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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2756
Basaran Ozmen, Mehmet Bakir, Murat Siktas, Serter Atamer, Roman Teutsch
Abstract Securing the desired strength and durability characteristics of suspension components is one of the most important topics in the development of commercial vehicles because these components undergo multiaxial variable amplitude loading. Leaf springs are essential for the suspension systems of trucks and they are considered as security relevant components in the product development phase. In order to guide the engineers in the design and testing department, a simulation method is developed as explained by Bakir et al. in a recently published SAE paper [1]. The main aim of the present study is to illustrate the validation of this simulation method for the durability of leaf springs based on the results from testing and measurements. In order to verify this CAE Method, the calculated stresses on the leaf springs are compared with the results of strain gage measurements and the fatigue failures of leaf springs are correlated with the calculated damage values.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2801
Yuandong Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Li Zhou, Wenbin Liu, Zhiqiang Hu, Kangping Ji, Binyu Mei
Abstract The hydraulic retarder, an important auxiliary brake, has been widely used in heavy vehicles. Under the non-braking working condition, the air resistance torque in the working chamber, which is formed by the rotor of hydraulic retarder's stirring the air, causes pumping loss. This research designs a new type of hydraulic retarder, whose helium is charged into working chamber through closed loop gas system under non-braking working condition, can reduce the parasitic power loss of transmission system. First, under non-braking working condition, the resistance characteristics are analyzed on the base of hydraulic retarder pumping model; then, considering some parameters, such as the volume of chambers and the initial gas pressure, the working chamber gas charge model is established, and the transient gas charge characteristics are also analyzed under non-braking working condition.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2823
Uriy Usinin, Sergey Gladyshev, Maxim Grigoryev, Alexander Shishkov, Evgeny Belousov, A. M. Zhuravlev, Anton Bychkov, Dmitry Sychev
Abstract In this paper, we consider the hybrid power train for transportation of long pipes with big diameter. It is includes diesel engine for main towing vehicle and auxiliary electric drive for the active trailer The trains with active trailers are necessary at the building of oil and natural gas pipelines in no road conditions and marshlands. Due to the electric drive, the trailer's off-road capability on marshland conditions is sharply increased and its control is facilitated. The specified attractive qualities are appeared, if wheels of the trailer are executed as drivable, and the kinematic circuit of a drive is fulfilled as one-stage. At this, it is taken in attention that power of the electric drive will take 20 - 25 % from rated power of the basic traction drive, with the expanded range of torque control (till 1:10 and more). Such overloads are provided by the electric drive with synchronous reluctance machine of independent excitation developed by authors.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2835
Sughosh J. Rao, Mohamed Kamel Salaani, Devin Elsasser, Frank Barickman, Joshua L. Every, Dennis A. Guenther
Abstract This study was performed to showcase the possible applications of the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to test heavy truck crash avoidance safety systems. In this study, the HIL simulation environment was used to recreate a simulation of an actual accident scenario involving a single tractor semi-trailer combination. The scenario was then simulated with and without an antilock brake system (ABS) and electronic stability control (ESC) system to investigate the crash avoidance potential afforded by the tractor equipped with the safety systems. The crash scenario was interpreted as a path-following problem, and three possible driver intended paths were developed from the accident scene data.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2833
Ashley L. Dunn, Brian Boggess, Nicholas Eiselstein, Michael Dorohoff, Harold Ralston
Abstract Brake chamber construction allows for a finite stroke for pushrods during brake application. As such, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs) mandate maximum allowable strokes for the various chamber types and sizing. Brake strokes are often measured during compliance inspections and post-accident investigations in order to assess vehicle braking performance and/or capability. A number of studies have been performed, and their results published, regarding the effect of brake stroke and function on braking force and heavy truck stopping performance [1] through [4]. All of the studies have relied on a brake supply pressure of 100 pounds per square inch (psi). When brake strokes are measured in the field, following the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) procedure, the application pressure is prescribed to be maintained between 90 and 100 psi.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2901
