Abstract The disk spring offers the potential of significant weight savings when designed with continuous fiber reinforced composite materials. The internal stresses in a disk spring are ideally suited for composite material application due to their superior resistance to in-plane and bending stresses. In this study, a composite laminate disk spring is designed, analyzed and fabricated to take advantage of the low specific strength and weight and high damage tolerance of composite laminates. The design of the disk composite spring considers effects of the laminate stacking sequence and the geometric variables on the disk spring's mechanical performance. A continuum damage finite element analysis approach is used to understand the damage initiation and evolution as a function of applied load. Experimental analysis and a progressive damage analysis based on virtual crack closure technique are performed to evaluate the damage tolerance of the disk spring under fatigue loadings.
Abstract The aim of this investigation is the improvement of the lateral vehicle dynamics by optimizing the rim width. For that purpose, the rim width is considered as a development tool and configured with regard to specified targets. Using a specifically developed method of simulation, the influence of the rim width is analysed within different levels - starting at the component level “tyre” and going up to the level of the whole vehicle. With the help of substantial simulations using a nonlinear two-track model, the dimensioning of the rim width is brought to an optimum. Based on both, tyre and vehicle measurements, the theoretical studies can be proved in practice. As a result, the rim width has a strong influence on the behaviour of the tyre as well as on the overall vehicle performance, which emphasises its importance as a potential development tool within the development of a chassis.
Abstract In ride comfort as well as driving dynamics, the behavior of the vehicle is affected by several subsystems and their properties. When analyzing the suspension, especially the characteristics of the main spring and damper but also rubber bushings are of main importance. Still, the properties of the different components are dependent on the present operating conditions. Concerning rubber bushings, several effects have already been investigated, e.g. dependencies of the transfer function of frequency, amplitude or load history. In this context influences of changes in temperature are often neglected. However, in the following research, the focus specifically lies on determination and analysis of the temperature dependency of rubber bushings. For this purpose, initially the relationship between properties of pure rubber and rubber bushings is described, which serves as a basis for correlating respective temperature dependencies.
Uncertainty quantification The technique is a must for next-generation simulation tools. Oil-pump sizing Researchers from Hinduja Tech investigate options for low friction and power consumption. The future of Indian commercial aviation The growth in traffic that airport modernization has supported has also made a significant contribution to the local and national economies, while the improved infrastructure has been positive for the perception of India in the global market. Driving EVs toward lower cost The race ison to reduce battery and electric-drive systems cost while improving efficiency. Powering on Rolls-Royce's Chief Engineer discusses new technologies that inspire current R&D design and evaluation work as part of its strategic roadmap for future big commercial programs. HMIs extend beyond the cab Telematic functions are being integrated into multi-function user interfaces.
This document aims to establish best practices in equipment setup and measurement of brake rotor disk thickness variation (DTV) on vehicle.
TrelleborgVibracoustic announces two new decoupling solutions for RWD and AWD vehicles: a cord-reinforced elastomer coupling, and a tube-in-tube system that is suited for hybrid vehicles.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a marking system to distinguish long-stroke from standard stroke for service, parking, and combination air-brake actuators, roto-chambers, and components. Said actuators are used for applying cam and disc-type foundation brakes by slack adjuster means.
This SAE Information Report lists the symbols used by suppliers of truck, trailer, and bus wheel seals to identify their products. These symbols appear on seals and packaging. 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this document is to provide users of truck, trailer, and bus wheel seals a means of identifying the suppliers of all such components by use of the symbology utilized by the suppliers on their components and packaging.
The mixed-materials construction and the new C1XX platform enabled the development team to reduce base curb weight by 278 lb versus its predecessor and undercut its closest competitor, the mass-efficient (and shorter) Audi Q5, by a claimed 100 lb.
This SAE Technical Information Report provides a compendium of terms, definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms to enable common terminology for use in engineering reports, diagnostic tools and publications related to active safety systems. This information report is a survey of active safety systems and related terms. The definitions offered are descriptions of functionality rather than technical specifications. Included are warning and momentary intervention systems, which do not automate any part of the dynamic driving task on a sustained basis like those defined in SAE J3016 Automated Driving Systems.
