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2016-05-05
Article
While connected technologies for passenger vehicles are moving toward more widespread, everyday use, the benefits of improved performance, safety, durability, and fuel economy offered by connected vehicles are rapidly gaining a foothold in the off-highway market as well, says Dana's George Constand.
2016-05-05
Magazine
New dawn at Honda R&D President Yoshiyuki Matsumoto aims to invigorate Honda's technology and product-development organization with 'full soul.' Automated driving meets regulation: NHTSA and the next 50 years The challenges and opportunities on the road to 'zero deaths' demand a new level of federal automotive safety technical standards, and a new safety-defect reporting and recall system. NHTSA and the U.S. Congress must act boldly and quickly to make it happen. Autonomous driving meets regulation: Hands off, eyes off, brain off Euro NCAP'S president warns that without coherent policies, the growing availability of automated technologies may result in piecemeal technology development-and unintentional consequences. Designer yin meets engineer yang Efficient and effective vehicle development means even closer collaboration between the two former sparring partners.
2016-05-02
Standard
AMS5110K
This specification covers a carbon steel in the form of wire supplied as coils of wire or as finished springs.
2016-04-27
WIP Standard
J773
This SAE Standard covers dimensional, material, and general specifications and methods of test for two types of general purpose conical spring washers, designated type L and type H, for use as loose washers over screws and bolts, and also for use as pre-assembled washers in screw and washer assemblies. Both the type L and type H washers are available in three washer series (narrow, regular and wide), having varied proportions designed to fulfill specific application requirements for load distribution. Where so specified by the user, washers shall be supplied with peripheral teeth. All sizes and types of washers specified in this standard are not necessarily stock production items. Users should consult with manufacturers concerning availability.
2016-04-27
Standard
J2530_201604
This SAE Recommended Practice provides performance, sampling, and certifying requirements, test procedures, and marking requirements for aftermarket wheels intended for normal highway use on passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose passenger vehicles. For aftermarket wheels on trailers drawn by passenger cars, light trucks or multipurpose vehicles, see SAE J1204. These performance requirements apply only to wheels made of materials included in Table 1 and Table 2. New nomenclature and terms are added to clarify wheel constructions typically not used in OEM applications. The testing procedures and requirements are based on SAE standards listed in the references.
2016-04-27
Standard
J2562_201604
This SAE Recommended Practice provides uniform laboratory procedures for biaxial fatigue testing of wheels intended for normal highway use and temporary use on passenger car vehicles and light trucks and minimum cycle requirement for ferrous wheels for ballasted passenger car applications. The appendices provide scalable load files that are applicable to ballasted passenger cars and ballasted light trucks. A load file for unballasted passenger cars will be added to this document.
2016-04-25
Article
ZF TRW recently announced through its joint venture, Brakes India Ltd, that it has won the first business award for its Electric Park Brake (EPB) system in India. Launching with a major global vehicle manufacturer, the technology will start production in 2017, marking the first launch of its kind for the Indian market, the supplier claims.
2016-04-20
Standard
J3001_201604
This procedure is applicable to modes from 500 and 13,000 Hz. The parameters measured with this procedure are defined as the damping factor, ξ for first nine vibration modes of the beam. The measurement will be done in free-free conditions and with temperature.
2016-04-15
Article
“One Ford," the technological and commercial philosophy the company is energetically pursuing to minimize the need for market-specific vehicle modifications. The Mustang, now on sale in the U.K. and Europe, proves the system works.
2016-04-15
Journal Article
2015-01-9020
Emre Sert, Pinar Boyraz
Abstract Studies have shown that the number of road accidents caused by rollover both in Europe and in Turkey is increasing [1]. Therefore, rollover related accidents became the new target of the studies in the field of vehicle dynamics research aiming for both active and passive safety systems. This paper presents a method for optimizing the rear suspension geometry using design of experiment and multibody simulation in order to reduce the risk of rollover. One of the major differences of this study from previous work is that it includes statistical Taguchi method in order to increase the safety margin. Other difference of this study from literature is that it includes all design tools such as model validation, optimization and full vehicle handling and ride comfort tests. Rollover angle of the vehicle was selected as the cost function in the optimization algorithm that also contains roll stiffness and height of the roll center.