Shaoyun Sun, Genghua Liao, Qiang Fu, Kelong Lu, Jing Zhao, Zhengzheng Li, Jiaquan Chen, Guang Shi, Sacha Jelic, Bo Li
Abstract Trucks can carry heavy load and when applying the brakes during for example a mountain downhill or for an abrupt stop, the brake temperatures can rise significantly. Elevated temperatures in the drum brake region can reduce the braking efficiency or can even cause the brake system to fail, catch fire or even break. It therefore needs to be designed such to be able to transfer the heat out of its system by convection, conduction and/or radiation. All three heat transfer modes play an important role since the drum brakes of trucks are not much exposed to external airflow, a significant difference from disk brakes of passenger cars analyzed in previous studies. This makes it a complex heat transfer problem which is not easy to understand. Numerical methods provide insight by visualization of the different heat transfer modes. Presented is a numerical method that simulates the transient heat transfer of a truck drum brake system cooldown at constant driving speed.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2841
Hongyu Zheng, Shenao Ma
Abstract This paper establishes a brake pedal model for braking intention identification, using the structural features of electronic braking system and selecting the proper parameters. A three-dimensional model is built that the input parameters are pedal displacement and pedal displacement change rate, and the output parameter is braking intensity. The relationship between the driver braking operation and braking intention are designed. A hardware-in-the-loop test bench experiment has been taken under several skilled drivers to practice the established the brake pedal model with the operation data during the braking. Thus, it results a model indicating the braking intention by braking operation that means effectively improve the braking comfort and applies to the research of electronic braking system of commercial vehicle.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2842
Hongyu Zheng, Jinghuan Hu, Shenao Ma
Abstract Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of with high center of gravity position, large weight and volume, wheelbase is too narrow relative to the body height and so on, so that they always prone to rollover. In response to the above heavy security problems of heavy vehicle in running process, this paper mainly analyzes roll stability and yaw stability mechanism of heavy vehicles and studies the influence of vehicle parameters on stability by establishing the vehicle dynamics model. At the same time, this paper focuses on heavy vehicles stability control methods based on simulation and differential braking technology. At last, verify the effect of heavy vehicle stability control by computer simulation. The results shows that self-developed stability control algorithm can control vehicle stability effectively, so that the heavy vehicles instability can be avoided, the vehicle driving safety and braking stability are improved.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2839
Rangaraj Ramanan Durai, Ashok Thirupathi, Mohith Krishna Shetty, Dilip Joy Mampilly
In this paper Longitudinal Force Slip (LFS) controller will be designed for controlling the traction force in each wheel when Rock Crawl Scenario prevails for commercial vehicles working in Off-Road condition. During Rock Crawling the wheels can have more longitudinal slip than lateral slip. Slip is caused by relative movement of tires with the rock. PID controller (Longitudinal Force Controller) will be designed in order to stabilize the traction force on individual wheels. Individual Lateral and Longitudinal force will be calculated for each wheel from Tire modeling. Optimal longitudinal force will be determined based on fuzzy model with the help of determined Mue. The designed LFS controller which controls the individual traction force by applying active braking. Active braking on individual wheel will be realized with the hydraulic system associated with Vehicle Stability Control ECU (VSC - ECU). Optimal engine torque will be calculated based on driver pedal request.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2872
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Andrea Cervesato, Carlo Ferraresi
