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2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0082
Jeevan N. Patil, Sivakumar Palanivelu, Vaibhav Aswar, Vipin Sharma
Air brake system is widely used in heavy truck and intercity buses for its great superiority and braking performance over other brake systems. Pneumatic brake system consists of various valves such as Dual Brake Valve (DBV), Quick release Valve (QRV), Relay Valve, Brake chambers. Dynamics of each valve is playing crucial role in overall dynamic performance of braking system. Also, it is very difficult to find the contribution of each valve in overall braking performance. In addition to this, there are various pipe diameters, which can be used between various valves. Hence, it is very difficult to find the best possible pipe diameter combination between various valves as well as contribution of each valve in overall performance through experiment as we cannot try all possible combinations on the actual vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0079
Ram Ranjan Sahu, Jayant Sinha
Brake drum is an important component in automotive, which is a link between axle and wheel. It performance is of utmost importance as it is related to the safety of the car as well to the passengers. Many design parameters are taken into consideration while designing the brake drum. The sensitivity of these parameters is studied for optimum design of brake drum. The critical parameters in terms of reliability, safety & durability could be the cross section, thickness of hub, interference & surface roughness between bearing and hub, wheel loading, heat generation on drum, manufacturing and assembly process. The brake drum design is derived by considering these parameters. Hence the sensitivity of these parameters is studied both virtually & physically, in detail. The optimum value of each parameter could be chosen complying each other's values.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0078
Parth Lunia, Mrigendra Prajapati, V Jayashankar, Varun Parakh, Samir Rawte
A parking brake or hand brake is the mechanical hand or foot operated secondary braking system that prevents the vehicle from rolling or slipping when parked on the gradient or leveled surface and provides assistance to stop/slowdown the vehicle in case of service brake failure. This paper is an attempt to compile a systematic approach which can be easily incorporated in a product development system to design and develop parking brake system for passenger cars having rear drum brakes which in turn can effectively reduce the lead time and give a better performance. Vehicle GVW, percentage gradient and maximum effort limits (As per IS 11852-Part 3), Tire and drum brake specifications were taken as front loading. This data is further used for target setting of functional and engineering parameters, such as Lever Pull Effort, Lever Ratio and angular travel of lever. Design calculations were performed to obtain theoretical value of critical parameters like lever effort and travel.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0068
Muthuraj R, Vignesh E, Sundararajan Thiyagarajan
Speaking of industrial design in automotive engineering, safety, aesthetics (user driven aspects), ergonomics (technology driven aspects) and product economics play a key role in the success and sustenance of any auto component or product in service. One such auto component in a vehicle which necessitates equal attention from all the above said aspects is a “WHEEL”. A conventional tube type wheel for commercial vehicles is made of steel with steel side rings (multi-piece construction). In course as headway in wheel design the single piece wheels were developed which used the tubeless tires. These wheels were made available in both steel and aluminium versions. Wherein the aluminium wheels were lighter in weight than steel, aesthetically more appealing and had other significant advantages. Despite the advantages of these tubeless tire wheels, the end user had to invest for both wheels and tubeless tires to replace conventional tube type steel wheels.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0077
Deepak Sharma, Abhishek Atal, Abhay Shah
Background: Anti-Roll bar (ARB) bushes are used for mounting Anti-Roll bar on the vehicle chassis or the sub frame. Function of ARB bushes typically made from Natural Rubber, is to provide support and take the twist loads coming from ARB articulation and provide NVH isolation from road inputs. But for this particular application of ARB involving higher articulation, Since couple of decades in all around globe a typical problem of "Creaking" noise from ARB bushes during ARB articulation had been noticed in passenger cars. Several means have been tried across the globe to control or eliminate this typical noise, such as greasing to inner surface of rubber bush, using thermo plastic polyurethane material, using Self-lubricating waxed rubber, using Teflon coating in rubber inner surface and so on. But no appreciable results, leading to customer discomfort.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0143
Navneet Chaudhari, K.V.V. Rao Srinivasa, Phillips Cecil