2016-04-12
Standard
AIR5490A
This document provides information on contamination and its effects on brakes having carbon-carbon composite friction materials (carbon). Carbon is hygroscopic and porous, and therefore readily absorbs liquids and contaminants. Some of the contaminants can impact intended performance of the brake. This document is intended to raise awareness of the effects of carbon brake contamination and provide information on industry practices for its prevention. Although not addressed in this report, contaminants can cause problems with other landing system components including tires.
2016-04-07
Magazine
Defying the disruptors and driving innovation Four top engineering executives discuss how their "traditional" companies are finding new technology opportunities and business growth amid the start-ups-and are even doing some disrupting themselves. Preparing for a 48-volt revival The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Additive manufacturing enhances GTDI pistons Selective Laser Melting may help manufacture future gasoline-engine pistons with enhanced heat-transfer properties and reduced weight.
2016-04-05
Standard
J510_201604
This SAE Standard is limited to concise specifications promoting an adequate understanding between spring maker and spring user on all practical requirements in the finished spring. The basic concepts for the spring design and for many of the details have been fully addressed in HS-J788, SAE Information Report, Manual on Design and Application of Leaf Springs, which is available from SAE Headquarters. NOTE: For leaf springs made to metric units, see SAE J1123.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
J1301
The scope and purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a classification system for deformation sustained by trucks involved in collisions on the highway. Application of the document is limited to medium trucks, heavy trucks, and articulated combinations. The TDC classifies collision contact deformation, as opposed to induced deformation, so that the deformation is segregated into rather narrow limits or categories. Studies of collision deformation can then be performed on one or many data banks with assurance that data under study are of essentially the same type. Many of the features of the SAE J224 MAR80 have been retained in this document, although the characters within specific columns vary. Each document must therefore be applied to the appropriate vehicle type. It is also important to note that the Truck Deformation Classification (TDC) does not identify specific vehicle configurations and body types.
2016-04-05
Standard
J1528_201604
Test Material: Only fully processed new springs which are representative of springs intended for the vehicle shall be used for the tests. No complete spring or separate leaf shall be used for more than one test.
2016-04-05
Standard
J1123_201604
This SAE Standard is limited to concise specifications promoting an adequate understanding between spring maker and spring user on all practical requirements in the finished spring. The basic concepts for the spring design and for many of the details have been fully dealt with in HS J788.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1175
Ran Bao, Richard Stobart
Abstract A control strategy has been designed for a city bus equipped with a pneumatic hybrid propulsion system. The control system design is based on the precise management of energy flows during both energy storage and regeneration. Energy recovered from the braking process is stored in the form of compressed air that is redeployed for engine start and to supplement the engine air supply during vehicle acceleration. Operation modes are changed dynamically and the energy distribution is controlled to realize three principal functions: Stop-Start, Boost and Regenerative Braking. A forward facing simulation model facilitates an analysis of the vehicle dynamic performance, engine transient response, fuel economy and energy usage.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1075
Jonathan Plail, Petr Grinac, Helen Ballard
Abstract In this paper, a mathematical model for simulating the 3D dynamic response of a valve spring is described. The 3D model employs a ‘geometrically exact’ 3D beam connected between each mass of the discretised mass-elastic system. Shear deformations within the beam are also considered, which makes it a Timoshenko type finite element. Results from the 3D model are compared with results from a more conventional 1D model. To validate the results further, some results are compared with real test data that was gathered during a technical consulting project. In this project, a prototype valvetrain that was originally giving acceptable durability began to wear the spring seats when a new batch of springs were procured and tested. 1D and 3D simulation results were used to help understand the cause of the failure and to make recommendations to resolve the issue. Results showed that the 3D model was able to predict the spring seat loads with greater precision than the 1D spring could.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1063
George Nerubenko
Abstract Up to 30% of engine noise is delivered by front end pulley combined with torsional vibration damper, and technically it is the main contributor to recorded engine noise level. So the novel solutions in terms of improving the design and performance of torsional vibration damper would help to reduce radically this component of engine noise. The results of dynamical study of patented torsional vibration damper combined with pulley are presented. Design and structure of torsional vibration damper is based on author’s US Patent 7,438,165 having the self-tuning control system for all frequencies in running engine in all operational regimes. Mathematical model has been used for the analysis of the emitting noise of engine having proposed torsional vibration damper. Attention is paid to mitigation of the sound power levels contributing by engine subsystem “end of crankshaft - torsional vibration damper - pulley”.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1059