Active in aero Several automakers-notably Mercedes-Benz and Audi - used the Frankfurt Motor Show stage to reveal sleek vehicles that aggressively employ active aerodynamic elements and other advances to reduce drag. Composites permeate inside and out Composite materials are gaining popularity for both unseen structural components and for exterior eye candy. Powertrain testing: coping with complexity With increasing use of electrical components to extend the performance of conventional combustion engines, powertrain development has never been more complicated. The good news is that test and development engineers are harnessing advanced simulation techniques and computer processing to develop the most efficient and fun powertrains ever. Can ads help in vehicle-to-vehicle rollout? Porsche unveils new downsized, boosted 3.0-L boxer six. Johnson Controls, Faurecia envision interiors for autonomous driving. Jaguar enters performance crossover SUV segment.
In collaboration with General Motors, ContiTech developed the fiberglass-reinforced polyamide strut mount for the new 2016 Cadillac CT6, reducing weight by 25% compared to an aluminum design.
This SAE Recommended Practice (RP) establishes uniform powered vehicle level test procedure for Forward Collision Avoidance and Mitigation (FCAM) systems (also identified as Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) systems) used in highway commercial vehicles and coaches greater than 4535 Kg (10,000 lb.) GVWR. This RP does not apply to trailers, dollies, etc. and does not intend to exclude any particular system or sensor technology. These FCAM systems utilize various methodologies to identify, track and communicate data to the operator and vehicle systems to warn, intervene and/or mitigate in the longitudinal control of the vehicle.
This SAE Standard covers minimum requirements for two types of metallic tubing and pipe as used in automotive air brake systems. It includes material and performance specifications, corrosion precautions, and installation recommendations. Copper tubing is designated Type 1, and galvanized steel pipe Type 2.
Two books from SAE International detail advancements in these areas through the compilation of relevant technical papers.
Recent Salt-Fog environmental qualification testing in accordance with RTCA/DO-160G, Paragraph 14, Category S identified both discrepancies in the performance specification documents and potential in-service corrosion problems with the charging valve. A new SAE AS for Valve; Aircraft, Pneumatic, High-Pressure Charging is necessary to resolve these items.
This SAE information report covers the basic guidelines concerning off-road tire conditions that warrant replacement, removal, or repair. This material can assist the tire user in establishing specific written procedures for each job site.
This SAE Informational report applies to tires used on off-road, rubber-tired work machines as identified in SAE J1116. This SAE document provides general guidelines for proper handling of potential and actual off-road tire fires and possible related explosions.
Magna International Inc. has received the Best Product Development Performance Award from its customer Mahindra for a new ladder frame used across multiple vehicle platforms. The award was presented at Mahindra’s Supplier Conference in Warsaw, Poland, and recognizes Cosma International, Magna’s body and chassis operating group, for the design, engineering, and development of the frame for Mahindra’s Scorpio SUV and other vehicle platforms.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform engineering nomenclature for wide base disc wheels and demountable rims. This nomenclature and accompanying figures are intended to define fundamental wide base disc wheel and demountable rim terms. The dimensions given are those necessary to maintain serviceability and interchangeability of the wide base disc wheels and demountable rims with standard hardware. Valve clearances have not been included in this document.
Tearing down the global barriers Steering systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated, as Ian Adcock discovers when talking to the men leading Nexteer's European expansion €1.1 billion worth of Bentley luxury Bentley's Bentayga is the first in a new generation of luxury cross-overs. Ian Adcock reveals its engineering secrets Goal: "virtual" perfection Should simulations be 100% accurate?
This SAE Recommended Practice contains the reference information for SAE J1802.
