness properties.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1326
Santhoji Katare, Ravichandran S, Gokul Ram, Giri Nammalwar
Model based computer aided processes offer an economical and accelerated alternative to traditional build-and-test Edisonian approaches to engineering design. Typically a CAE based design problem is formulated in two parts, viz. (1) the inverse problem which involves identification of the appropriate product geometry given desired property requirements, and (2) the forward problem which is the computation or prediction of product performance measures from the product geometry. Solution to the forward problem requires development of an accurate model that is correlated to physical data. This validated model could then be used for virtual verification and design of engineering systems efficiently. This paper demonstrates the rigorous process of model development, model calibration, model validation, and use of the calibrated model in the design process with practical examples from automotive suspension, brakes and powertrain systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1565
Xiangkun He, Kaiming Yang, Xuewu Ji, Yahui Liu, Weiwen Deng
With the problems of energy consumption, environment pollution, vehicle safety and traffic congestion becoming increasingly urgent, Green Energy and intelligent vehicles have been becoming a hot topic. And higher requirements are needed for automotive chassis dynamics control system. A novel type of brake-by-wire system actuator for new energy vehicles and intelligent vehicles is proposed in this paper. Four inlet valves and four outlet valves are added to the layout of a conventional four-channel hydraulic control unit. A permanent-magnet synchronous motor provides a stabilized high-pressure source in the master cylinder, and the four-channel hydraulic control unit ensure that the pressure in each wheel cylinder can be modulated separately at a high precision. Besides, the functions of Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System and Regenerative Braking System, Autonomous Emergency Braking can be integrated in this brake-by-wire system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1578
Tianyang Liu, Zhuoping Yu, Lu Xiong, Wei HAN
Two control strategies, safety preferred control and master cylinder oscillation control, were designed for anti-lock braking on a novel integrated-electro-hydraulic braking system (I-EHB) which has only four solenoid valves in its innovative hydraulic control unit (HCU) instead of eight in a traditional one. The main idea of safety preferred control is to reduce the hydraulic pressure provided by the motor in the master cylinder whenever a wheel tends to be locking even if some of the other wheels may need more braking torque while regarding master cylinder oscillation control, a sinusoidal signal is given to the motor making the hydraulic pressure in the master cylinder oscillate in a certain frequency and amplitude. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the two control strategies mentioned above and to evaluate them.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1573
Andreas Carlitz, Sebastien Allibert, Thomas Schmitz, Axel Engels
A twistbeam is a very cost effective rear suspension architecture which has drawbacks compared to an independent suspension. One drawback is the lateral compliance during cornering compromising handling. Common solutions to correct this issue are complex reinforcements or an additional Watts linkage. However, these solutions drive high cost and additional weight. The challenge was to find a cost efficient solution which comes close to the functional performance of an IRS. Due to the attachment by bushings, the set-up of a twistbeam is always a compromise between ride comfort and dynamic lag. The more comfort is desired, the softer the bushings will be, resulting in less agility and slower response. The goal was to determine a way to separate ride comfort and dynamic agility. A solution was found using a special set of springs working as a dynamic anti-compliance mechanism.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1585
Renxie Zhang, Lu Xiong, Zhuoping Yu, Wei Liu
A dynamic controller is designed for unmanned skid-steering vehicle, which runs in complex road condition all the time. The vehicle speed is controlled through engine driving torque to achieve the desired vehicle speed and the steering is controlled through hydraulic braking on each side of the vehicle to achieve the desired yaw rate. Due to the complexity in wheel-ground interaction, the tire slip cannot be ignored. Besides, it may result in the saturation of the actuators torque, which will further cause the instability of the skid-steering vehicle. Therefore, contrary to the common approaches considering non-holonomic constraints, tire slip and saturation of actuators torque influencing the driving and braking are considered based on the analysis of vehicle dynamic model and nonlinear tire model. With conditional integrators, a dynamic controller overcoming integral saturation is designed under influence of tire forces and constraint of actuators.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0430
Bangji Zhang, Hu Wen, Jie Zhang, Hu Wen, Jie Zhang, Nong Zhang
Among the researches into hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) in the past decade, the sensitivity of some key design parameters to the ride comfort and the mode of the vehicle has been well studied. In respected of handling performance, the past researches have focused on the roll performance during steering process and the road holding capability on straight road but the influence on the understeer-oversteer characteristic has never been detected. HIS is the suspension system that can directly matter the vertical force on the wheels and accordingly it is able to influence the lateral load transfer ratio (LTR) from the inside wheels to the outside ones in the steering process. The change of the load transfer distribution varies the slid-slip characteristics on the front and rear axles which highly correlate to the steering characteristics of the vehicle. This paper introduces the model of the vehicle fitted with HIS used to conduct the simulation analyses.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1554