Abstract Performance requests and machine automation, in conjunction with new regulations for commercial and heavy duty vehicles, represent a difficult challenge for machine design. Machine control systems complexity and functional safety regulation, are complex requirements to deal with in new machines design. The paper describes a steering system design, of a 6 wheeled agricultural front articulated self-propelled machine, that must comply with new regulations in terms of functional safety. The vehicle steering is driven by an electro-hydraulic system, totally controlled using electronics; the rear wheels are independently steered and controlled. This architecture requires a highly functional safety performance level. The safety analysis of the system lead to a required performance level whose compliance is a challenging task, due to the software quality required, and to the cost of a fully redundant hardware, on both electronics and hydraulics side.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2728
Paul C. Cain
Abstract OEM benefit: Vehicle manufacturers desire continuous feedback in monitoring key safety related sub-assemblies. In this application, engineers are calculating the remaining brake pad life by continuously monitoring the current thickness of the brake pad friction material. This information is used in scheduling preventative maintenance activities and avoiding safety incidents. Unplanned machine down time and field repair expenses in earthmoving equipment are cost prohibitive. Today, this technology allows OEM's to have high confidence, continuous feedback on this critical vehicle safety feature, avoiding expensive, unplanned repairs and to improve field “up time” performance. Application challenge: to develop a reliable linear position sensor that is suitable for continuous monitoring of brake pad material thickness in a high pressure, high temperature, high vibration and contaminated environment typical of large construction (earthmoving) vehicles.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2725
Amine Nhila, Daniel E. Williams
Abstract Today's hydraulic steering systems suffer from poor efficiency due to their use of throttling valves to build pressure inside the steering gear. In this work, we propose a novel way to build and control pressure by controlling the flow from the pump and without throttling. As a result, such a system will be more energy efficient. Moreover, the ability to control pressure inside a steering gear, and thus assistance torque, allows the steering system to become an active closed-loop system rather than a passive open-loop system. Specifically, by controlling pressure, one can closely control the hand wheel torque the operator feels. Consequently, the new pressure control concept has the potential to not only significantly improve the efficiency of steering systems, but also offers the numerous benefits of torque overlay without the use of an electric motor.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2745
Florian Bauer, Jan Fleischhacker
Abstract A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) system for Electronic Control Units (ECU) of electro-pneumatic brake systems is presented. The HiL system runs a real-time capable vehicle model comprising of both the vehicle dynamics and the electro-pneumatic brake system. The dynamic behaviour of the vehicle can be simulated either by a real-time multi-body vehicle model or by a simpler system dynamic (double-track) model. To assess the quality of the system dynamic vehicle model, it is compared to a multi-body vehicle model which was validated with comprehensive experimental results. Discrepancies can be seen for highly unsteady manoeuvres. Reasons for these discrepancies caused by the modelling topology of the system dynamic vehicle model are given. In order to simulate the electro-pneumatic brake system, a real-time model has been developed and validated. The different topologies of brake systems can be assembled from components and integrated into the vehicle model.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2849
Hariharan Venkitachalam, Axel Schlosser, Johannes Richenhagen, Mirco Küpper, Thomas Tasky
Abstract Electrification is a key enabler to reduce emissions levels and noise in commercial vehicles. With electrification, Batteries are being used in commercial hybrid vehicles like city buses and trucks for kinetic energy recovery, boosting and electric driving. A battery management system monitors and controls multiple components of a battery system like cells, relays, sensors, actuators and high voltage loads to optimize the performance of a battery system. This paper deals with the development of modular control architecture for battery management systems in commercial vehicles. The key technical challenges for software development in commercial vehicles are growing complexity, rising number of functional requirements, safety, variant diversity, software quality requirements and reduced development costs. Software architecture is critical to handle some of these challenges early in the development process.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2730
Prasad S. Warwandkar, Naveen Sukumar, Preeti Gupta
