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Viewing 271 to 300 of 8245
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8030
Dai Quoc Vo, Hormoz Marzbani, Mohammad Fard, Reza N. Jazar
Abstract As long as a tire steers about a titled kingpin pivot, the point coming in contact with the road moves along its perimeter. This movement affects the determination of kingpin moments caused by the tire forces, especially for large steering angles. The movement, however, has been neglected in the literature on the steerable-tire-kinematics-related topics. In this investigation, the homogeneous transformation is employed to develop a kinematic model of a steering tire in which the instantaneous ground-contact point on the tire is considered. The moments about the kingpin axis caused by tire forces are then computed based on the kinematics. A four-wheel-car model is constructed for determining the kingpin moment of steering system during the low-speed cornering maneuver. The result shows that the displacement of the ground-contact point along the tire perimeter is significant for large steering angles.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8039
Rui He, Emilio Jimenez, Dzmitry Savitski, Corina Sandu, Valentin Ivanov
Abstract Tire modeling plays an important role in the development of an Active Vehicle Safety System. As part of a larger project that aims at developing an integrated chassis control system, this study investigates the performance of a 19” all-season tire on ice for a sport utility vehicle. A design of experiment has been formulated to quantify the effect of operational parameters, specifically: wheel slip, normal load, and inflation pressure on the tire tractive performance. The experimental work was conducted on the Terramechanics Rig in the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory at Virginia Tech. The paper investigates an approach for the parameterization of the Dugoff tire model based on the experimental data collected. Compared to other models, this model is attractive in terms of its simplicity, low number of parameters, and easy implementation for real-time applications.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1937
Taylor Erva, Adam Loukus, Luke Luskin
Abstract Aluminum metal matrix composite brake rotors with a selective ceramic function reinforcement gradient (FRG) have been developed for automotive applications. This paper will highlight the design, manufacturing, and testing of the rotors. Weight saving of an aluminum composite rotor in comparison to an industry standard cast iron rotor is 50-60%. With this material change comes design considerations to manage rotor temperature, rotor surface integrity, and friction. Manufacturing methods to meet these design constraints were needed to develop a viable high performance aluminum composite rotor. High pressure squeeze casting with soluble coring techniques were developed to incorporate the selective FRG MMC rotors. Dynamometer testing was performed, concentrating on brake friction and temperature to evaluate the macro and micro interfaces in the rotors.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1938
Xin Gao, Gangfeng Tan, Binyu Mei, Mengzuo Han, Tie Wang
Abstract The hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary braking device used for commercial vehicle in a long slope brake, and its transmission oil generates a lot of heat in its working process. If the heat of transmission doesn’t go through a reasonable management, it will seriously affect the braking performance of hydraulic retarder. To cool down the transmission oil, it will aggravates the load of the engine cooling system, and the long cooling path sometimes causes heat exchange not timely. When the Rankine cycle is used for cooling the hydraulic retarder transmission oil in virtue of its good heat transfer performance in phase change process, it can make the transmission oil temperature controlled more stable. In this new system, the setting parameters of the Evaporate-condensate system will affect the stability of the transmission oil temperature in the hydraulic retarder inlet and the energy recovery efficiency of the system.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1935
Binyu Mei, Xuexun Guo, Gangfeng Tan, Ming Chen, Bo Huang, Longjie Xiao
Abstract With the continuous increasing requirements of commercial vehicle weight and speed on highway transportation, conventional friction brake is difficult to meet the braking performance. To ensure the driving safety of the vehicle in the hilly region, the eddy current retarder (ECR) has been widely used due to its fast response, lower prices and convenient installation. ECR brakes the vehicle through the electromagnetic force generated by the current, and converted vehicle mechanical energy into heat through magnetic field. Air cooling structure is often used in the traditional ECR and cooling performance is limited, which causes low braking torque, thermal recession, and low reliability and so on. The water jacket has been equipped outside the eddy current region in this study, and the electric ECR is cooled through the water circulating in the circuit, which prolongs its working time.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1936
Ashesh Anil Shah, Kshitiz Raj