Ajith Jogi, Sujatha Chandramohan
Over the years, commercial vehicles, especially tractor-semitrailer combinations have become larger and longer. With the increasing demand for their accessibility in remote locations, these vehicles face the problem of off-tracking, which is the ensuing difference in path radii between the front and rear axles of a vehicle as it maneuvers a turn. Apart from steering the rear axle of the semitrailer, one of the feasible ways of mitigating off-tracking is to shift the fifth wheel coupling rearwards. However, this is limited by the distribution of the semitrailer’s load between the two axles of the tractor; any rearward shift of the fifth wheel coupling results in the reduction of the total static load on the tractor’s front axle and hence available traction. This may in turn lead to directional instability of the vehicle. In the present work, a new model of the fifth wheel coupling is proposed which the authors call Split fifth wheel coupling (SFWC).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1558
Jose Velazquez Alcantar, Francis Assadian, Ming Kuang
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) offer improved fuel efficiency compared to their conventional counterparts at the expense of adding complexity and at times, reduced total power. As a result, HEV generally lack the dynamic performance that customers enjoy. To address this issue, the paper presents a HEV with eAWD capabilities via the use of a torque vectoring electric rear axle drive (TVeRAD) unit to power the rear axle. The addition of TVeRAD to a front wheel drive HEV improves the total power output. To further improve the handling characteristics of the vehicle, the TVeRAD unit allows for wheel torque vectoring at the rear axle. The proposed TVeRAD design uses a main traction motor to provide traction force to the wheels and a small torque vectoring motor which can distribute torque from one side to the other depending on the direction of the torque vectoring motor torque. Bond graphs are used to develop a dynamic model of the proposed drivetrain architecture.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0108
Zaydounr Y. Rawashdeh, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Anoop Pottammal, Rajesh Malhan
In this work, DSRC capabilities combined with autonomous vehicles' on-board sensors (camera) are used to trigger an Automated Emergency Brake (AEB) for urban traffic light intersection scenario. The system is designed to achieve AEB in two phases, the comfortable brake and the full stop emergency brake. The comfortable brake is applied first based on the content of the Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) / Map data (MAP) messages received from the Road Side Unit (RSU) at larger distances. And, once the traffic light becomes in the detection field of view of the camera, the output of the camera-based Traffic Light Detection (TLD) and recognition software is fused with the SPaT/MAP content to decide on triggering the full stop emergency brake. On the automated vehicle, the content of the received SPaT/MAP is parsed and communicated through UDP packets to the central processing unit that runs the camera-based TLD software for traffic light state matching and distance calculation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0433
Yang Xing, Chen Lv, Wang Huaji, Hong Wang, Dongpu Cao
Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. In this paper, a various unsupervised clustering methods will be used to build a driver braking intention predictor which can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different methods like K-means and Gaussian mixture model will be compared. Additionally, the evaluation of features from raw data, which are important to driving maneuvers clustering will be proposed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0419
Yuliang Yang, Yu Yang, Ying Sun, Jian Zeng, Yunquan zhang
The vehicle performances are studied through the ride comfort and handling stability commonly. While the lateral performance should be mainly considered for the centre axle trailer combination, such as the maximum stable side-inclination, the anti-rolling stability, the lateral stability and so on. Based on the finite element method, a rigid-flexible coupling model for the truck combination was built and analyzed in the multi-body environment (ADAMS), in which the key components of the chassis and cab suspension were treated as flexible bodies. According to the auto standards and regulations, the lateral stability of the centre axle trailer was evaluated through several simulation analyses. The variables' effects on the lateral stability were studied by design of experiment. Furthermore, in order to improve the lateral stability of the trailer combination, the optimal design was obtained by the co-simulation of the ADAMS/Car, iSIGHT and Matlab.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0145
Edward Palmer, Wilko Jansen
The primary function of the brake system is to convert the kinetic energy of the vehicle to heat which is then dissipated to the environment. The performance characteristics of many of the components within the brake system are temperature dependant; with numerous issues associated with excessive temperatures such as vaporisation of the brake fluid, degradation of the friction coefficient at the disc to pad interface, thermo-mechanical deformation of the brake rotor, excessive wear and numerous NVH problems. Therefore it is clear that in order to avoid the customer encountering these failure modes the brakes must be specified with sufficient thermal inertia and cooling for the intended vehicle and drive cycle. This paper presents a high fidelity CAE technique for predicting the temperature of the front brake and the surrounding suspension components whilst installed on vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1505
Andreas Hackl, Wolfgang Hirschberg, Cornelia Lex, Georg Rill