Abstract Ever-increasing operational cost, reducing profit margins & increase in competition, it is of upmost significance for fleet owners & drivers to opt for a vehicle having maximum uptime. OEM's are under immense pressure to design & develop vehicles/subsystems which are reliable enough to minimize downtime & withstand heavy overloading plus extreme operating conditions especially tippers. Vehicle systems like Wheel end (hub, bearing, and grease) which are designed & packaged according to a very stringent envelop & operate as a closed system facing all the extremities of operating conditions. This undoubtly make them prone to no. of failure modes which are resulting in vehicle unplanned stoppages, so any failure mode related to the same must be taken care with utmost importance. In commercial vehicles the bearing outer cup is in interference fit with the hub. These bearings of wheel hub have to be maintained at the wheel end play of few microns.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2751
Igor Baseski, Kenneth Norman, David Ryan, Stefanie Stahara
Abstract The United States Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) built systems to measure the suspension parameters, center of gravity, and moments of inertia of wheeled vehicles. This is part of an ongoing effort to model and predict vehicle dynamic behavior. The new machines, the Suspension Parameter Identification and Evaluation Rig (SPIdER) and the Vehicle Inertia Parameter Evaluation Rig (VIPER), have sufficient capacity to cover most heavy, wheeled vehicles. The SPIdER operates by holding the vehicle sprung mass nominally fixed while hydraulic cylinders move an “axle frame” in bounce or roll under each axle being tested. Up to two axles may be tested at once. Vertical forces at the tires, displacements of the wheel centers in three dimensions, and steer and camber angles are measured.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2731
Xingjian Gu, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
Abstract As a new form of electric vehicle, Four-wheel-independent electric vehicle with X-By-Wire (XBW) inherits all the advantages of in-wheel motor drive electric vehicles. The vehicle steering system is liberated from traditional mechanical steering mechanism and forms an advanced vehicle with all- wheel independent driving, braking and steering. Compared with conventional vehicles, it has more controllable degrees of freedom. The design of the integrated vehicle dynamics control systems helps to achieve the steering, driving and braking coordinated control and improves the vehicle's handling stability. In order to solve the problem of lacking of vehicle state information in the integrated control, some methods are used to estimate the vehicle state of four-wheel-independent electric vehicles with XBW. In order to improve the estimation accuracy, unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is used to estimate the vehicle state variables in this paper.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2747
Daniel E. Williams, Amine Nhila
Abstract With the expectation that means of redundant steering will be necessary for highly autonomous vehicles, different methods of providing redundant steering can be considered. One potential for redundancy is to steer the rear axle for directional control of the vehicle in the event of a failure in the primary steered front axle. This paper will characterize the dynamics of directional control of a three-axle vehicle when steered at the rear, and compare it to a conventionally steered three-axle vehicle. Several compensators are suggested that allow similar vehicle dynamic behavior when steering the rear axle as a driver would expect when steering the front, giving hope that a steerable rear axle can provide acceptable redundancy for a failed primary steering system on the front axle.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2766
Sai Venkatesh Muravaneni, Egalaivan Srinivasan, Jagankumar Mari
Abstract Steering wheel being the most used tactile point in a vehicle, its feel and response is an important factor based on which the vehicle quality is judged. Engineering the right feel and response into the system requires knowledge of the objective parameters that relate to the driver perception. Extensive correlation work has been done in the past pertaining to passenger cars, but the driver requirements for commercial vehicles vary significantly. Often it becomes difficult to match the right parameters to the steering feel experienced by the drivers, since most of the standard ISO weave test units used to describe them are of zero or first order parameters. Analyzing the second order parameters gave a better method to reason driver related feel. Also, each subjective attribute was fragmented into sub-attributes to identify the reason for such a rating resulting in the identification of the major subjective parameters affecting driver ratings.