Male pipe threads, including male dryseal pipe threads, when made into assemblies or installed into ports, will generally leak if not covered with a sealant. This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide to assist designers and/or users in the selection and application of various types of thread sealants. The designers and users must make a systematic review of each type and application and then select the sealant to fulfill the requirements of the application. The following are general guidelines and are not necessarily a complete list.
Performance Requirements for SAE J844 Nonmetallic Tubing and Fitting Assemblies Used in Automotive Air Brake Systems
This SAE Standard is intended to establish uniform methods of testing SAE J844 tubing and fitting assemblies as used in automotive air brake systems. This document also establishes minimum qualifications for tensile and pressure capabilities, vibrational durability under cyclic temperatures, serviceability, and fitting compatibility requirements. The specific tests and performance criteria applicable to the tubing are set forth in SAE J844. NOTE--The test values contained in this document are for test purposes only. For environmental and usage limitations see SAE J844.Fittings--A type of fitting for use with SAE J844 nonmetallic tubing is included in SAE J246; however, it is not intended to restrict or preclude the use of other designs of fittings that comply with this document.
The scope of this recommended practice is to establish definitions and recommended methods for the measurement of lateral run-out and disc thickness variation in the laboratory and vehicle for passenger cars and light duty trucks up to 4546 kg gross vehicle weight. This recommended practice will breakdown the instrumentation (sensors and sizes), test setup, and data processing.
The purpose of this document is to present general considerations for the design and use of aircraft wheel chocks. The design and use of aircraft wheel chocks is a good deal more complicated than it may appear at first glance.
Abstract Commercial vehicles have steering systems with one or more steering links connecting the steering gear box pitman arm and front axle steering arm. In case of twin steer vehicles, intermediate pivot arm is used to transfer the motion proportionately between the two front axles. Intermediate pivot arm is also used in some longer front over-hang vehicles to overcome their packaging constraints and to optimize the mechanical leverage. The pivot shaft is a mechanical part of the intermediate pivot arm assembly upon which pivot arm can swivel in one axis. Steering forces transferred through the drag links generates resultant forces and bending moments on the pivot shaft. In this work, study has been carried out on premature failure of the pivot shaft in city bus application model (Entry + 1 step). Metallurgical analysis of failed part indicated the failure to be due to fatigue. Pivot shaft was tested in rig with similar load conditions in order to replicate the failure.
Abstract Electric Power Steering System (EPS) can directly provide auxiliary steering torque via a motor. The motor and the reducer in mechanical system will make the friction torque in steering system larger, as a result, the ability of steering returning will be reduced. Therefore, during the design of EPS system control strategy, an extra active return-to-middle control strategy is needed. For the fact that most of the low-end vehicles equipped with EPS system do not have a steering wheel angle sensor, a control strategy has to work without the datum of steering wheel angle. This paper proposes an active return-to-middle control method without steering wheel angle sensor, based on the estimated aligning torque which is converted to the pinion, and expounds how to determine the steering system current motion state in detail. This control method will work just during the turning condition, so it has no effect on the EPS basic assist characteristics.
Abstract With advancement of technology, better safety and higher vehicle reliability is primary requirement of end customer especially in public transportation. Hence there exist challenges in design and development of steering system for long haulage and tipper application. In the steering system, track rod is used to steer both the front tyre under different operating condition assisted by power steering system. This paper deals with the failures observed on track rod in long haulage and tipper application with loading conditions. Also the methodology adapted to resolve the field failures.
Assistance Characteristics and Control Strategy of Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering Systems on Commercial Vehicles
Abstract Electro-hydraulic power steering system (EHPS) maintains the advantages of Hydraulic power steering system (HPS) and Electric power steering system (EPS).It is even more superior than this two. In the foreseeable future, this system will have a certain development space. Assistant characters analysis was carried out in this paper. Control strategy based on steering states and feedback control strategy were designed too. Besides, aiming at the emergency steering conditions, steering angular velocity additional controlling strategy was brought out. Under emergency steering conditions, steering angular velocity additional controlling strategy will be applied. Additional steering moment will be calculated to ensure the assistant follow steering rapidly.