Huyao Wu, Fei Huo
Abstract The parameter vibration is a hot topic for nonlinear vibration. Some results of its study have been used in aerospace, machining technology, motor vibration and many other fields, and the sport that people play on the swing is a classic one. In this paper, by creating the model of standard human body and swing, a biomechanical compound pendulum consisting of nine bodies and relevant force elements consisting of springs and dampers are regarded, then the movement is simulated in ADAMS. The time history of the swinging angle of the system is measured and the trace of the mass center is also displayed. Furthermore, in order to examine the stability of the system, the phase portraits are provided, and the stable diagram is obtained under different values of relevant parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1640
Zhuoping Yu, Songyun Xu, Lu Xiong, Wei Han
Abstract An integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) is presented to fulfill the requirements of active safety. Because I-EHB can control the brake pressure accurately and fast. Furthermore I-EHB is a decoupled system, so it could make the maximum regenerative braking while offers the same brake pedal feeling and also good for ADAS and unmanned driving application. Based on the analysis of current electrohydraulic brake systems, regulation requirements and the requirements for brake system, the operating mode requirements of I-EHB are formed. Furthermore, system topological structure and a conceptual design are proposed. After the selection of key components, the parameter design is accomplished by modeling the system. According to the above-mentioned design method, an I-EHB prototype and test rig is made. Through the test rig, characteristics of the system are tested. Results show that this I-EHB system responded rapidly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1638
Eunhyek Joa, Kyongsu Yi, Kilsoo Kim
Abstract This paper presents the integrated chassis control(ICC) of four-wheel drive(4WD), electronic stability control(ESC), electronic control suspension(ECS), and active roll stabilizer(ARS) for limit handling. The ICC consists of three layers: 1) a supervisor determines target vehicle states; 2) upper level controller calculates generalized forces; 3) lower level controller, which is contributed in this paper, optimally allocates the generalized force to chassis modules. The lower level controller consists of two integrated parts, 1) longitudinal force control part (4WD/ESC) and 2) vertical force control part (ECS/ARS). The principal concept of both algorithms is optimally utilizing the capability of the each tire by monitoring tire saturation, with tire combined slip. By monitoring tire saturation, 4WD/ESC integrated system minimizes the sum of the tire saturation, and ECS/ARS integrated system minimizes the variance of the tire saturation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1652
Jungmin Na, Gibin Gil
Abstract This paper presents a new method to find the tire cornering characteristics that satisfy the required handling performance of a vehicle in the early tire development process. The tire cornering characteristics should be considered in the sense of not only absolute levels but also balance between front and rear tires in order to satisfy handling performance of a vehicle. As a result, it is difficult to find the appropriate tire characteristics when trial-and-error approach is used. In this study, the virtual optimization technique is applied to find the required tire cornering characteristics in more efficient way. The optimization framework consists of a vehicle dynamic simulation tool to predict the handling performance of a vehicle and an optimization tool to find the optimal solution. The objective function and the constraints are defined in terms of vehicle handling objective parameters associated with the subjective assessment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1647
Jing Li, Xiong Yang, Hui Miao, Zheng Tang Shi
Abstract A program of integrated electro-hydraulic braking system is proposed, and its structural composition and working principle are analyzed. According to the structural and mechanical characteristics of all key components, through some reasonable assumptions and simplifications, a motor, a brake master cylinder, four brake wheel cylinders, solenoid valves and an ESP (Electronic Stability Program) algorithm model is set up and simulations of typical braking conditions are carried out based on the Matlab/Simulink. Finally, after the assembly of each sub-model is complete and combining a vehicle which is set up in CarSim software environment, simulation tests and comprehensive performance analysis of the active safety stability control for a vehicle in double lane change and single lane change situations are carried out respectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1627
Liangxiu Zhang, Guangqiang Wu