2015-09-28
WIP Standard
J1965
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to fasteners/fixing nuts as specified in SAE J694 and SAE J1835 used for disc wheels and demountable rim attachment respectively. Only the test methods necessary to assure proper wheel or rim assembly are specified. Fasteners for less common and special applications are not included.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2669
Bernhard Schmittner
Abstract The Electric Parking Brake (EPB) was introduced in year 2000. with a caliper integrated actuator, controlled by a standalone ECU. At the same time a variety of system architectures and actuators with different technologies were developed. Cable pullers, Motor on Caliper, Drum in Hat EPB. In 2012 the boom started - with a concentration on caliper integrated systems and with an integration of the ECU into the ESC system. New trends are requiring EPB for different reasons - comfort and controllable standstill are requested. So EPB systems have to be adapted to the new situation. With the influence of the commercial situation the EPB systems and actuators have to be seen under new aspects - standardization, modular boxes and simplification are the targets. A look on system and actuator solutions shows a way to fulfill these requirements, bringing EPB on the way to a Standard.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2675
Erik Tobin, David Bortz, Tod Policandriotes
Abstract This paper describes test results from an experimental fibered KEVLAR®, copper-free para-aramid needlefelt composite friction material enhanced with benign metal nanoparticles. Kevlar felt-reinforced polyimide composite, enhanced with nanoparticles, exhibit a higher coefficient of friction than similar friction materials without nanoparticles but retain the low wear rate exhibited by those materials during full scale dynamometer testing, using the J2430 test. The threshold nanoparticle content to produce appreciable friction coefficient gains was determined. At the content levels investigated, the rotor wear was virtually undetectable while low wear rate was comparable with those materials without nanoparticles. Agglomeration and distribution of nanoparticles was investigated as it pertains to friction performance and wear. New environmental regulations limiting copper content in friction materials will restrict the use of popular components found in conventional friction.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2676
D. Lenin Singaravelu, R. Vijay, M. Rahul
Abstract Eco friendly materials are highly demanded and required for brake friction applications due to its environmental friendliness, crab shell powder and palm kernel shell powders are among them. Crab shell and palm kernel shell powders are produced by grinding their shells respectively to fine mesh and for crab shell powder; it was treated with various solutions for further processing. In this present work, the friction composites are developed in the form of standard brake pads from crab shell powder following the weight percentage of 4, 8, 12 and compensated by palm kernel shell powder with a weight percentage of 12, 8, 4. The developed pads are designated as Na01, Na02, and Na03. The physical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties was characterized using IS 2742 (Part-3) and ISO-6312 Standards. The weight loss was predicted using TGA since the temperature rise during braking will rise up to 400°C.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2677
Amir Reza Daei, Diptarka Majumdar, Peter Filip
Automotive brake lining materials are complex composites consisting of numerous ingredients allowing for their optimal performance. Since regulations are increasingly limiting Cu content in brake pads and Cu exhibits extremely high thermal conductivity, graphites being excellent heat conducting materials themselves, are often considered for use as potential Cu replacement. This paper surveys the role of two types of carbons (Superior Graphite) with high thermal conductivity but different mechanical properties and morphology: the so-called i) purified flake graphite (PFG) and the ii) resilient graphitic carbon (RGC). A successful “high-end” commercial low-metallic brake pad was re-formulated (SIU Carbondale) by removing of over 20 wt. % of Cu and replacing it with a cocktail of ingredients including 15 wt. % of these two graphite types (RGC and PFG).