The purpose of a differential is to allow the wheels of an automobile to turn at different speeds so that it does not skid during turning. However when a vehicle runs on a slick or muddy surface (especially in Agricultural and constructional Field applications) that same feature causes the wheel with less traction to spin freely as this unit transmits power to the tire with least amount of traction. The function of a difflock is to lock the differential gears , By locking the differential, both the axles receive equal power and hence equal traction is available at both the tires. This Paper describes the positive locking of a differential by stopper, and also in detail the problems associated with its engagement and disengagement in tractors and construction equipment's. Additionally a concept for a difflock stopper which has been experimentally proven for tractors and construction equipment's is also discussed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0084
Ishwar Patil, Kiran P Wani
With the increasing competition in automotive sector, the customer is available with more options when it comes to buying a vehicle. So it has become necessary to improve the vehicle’s characteristics which affect its impression on the customer. Handling and ride comfort are very important characteristics that influence the quality of the vehicle. These characteristics depend on the suspension system of the vehicle. The three main objectives that a suspension system of an automobile must satisfy are ride comfort, vehicle handling and suspension working space. Ride comfort is directly related to the vehicle acceleration experienced by the driver and the passengers. Higher vertical acceleration, lesser is the level of comfort. The aim of this paper is to design and analyze the semi active suspension system models using skyhook, ground hook and hybrid control method.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0085
Boris Belousov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Sergei Naumov
A distributed structure of the automated control system (ACS) was used in designing the wheel open-link locomotion module (OLLM). It has allowed splitting the system into subsystems and studying the automatic control over each individual function. The paper considers the results of the experimental studies of the ACSs, which regulate the rigidity and damping parameters of axle suspensions (the control system of the pressure in wheel suspensions), and the vertical displacements of the left and right wheels of the axle (the control systems of the vertical wheel displacements), in response of the signals that arrive to the input of the complex from the main or backup system of automated control of the vehicle. A similar method was used to study the ACS of the wheel springing system as a component of the ACS of the OLLM.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0080
Wen Zhang, Bo Yang
Commercial vehicle plays an important role during transportation process under the demand of high speed, convenience and efficiency. So improving active safety of commercial vehicles has become a research topic. Due to the fact that braking characteristic is the basic and most closely related to safe driving of vehicles’ performances, this paper aimed to improve the braking performance by researching into an integrated control method based on the mature ABS products. Firstly, a control strategy which gave priority to ABS and differential yawing moment control, complementary with the hydraulic active suspension system control was proposed. In comparison with the single ABS system, the combined control of brake system and suspension system was designed not only for preventing wheels lock. But the directional control to avoid roll or spin was more focused on and the tires’ cornering characteristic was much better because of the invention of active suspension system.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0086
Prakhar Srivastava, Manish Laxman Karle, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Anand A Deshpande
Electric Power Assist Steering (EPAS) is a safety critical system because it affects vehicle stability and dynamics. Therefore, this system should be very reliable. To ensure safety and reliability ISO 26262 standards are adapted which is derived from IEC 61508. This standard regulates product development on system, hardware and software level and manages functional safety for electrical and electronics components. This paper discusses the applicability of the ISO 26262 standard to the development of EPAS ECU w.r.t its hardware and software design. For the hardware safety and reliability, the paper describes the hardware design safety analysis methods like Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and Hazard analysis. The paper discusses the use of these techniques used for improvement of reliability and safety of EPAS at component and system level.
2014-11-26
Standard
J1605_201411
This SAE Standard covers performance requirements and methods of test for master cylinder reservoir diaphragm gaskets that will provide a functional seal and protection from outside dirt and water.