Abstract In order to improve the robustness and stability of autonomous vehicle at high speed, a path tracking approach which combines front steering and differential braking is investigated in this paper. A bicycle model with 3-DOFs is established and a linear time-varying predictive model using front steering as its control input can be derived. Based on model predictive theory, the path tracking issue using linear time-varying model predictive control can be transformed into an online quadratic programming problem with constraints. The expected front steering angle can be obtained from online moving optimization. Then the direct yawing control is adopted to treat two types of differential braking control. The first one investigates steady-state gain of yaw rate in linear 2-DOFs vehicle model, and designs a stable differential braking controller which is based on reference yaw rate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1555
Jack Ekchian, William Graves, Zackary Anderson, Marco Giovanardi, Olivia Godwin, Janna Kaplan, Joel Ventura, James R. Lackner, Paul DiZio
Abstract It is widely anticipated that autonomous vehicles will offer increased productivity and convenience by freeing occupants from the responsibility of driving. However, studies indicate that the occurrence of motion sickness in autonomous vehicles will be substantially higher than in conventionally driven vehicles. Occupants of autonomous vehicles are more likely to be involved in performing tasks and activities, such as reading, writing and using a computer or tablet, that typically increase the occurrence of motion sickness. The authors present a novel high bandwidth active suspension system, GenShock®, and tailored control algorithms targeted toward mitigating motion sickness in autonomous vehicles. GenShock actuators can actively push and pull the wheels of a vehicle in order to keep the chassis level and reduce heave, pitch, and roll motion.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1557
Francesco Castellani, Nicola Bartolini, Lorenzo Scappaticci, Davide Astolfi, Matteo Becchetti
Abstract Shock absorber is one of the most relevant sub-systems of the suspension system for a wide range of vehicles. Although a high level of development and tuning has been reached, in order to ensure high safety standards in almost every situation, some dynamic phenomena affecting vehicle handling or NHV (Noise Vibration Harshness) can appear. The aim of present work is to improve a mathematical model using experimental data from a prototype of monotube shock absorber developed for research purposes. The model takes into account all the main features affecting the global performance of the device, such as non-linear behaviour and the presence of hysteresis loops. Actually, the most important parameters are analyzed, such as flow and orifice coefficients of the valves, coefficients of mechanical compliance of the chambers and oil compressibility, dry and viscous friction coefficients.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1565
Joydeep Banerjee, John McPhee
Abstract Dynamic modelling of the contact between the tires of automobiles and the road surface is crucial for accurate and effective vehicle dynamic simulation and the development of various driving controllers. Furthermore, an accurate prediction of the rolling resistance is needed for powertrain controllers and controllers designed to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Existing models of tires include physics-based analytical models, finite element based models, black box models, and data driven empirical models. The main issue with these approaches is that none of these models offer the balance between accuracy of simulation and computational cost that is required for the model-based development cycle. To address this issue, we present a volumetric approach to model the forces/moments between the tire and the road for vehicle dynamic simulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1575
Federico Ballo, Roberto Frizzi, Gianpiero Mastinu, Donato Mastroberti, Giorgio Previati, Claudio Sorlini
Abstract In this paper the lightweight design and construction of road vehicle aluminum wheels is dealt with, referring particularly to safety. Dedicated experimental tests aimed at assessing the fatigue life behavior of aluminum alloy A356 - T6 have been performed. Cylindrical specimens have been extracted from three different locations in the wheel. Fully reversed strain-controlled and load-controlled fatigue tests have been performed and the stress/strain-life curves on the three areas of the wheel have been computed and compared. The constant amplitude rotary bending fatigue test of the wheel has been simulated by means of Finite Element method. The FE model has been validated by measuring the strain at several points of the wheel during the actual test. From the FE model, the stress tensor time history on the whole wheel over a loading cycle has been extracted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1576
Federico Ballo, Gianpiero Mastinu, Massimiliano Gobbi
Abstract Mass minimization is a key objective for the design of racing motorcycle wheels. The structural optimization of a front motorcycle wheel is presented in the paper. Topology Optimization has been employed for deriving optimized structural layouts. The minimum compliance problem has been solved, symmetry and periodicity constraints have been introduced. The wheel has been optimized by considering several loading conditions. Actual loads have been measured during track tests by means of a special measuring wheel. The forces applied by the tire to the rim have been introduced in an original way. Different solutions characterized by different numbers of spokes have been analyzed and compared. The actual racing wheel has been further optimized accounting for technological constraints and the mass has been reduced down to 2.9 kilograms.
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