With increasing level of complexity and automation in the area of automotive engineering, the simulation of safety relevant Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (DAS) leads to increasing accuracy demands in the description of tyre contact forces. This includes the consideration of dynamic effects, such as the delayed reaction in longitudinal and lateral tyre forces to dynamic changes of slip in the tyre road contact patch. Often, this behaviour is characterized by a first-order differential equation which describes the deflection of particles in the tire’s tread by considering a spring and a damper element in parallel, also known as Kelvin-Voigt model. Based on previous investigations the proposed article deals with the experimental validation of the first-order Kelvin-Voigt model based on measurement data from an industrial flat track test bench. First investigations showed that for selected operational points, these simple models show good compliance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1560
Wei Liu, Lu Xiong, Bo Leng, Haolan Meng, Renxie Zhang
In this paper, a novel method based on the sideslip angle-yaw rate phase plane is proposed to establish the vehicle stability criterion for vehicle stability control. Firstly, a nonlinear two degrees of freedom vehicle dynamic model is established by adopting the Magic Formula of nonlinear tire model. Then, an equilibrium point solution approach is introduced. Next, according to the model in MATLAB/Simulink, the sideslip angle-yaw rate phase plane is gained. Emphatically, the effects of different driving conditions (the front wheel angle, road friction coefficient and vehicle speed) on the stability boundary on the phase plane are analyzed. According to the topological analysis based on the equilibrium point, the stability regions under different driving conditions can be divided into two types: curve type and diamond type. The judgment method for the type of stability region to which the phase plane corresponds is put forward according to real-time driving conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1058
L V Pavan kumar Maddula, Ibrahim Awara
Increased focus on Fuel efficiency and vehicle emissions has led the automotive industry to look into low weight alternative designs for power train system components. These new design changes pose challenges to vehicle attributes like NVH, durability, etc. Further, the requirement of high power applications produces further complexities. The present work explains how a potential design change of drive shafts driven by a desire to reduce weight and cost can lead to NVH problems caused by drive shaft resonances and explains how using multiple dynamic vibration absorbers(DVA) could solve those issues to meet customer expectation while improving efficiency. This work-stream also highlights the possibility and implications of combining multiple dampers in to a single lower weight vibration absorber.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1482
Jens Dornhege, Simon Nolden, Martin Mayer
The layout of a vehicle steering system has to resolve a compromise. While it is important for lateral vehicle control to feel steering torque feedback of lateral tire to ground interaction, disturbing forces shall not be present in the feedback steering torque. These disturbing forces can result from road irregularities, wheel rotor imbalance, suspension asymmetry caused by production tolerances, wear or impacts, and additional vehicle internal forces, e.g. the steered wheels also driven by the engine or braked. In general these disturbances are reduced by an optimization of the suspension geometry to decrease the impact of the unintended forces on the steering system. The remaining disturbance is controlled to an acceptable level via force feedback sensitivity calibration of the steering system, what in return influences the intended driver sensitivity to feel lateral tire forces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0412
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Kemal Çalışkan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Nowadays the semi-active suspension system is a challenge in the Automobile industry to improve the ride comfort performance of the vehicles. Hence, improving the vehicle ride comfort performance by using the semi-active suspension has a negative effect on the harshness performance of the vehicle. Therefore, this paper suggests a solution to improve the harshness performance of the vehicle through optimizing the damper top mount characteristics of the of the semi-active suspension system. In this study an optimization technique for optimizing the damper top mount characteristics to improve vehicle harshness is developed. The proposed optimization technique employs a new combined objective function based on ride comfort and harshness evaluation. A detailed and accurate damper top mount mathematical model is implemented inside a validated full vehicle model to provide a realistic simulation environment for the optimization study.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0439
Joydeep Chatterjee, Yuva Kishore Vaddi, Chetan Prakash Jain
In urban driving conditions, the steering vibration feel plays a major role with the customer spending a significant amount of time behind the steering wheel. Considering the urban drive at Indian roads, 1000~1500rpm band becomes primary area of concern. In this paper, study has been conducted to define the target areas as well as its achievement in reference to given driving pattern on a Front Wheel Powered Passenger car for steering vibration feel. During the concept stage of vehicle development, a target characteristic of steering wheel vibration was defined based on the competitor model benchmarking and prior development experience. A correlated CAE model was prepared to evaluate the modification prior to prototype building and verification. Vibration level in all 3 degrees of freedom at the steering wheel location was measured in the initial vehicle prototypes and target areas of improvement identified.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1562
Junyu Zhou, Chao Liu, Jan Kubenz, Günther Prokop