2014-11-25
Standard
J267_201411
This SAE Recommended Practice provides minimum performance requirements and uniform laboratory procedures for fatigue testing of wheels and demountable rims intended for normal highway use on trucks, buses, truck-trailers, and multipurpose vehicles. Users may establish design criteria exceeding the minimum performance requirement for added confidence in a design. The cycle requirements noted in Tables 1 and 2 are based on Weibull statistics using 2 parameter, median ranks, 50% confidence level and 90% reliability, and beta equal to 2, typically noted as B10C50. For other wheels intended for normal highway use and temporary use on passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles, see SAE J328. For wheels used on trailers drawn by passenger cars, light trucks, or multipurpose vehicles, see SAE J1204. For bolt together military wheels, see SAE J1992. This document does not cover other special application wheels and rims.
2014-11-24
Article
Kia says it calls the completely redesigned MY2015 offering a multipurpose vehicle, rather than a minivan, “because there’s nothing mini in here.”
2014-11-20
Article
TRW stockholders representing 79% of the company's shares outstanding have voted to allow the proposed acquisition of the company by ZF to proceed. Under the terms of the agreement, ZF will acquire TRW in an all-cash transaction valued at approximately $12.4 billion based on equity value.
2014-11-20
Article
Bridgestone Americas announced on Nov. 18 the opening of its off-highway radial tire plant in Aiken County, SC—the first plant of its kind for Bridgestone outside of Japan, according to a company spokesperson. 
2014-11-20
Standard
AS4833A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) sets forth criteria for the selection and verification processes to be followed in providing tires that will be suitable for intended use on civil aircraft. This document encompasses new and requalified radial and bias aircraft tires.
2014-11-20
Standard
J2378_201411
This SAE Recommended Practice provides instructions and test procedures for air braked trailers and dollies used in single and multiple trailer combinations on highway. This document is not intended for off-highway application. Purpose This document provides a method of determining the efficiency of trailer and dolly air supply systems in filling reservoirs and, for those with spring applied parking brakes, in releasing parking brakes.
2014-11-18
Article
"Craft shop" approach of low-volume, all-aluminum, high-end makes is too restrictive for America's best-selling vehicle. SEMA Show training classes by I-CAR demonstrate special techniques necessary and the learning curve for mainstream body shop technicians.
2014-11-18
Standard
J1214_201411
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is set guidelines for tire to wheel house and body clearances on recreational vehicles.
2014-11-15
Standard
J1713_201411
This SAE Recommended Practices specifies a procedure for determining structural strength and fatigue life of disc-brake caliper assemblies which are satisfactory for vehicle usage. It is applicable to new caliper assemblies which are employed in passenger car and truck brake systems utilizing hydraulic brake fluids. Brake design and vehicle performance requirements are not included. Specification limits are left to the discretion of the responsible manufacturer. This procedure was developed for base brake operation and does not consider some unusual effects of ABS (Anti-Lock-Brake System) or Traction Control systems which may have a significant effect on the caliper. Careful analysis of the particular type ABS and/or Traction Control should be made and additional tests may be required which are not included in this document.
2014-11-15
Standard
J1404_201411
This SAE Recommended Practice presents requirements for the structural integrity of the brake system of all new trucks, buses, and combinations of vehicles designed for roadway use and falling into the following classifications: a. Truck and Bus: Over 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVWR b. Combination of Vehicles: Towing vehicle over 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVWR The requirements are based on data obtained from SAE J294.
2014-11-15
Standard
J1476_201411
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a method of evaluating the structural integrity of the parking brake system of all new trucks, buses, and combination vehicles designed for roadway use in the following classifications: TRACTOR, TRAILER, TRUCK, AND BUS: over 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVWR.