Abstract Brake system for any vehicle plays an important role, as safety comes at highest level, also domestic and international safety norms for commercial vehicles are getting stringent. In current scenario of highly competitive commercial market, Payload advantage comes at peak level in customer demand list, also maintainability plays an important role to make sure least vehicle downtime, linked to customer profitability. Finally, if product has less complexity (reducing no. of parts), then it will provide add on benefit to any organization. Considering these customer oriented perspectives, mainly payload & maintenance, along with regulation compliance. We have proposed new Disc brake system for heavy duty commercial vehicle providing maximum payload benefit, along with enhancement in maintainability. It has also enhanced performance and meeting all legislative criteria at vehicle level.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1942
Sarah Chen, Steve Hoxie
Abstract Developing a brake system with high overall customer satisfaction rating is a constant challenge for OEMs as well as their brake suppliers. Brake system performance is directly linked to the engagement between the rotors and pads. The materials for the rotors and pads play a key role in the nature of the engagement. Therefore, to meet the performance targets, it is critical to have a good understanding of the brake rotor materials and their impacts. Gray iron is the most widely used brake rotor material in the industry owing to its superior thermal handling capacity, damping characteristics, and wear and cost advantages. G30 per ASTM A48 is generally specified for most brake rotors with minimum tensile strength of 200 MPa and Brinell hardness of 187∼241. G20 is also widely used for brake rotors, especially for brake smoothness and optimal lining life.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1943
Tadayoshi Matsumori, Yoshitsugu Goto, Noboru Sugiura, Kenji Abe, Yoshihiro Osawa, Yosuke Akita, Satoshi Wakamatsu, Katsuya Okayama, Kyoko Kosaka
Abstract This paper deals with friction under wet condition in the disk brake system of automobiles. In our previous study, the variation of friction coefficient μ was observed under wet condition. And it was experimentally found that μ becomes high when wear debris contains little moisture. Based on the result, in this paper, we propose a hypothesis that agglomerates composed of the wet wear debris induce the μ variation as the agglomerates are jammed in the gaps between the friction surfaces of a brake pad and a disk rotor. For supporting the hypothesis, firstly, we measure the friction property of the wet wear debris, and confirm that the capillary force under the pendular state is a factor contributing to the μ variation. After that, we simulate the wear debris behavior with or without the capillary force using the particle-based simulation. We prepare the simulation model for the friction surfaces which contribute to the friction force through the wear debris.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1939
Toshikazu Okamura
Abstract Brake judder is one of the most serious problems in automotive-brake systems. It is basically a forced vibration caused by the friction-surface geometry of a brake disc, and therefore, disc rotors play a significant role in judder. There are two types of judder: cold and hot. Hot judder is caused by the thermo-mechanical deformation of a brake disc due to high-speed braking. There are several shapes of deformation, e.g., coning and circumferential waviness. Circumferential waviness is caused by thermo-mechanical buckling and typically found as a butterfly shape in a 2nd rotational-order and hot-spotting. In a previous paper, two groups of disc castings with different material homogeneity were machined intentionally to have two kinds of dimensional variations.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1941
Tie Wang, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Shengguang Xiong, Zhiwei Zhang, Xin Gao
Abstract Vehicle hydraulic retarders are applied in heavy-duty trucks and buses as an auxiliary braking device. In traditional cooling systems of hydraulic retarders, the working fluid is introduced into the heat exchanger to transfer heat to the cooling liquid in circulation, whose heat is then dissipated by the engine cooling system. This prevents the waste heat of the working fluid from being used effectively. In hydraulic retarder cooling system based on the Organic Rankine Cycle, the organic working fluid first transfers heat with the hydraulic retarder working fluid in Rankine cycle, and then outputs power through expansion machine. It can both reduce heat load of the engine cooling system, and enhance thermal stability of the hydraulic retarder while recovering and utilizing braking energy. First of all, according to the target vehicle model, hydraulic retarder cooling system model based on Rankine cycle is established.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1929
Nimrod Kapas, Ajith Jayasundera
Abstract There is an increasing interest in transient thermal simulations of automotive brake systems. This paper presents a high-fidelity CFD tool for modeling complete braking cycles including both the deceleration and acceleration phases. During braking, this model applies the frictional heat at the interface on the contacting rotor and pad surfaces. Based on the conductive heat fluxes within the surrounding parts, the solver divides the frictional heat into energy fluxes entering the solid volumes of the rotor and the pad. The convective heat transfer between the surfaces of solid parts and the cooling airflow is simulated through conjugate heat transfer, and the discrete ordinates model captures the radiative heat exchange between solid surfaces. It is found that modeling the rotor rotation using the sliding mesh approach provides more realistic results than those obtained with the Multiple Reference Frames method.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1930
Heewook Lee