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2674
Dragan Aleksendric, Velimir Cirovic, Dusan Smiljanic
Abstract Customer perception of brake pedal feel quality, depends on both the customer's subjective judgment of quality and the actual build quality of the brake system. The brake performance stability represents an important aspect of a vehicle performance and its quality of use. This stability is needed especially in brake by wire system and braking system with regenerative braking. In order to provide stable braked pedal feel i.e. consistent the brake performance against the brake pedal travel, the model of the brake performance versus the brake pedal travel needs to be established. In this paper new hybrid neuro-genetic optimization model was developed for dynamic control and optimization of the disc brake performance during a braking cycle versus the brake pedal travel. Based on such model, the brake performance optimization of the passenger car has been provided against the brake pedal travel.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2684
Seongjoo Lee, ShinWook Kim, ShinWan Kim, Seong Rhee
Rear disc brake squeal test results confirm the disc wear - brake squeal correlation reported earlier on front disc brakes. A significant amount of Fe transferred from the disc to the NAO pad surface is detected and the distribution of the transferred Fe is very non-uniform on the pad surface. The pad surface formulation reaches that of Low-Steel Lomets. Disc pads from a noisier brake retain more transferred particles than from a less noisy brake. The pad surface retains more transferred Fe after noise test procedures than after performance test procedures. The transferred Fe particles are either barely visible or invisible. During brake noise test procedures, discs wear in weight as much as disc pads. No correlation is found between average in-stop Mu, maximum in-stop Mu or in-stop delta Mu and brake squeal.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2685
Diego Masotti, Patric Neis, Ney Ferreira, Kássio Gomes, Jean Poletto, Luciano Matozo
Abstract The present work presents evaluation of the sliding surface morphology of brake pads during stick-slip. A low-metallic (LM) and a Non Asbestos Organic (NAO) brake friction materials were subjected to slide against a brake disc under conditions favorable to produce stick-slip phenomenon. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale tribometer, which was especially designed to test brake pads used in vehicle. Delta torque divided by slip time (dT/dtslip) was the parameter used to quantify stick-slip propensity. In addition, optical microscope images of the material's surface were obtained at different stages of the braking test. These images were post-processed in appropriate computational software and by means of the segmentation technique, the real contact area, size and amount of contact plateaus related to the brake pad surface were estimated. This technique was effective to quantify the differences in the sliding surface morphology during low speed braking test.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2680
Kazuhiko Tani, Hironori Nakamura
Abstract Combined Brake System for small motorcycles has been developed. In small motorcycles, some models have a hydraulic disc brake both in the front and rear wheels but many of them have a hydraulic disc front brake and a mechanical drum rear brake. Accordingly, it was necessary to develop a new system to link the hydraulic system with the mechanical system to allow an application of Combined Brake System to these models. In this paper, a CBS having a new configuration is described where a disc brake and a drum brake are linked in a simple lever structure of an input force distributor, and an inhibitor spring at the foot pedal. With this mechanism equipped, the distribution of brake forces is controlled. When a large input force is applied, a large proportion of brake force is applied to the front brake to obtain adequate deceleration. When a mild input force is applied, which is frequently operated, the brake force proportion is large in the rear compared to the front.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2681
Ramakanta Routaray
Abstract In a two wheeler efficient braking becomes indispensable. CBS, ABS plays a significant achievement in meeting the required braking efficiency [2, 5, and 6]. Conversely for non CBS & non ABS motor cycles, braking efficiency [2, 5, and 6] becomes a challenging task for two wheeler OEM suppliers. This is because of the customers' affordability for the required degree of efficiency [2, 5, and 6]. This paper depicts the innovative design of brake drum [3, 4] pertaining to its functional aspect; catering to meet customer needs economically. Cast iron Brake drum [3, 4] is redesigned with an engineered solution which allows draining the water in rainy season. This has been verified though mathematical approach about contact [1] area between liner and brake drum [3, 4]. Thereafter proto part has been made as per 3D concept. Test Results of proposed design have been compared with the existing drum brake system.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2692
Giulia Garello, Niccolò Patron, Pietro Buonfico, Luca Martinotto
Abstract The nature of braking friction is extremely complex and a deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms that govern the energy dissipation at the interface of friction pairs is an important tool to create an even deeper knowledge of tribological behavior of friction material. Friction brakes need to transform kinetic energy into heat: a complete knowledge of thermal effects during this process in every brake component is an essential part of brake design. As referred to brake pads, the analysis of dynamometer testing data highlighted experimental evidence related to thermo-mechanical effects, such as the different wear resistance capabilities of material classes (NAO and Low Steel). As is well known in the industry and already published, we observed that tribological characteristics are not constant under all testing conditions and they strongly depend on temperature being the direct consequence of kinetic energy dissipation.
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