This Paper describes a new hybrid algorithm for multi-body Dynamics in vehicle system dynamics which exploits the advantages of both embedding technique algorithm and augmented formulation algorithm. A vehicle dynamic modeling based on the hybrid algorithm is presented. Embedding technique has a relatively small number of equations of motion. Using embedding technique an enhanced parametric vehicle dynamics model can be built, in which the kinematic and compliance characteristics of suspension are represented by characteristic curves. Because of small number of equations the vehicle dynamics model can be simulated very efficiently. Compare to embedding technique a main benefit of augmented formulation is relatively simple for computer programming. With the help of the augmented formulation the structure of the vehicle dynamic model can easily be extended. Advantages of both embedding technique and augmented formulation can be utilized by hybridizing them.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1572
Wesley Kerstens
The detection, and diagnosis, of sensor faults in real-time is necessary for satisfactory performance of vehicle Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) systems. This paper presents an observer designed to detect faults of a roll-rate sensor that is robust to model uncertainties and disturbances. A reference vehicle roll angle estimate, independent of roll-rate sensor measurement, is formed from available ESC inertial sensor measurements. Residuals are generated by comparing the reference roll angle, and roll-rate, with the observer outputs. Stopping rules based on the current state of the vehicle and the magnitude of the residuals are then used to determine if a sensor fault is present. The system’s low order allows for efficient implementation in real-time on a fixed-point microprocessor. Modification of the roll-rate sensor signal during in vehicle experiments shows the algorithm’s ability to detect faults.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1493
Dexin Wang, Yiqin Mao, Timothy Drotar, Frank Esser, Hessel van Dijk, Michel Paas
Traditional steering feel tuning and objective verification tests are conducted on vehicle prototypes that are a subset of the total number of buildable combinations of body style, drivetrain and tires. The development time, prototype costs, and number of allowable prototypes are factors that limit the ability to tune and verify all the possible configurations. A new model-based process and a toolset have been developed to enhance the existing steering development process such that steering tuning efficiency and performance robustness can be improved. The innovative method utilizes the existing vehicle dynamics simulation and/or physical test data in conjunction with steering system control models, and provides users with simple interfaces which can be used by either CAE or development engineers to perform virtual tuning of the vehicle steering feel to meet vehicle steering performance targets.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1502
Madeline Harper, Janice Tardiff, Daniel Haakenson, Maria Joandrea, Matthew Knych
Tire manufacturers have long grappled with the challenge of balancing the conflicting tire attributes of traction, rolling resistance, and treadwear. Improvements to one of these “magic triangle” attributes often comes at the expense of the other attributes. Recent regulations have further increased the pressure on manufacturers to produce optimized tires with minimal performance compromises. In order to meet this challenge, the tire industry is looking to new material systems beyond the traditional tire tread components. Polymeric materials beyond the base elastomers and processing oils used in tread provide opportunities to modify the physical and viscoelastic properties of tread. In this study, various polymeric materials were evaluated as additives in a model tire tread formulation. Hydrocarbon resin, high styrene resin, and thermoplastic styrene elastomers were added to the model formulation at various loading levels and through various addition strategies.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0413
Mustafa Ali Arat, Emmanuel Bolarinwa
Most ground vehicles related accidents occur when the friction demand to perform a maneuver with a certain vehicle and tires exceeds the coefficient of friction of the pavement surface. As generally known, the forces and moments acting on the vehicle body are mainly generated by tire forces which highly depend on this surface friction coefficient. The common characteristics of tire forces on any surface include a linear region where the forces vary linearly with respect to the relative slip values; and a nonlinear region where the forces saturate and may even start decreasing. The experience of most of the daily drivers on the roads is limited within this linear region where the dynamic behavior of the vehicle remains proportional to the driver’s inputs. Therefore, an unexpected change in tire or surface characteristics (due to a change in surface friction, large driver inputs, etc.) may easily cause the driver to panic and/or to lose his/her ability to maintain a stable vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0414
Bin Li, Xiaobo Yang, James Yang, Yunqing Zhang, Zeyu Ma
In this paper, a detailed 3D tire model is first proposed which includes a rigid rim with thickness, different layers of discretized belt points and a number of tread blocks attached on the area formatted by the neighboring belt points. The parameters of the proposed 3D tire model can be divided into two parts: the stiffness and damping values which only involve the in-plane motion and the stiffness and damping values which involve the out-of-plane motion, i.e. the lateral direction. In this paper, the relations between the in-plane parameters of the 3D tire model and the 2D tire model are given. Based on this relation, it is shown that the 3D tire model can generate exactly the same prediction results as the 2D tire model for tire straight line driving dynamics.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 10850

Filter