Abstract Contamination protection of brake rotors has been a challenge for the auto industry for a long time. As contamination of a rotor causes corrosion, and that in turn causes many issues like pulsation and excessive wear of rotors and linings, a rotor splash protection shield became a common part for most vehicles. While the rotor splash shield provides contamination protection for the brake rotor, it makes brake cooling performance worse because it blocks air reaching the brake rotor. Therefore, balancing between contamination protection and enabling brake cooling has become a key critical factor when the splash shield is designed. Although the analysis capability of brake cooling performance has become quite reliable, due to lack of technology to predict contamination patterns, the design of the splash protection shield has relied on engineering judgment and/or vehicle tests. Optimization opportunities were restricted by cost and time associated with vehicle tests.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1927
Christian Riese, Frank Gauterin
Abstract New technologies like alternative power trains and driver assistance systems have a big impact on brake system development. Most of the development work aims at the improvement of the actuation and modulation components of the brake system. The basic hydraulic network remained nearly the same over decades and still has to meet these new requirements. Previous papers have focused mainly on studying the behavior of single components, like for example the brake hose fluid consumption in detail. Other papers studied the complete system but simplified it extremely, so that some relevant effects are neglected. In this work, one focus is to study the influence of single relevant components, like the hydraulic unit and the hoses on the overall system performance. For this measurements with a complete hydraulic brake system, including a state of the art electromechanical brake booster and single component measurements for identification, are conducted.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1928
ByeongUk Jeong, Sang Do Kwak, Cheol Ki Kim
Abstract Recently, upon customer’s needs for noise-free brake, carmakers are increasingly widely installing damping kits in their braking systems. However, an installation of the damping kits may excessively increase softness in the brake system, by loosening stroke feeling of a brake pedal and increasing compressibility after durability. To find a solution to alleviate this problem, we first conducted experiments to measure compressibility of shims by varying parameters such as adhesive shims (e.g., bonding spec., steel and rubber thickness), piston’s shapes (e.g., different contact areas to the shims), and the numbers of durability. Next, we installed a brake feeling measurement system extended from a brake pedal to caliper. We then compared experimental parameters with brake feeling in a vehicle. Finally, we obtained an optimized level of brake feeling by utilizing the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS).
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1933
Mingzhuo Li, Dejian Meng, Lijun Zhang
Abstract Brake judder severely affects the riding comfort and safety of vehicle. For the brake corner system, a rigid-flexible coupling model is established based on ADAMS. In the model, brake pads, caliper, anchor and knuckle are flexible bodies, and the contacts between pads and disc and the contacts between pads and caliper are defined in detail. Meanwhile, the vibration acceleration of the brake corner components and the contact forces between disc and pads are used as evaluation index and the evaluation system of brake judder are improved. The analysis results show that the novel model and evaluation system can be used to predict brake judder effectively.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1934
Arun Kumar Prasad, Baskar Anthonysamy, V.A. Gopalakrishn, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Abstract Fierce competition in India’s automotive industry has led to constant production innovation among manufactures. This has resulted in the reduction of the life cycle of the design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continues to challenge automotive designer is to design and fine tune the braking performance with low cost and short life cycle. Braking performance of automotive vehicle is facilitated by the adhesion between the tyre and the ground. Braking force generated at the wheels of a vehicle have to appropriately match to the adhesion. Antilock braking system (ABS) is used for this purpose. ABS is a modern braking system which could significantly improve directional stability and reduce stopping distance of a vehicle. However this system still too complicated and expensive to use in low end compact car and pickup truck.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1932
Niclas Strömberg
Abstract During several years a toolbox for performing virtual rig tests of disc brake systems has been developed by the author. A thermo-flexible multi-body model of a test rig is derived and implemented by coupling two types of models: a finite element model and a multi-body model. The finite element model is a thermo-mechanical model of the pad-disc system that is formulated including thermo-elasticity, frictional contact and wear. The energy balance of the contact interface is governed by contact conductance that depends linearly on the contact pressure and the frictional heat depends on a temperature dependent coefficient of friction. Instead of adopting a standard Lagrangian approach, the disc is formulated in an Eulerian frame like a fluid. This is then coupled to the pad most accurately by using Signorini’s contact conditions, Coulomb’s law of friction and Archard’s law of wear.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1931