2014-11-13
WIP Standard
AIR5358A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) was prepared by a panel of the SAE A-5 Committee. This document establishes the specifications for fluids used in landing gear shock struts with extreme pressure and antiwear additives that have been added for improved lubrication.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0088
Claudio Annicchiarico, Renzo Capitani
Abstract In a Formula SAE car, as for almost all racecars, suppressing or limiting the action of the differential mechanism is the technique mostly adopted to improve the traction exiting the high lateral acceleration corners. The common Limited Slip Differentials (LSDs) unbalance the traction torque distribution, generating as a secondary effect a yaw torque on the vehicle. If this feature is electronically controlled, these devices can be used to manage the attitude of the car. The yaw torque introduced by an electronically controlled LSD (which can also be called SAD, “Semi-Active Differential”) could suddenly change from oversteering (i.e. pro-yaw) to understeering (i.e. anti-yaw), depending on the driving conditions. Therefore, controlling the vehicle attitude with a SAD could be challenging, and its effectiveness could be low if compared with the common torque vectoring systems, which act on the brake system of the car.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0017
R Varunprabhu, Himadri Bushan Das, S Jabez Dhinagar
Abstract The steering system of a 3-wheeler vehicle comprises a single column steering tube. The steering inclination at handle bar end is converted to wheel slip or inclination by the steering column. A compromise in either ride or handling is considered in the functional requirement of the 3-wheeler vehicle. The 3- wheeler vehicle under study is designed for ride comfort and the handling levels are compromised. Variants of the vehicle under study are meant for public passenger transport requirements. Drivers' ride comfort is considered as the primary functional requirement during design and driver's steering fatigue is not given importance. For the comfort of driver, steering effort has to be less without compromise in handling characteristics. The driver of this type of vehicle drives the vehicle for 15-18 hours a day. Driver's feedback suggests high steering effort as a human fatigue failure mode and also a cause of shoulder pain.
2014-11-11
Standard
ARP1070D
This document outlines the development process and makes recommendations for total antiskid/aircraft systems compatibility. These recommendations encompass all aircraft systems that may affect antiskid brake control. It focuses on recommended practices specific to antiskid and its integration with the aircraft as opposed to more generic practices recommended for all aircraft systems and components. It defers to the documents listed in Section 2, for generic aerospace best practices and requirements. The documents listed below are the major drivers in antiskid/aircraft integration: 1. ARP4754, Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems 2. ARP4761, Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment 3. RTCA DO-178, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification 4. RTCA DO-254, Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware 5.
2014-11-11
Standard
J2377_201411
This SAE Recommended Practice (RP) provides test procedures for air braked trucks and truck-tractors used to tow single and multiple trailer combinations on highways. This RP is not intended for off-highway applications.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0053
Yoshihiro Nakagawa, Shinya Takahashi, Mikihito Masaki, Ranju Imao
Abstract In brake squeal analyses using FE models, minimizing the discrepancies in vibration characteristics between the measurement and the simulation is a key issue for improving its reproducibility. The discrepancies are generally adjusted by the shape parameters and/or material properties applied to the model. However, the discrepancy cannot be easily adjusted, especially, for the vibration characteristic of the disc model of a motorcycle. One of the factors that give a large impact on this discrepancy is a thermal history of the disc. That thermal history includes the one experienced in manufacturing process. In this paper, we examine the effects of residual stress on the natural frequency of motorcycle discs. The residual stress on the disc surface was measured by X-ray stress measurement method. It was followed by an eigenvalue analysis. In this analysis, we developed a unique method in which the residual stress was substituted by thermal stress.
2014-11-06
Standard
ARP6225
This document is for establishing tire removal criteria of on-wing civil aircraft tires only. This document is primarily intended for use with commercial aircraft but may be used on other categories of civil aircraft as applicable. The criteria are harmonized with the Care and Service Manuals of the tire manufacturers for both radial and bias tires.
2014-11-04
Standard
J1939DA_201411
The J1939 Digital Annex The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. For all other SPNs and PGNs which are published in a document other than SAE J1939-71, J1939DA lists only basic details along with a reference to the document that contains the complete technical details. J1939DA replaces, and expands upon, the 1939 Companion Spreadsheet (CS1939), which was last published through November 2012.
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