Aaron Völpel, Georg Peter Ostermeyer
Abstract In today’s research and development of brake systems the model-based prediction of complex vibrations and NVH phenomena plays an important role. Despite the efforts, the high dimensional computational simulation models only provide a limited part of the results gained through experimental measurements. Several reasons are discussed by the industry and academic research. One potential source of these inadequacies is the very simple formulation of the friction forces in the simulation models. Due to a significant shorter computation time (by orders of magnitude), the complex eigenvalue analysis has been established, in comparison to the transient analysis, as the standard method in the case of industrial research, where systems with more than one million degrees of freedom are simulated.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1958
Seungpyo Lee, Nahyon Lee, Jongkeun Lim, Jungyang Park
Abstract Through transmitting power and carrying vehicle weight, automotive wheel bearings play an important role. Counterbalancing the bearing responsibilities, they also are designed to last the life of a vehicle without servicing. When mounted to the vehicle steering knuckle by bolts, distortion occurs to the outer ring. Performance is affected when distortion takes place at the seal mounting location and raceways. Finite element analysis using commercial software was performed to analyze the outer ring distortion. Elasto-plastic and contact analyses were carried out to compute the clamping behavior of the outer ring, bolts and the knuckle under various conditions. To verify the reliability of this study, the distortion of the outer ring was measured. The experimental results proved to be comparative with the analysis results.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1957
Seonho Lee, Heejae Kang, Ohchul Kwon, Chirl Soo Shin
Abstract A trend in automotive parts development is the pursuit of long life, high quality and reliability. The increase in service life of automotive wheel bearings, by improving the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of bearing steels, was investigated. Conventional studies of bearing steels and heat treatments have dealt with quenching and tempering (Q/T) in 52100 steel. This study is a new trial to increase the strength of bearing steels by special austempering in phases after general Q/T heat treatments.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1955
Liangyao Yu, Xiaohui Liu, Xiaoxue Liu
Abstract The traditional vacuum booster is gradually replaced by Brake-by-Wire system (BBW) in modern passenger car, especially Electric Vehicle (EV). Some mechanical and hydraulic components are replaced by electronic components in Brake-by-Wire system. Using BBW system in modern passenger vehicles can not only improve the automotive safety performance, reliability and stability, but also promote vehicle maneuverability, comfort, fuel economy and environmental protection. Although vehicle's braking performance is greatly improved by using BBW, the system will inevitably consume some energy of the vehicle power supply, thus introducing unexpected drawback in comparison with the traditional vacuum assist braking system, since it doesn't need any electric power. Therefore, the analysis of energy consumption on typical main cylinder booster based BBW system under typical driving cycles will contribute to advanced design of current advanced braking system.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1959
Laura Sguotti, Davide Olivieri, Domenico Bosco
Abstract Bearing friction is a direct contribution to vehicle CO2 emissions. The friction is defined as the total resistance to rotation, resulting from the combination of rolling and sliding friction in the contact areas. First, friction reduction was approached from a theoretical standpoint by employing modeling and simulation techniques. Improvements identified in simulation were then used to: create a new set of design rules for the internal geometry of the bearing, introduce a new grease, develop new seals, also with the integration of labyrinth functions and an optimization of the preload range variation. In order to provide a reliable confirmation of the expected achievements, a new friction measurement methodology was also introduced.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1949
John David Fieldhouse, Joe Gelb
Abstract The design of a braking system involves a delicate balance between the friction pair, the disc and pad, where the pad is a complex blend of constituents to provide predictable characteristics, typically, a known and consistent friction level. In its base form the brake has to absorb the vehicle kinetic energy by converting it into heat. This heat absorption by the friction pair can result in chemical and physical interactions with the release of debris about which we know little. Other than environmental concerns, brake dust causes unnecessary problems with wear, thermal gradients (hot banding) and NVH. This paper is concerned with the removal and collection of brake debris from the friction interface - the debris being regarded as solids and airborne particles, the latter less than 10μm in size. The test procedure consisted of a Burnish program followed by 8 different drive cycles. The overall effects of debris removal is then reported for each test.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1944
Seongjoo Lee, JeSung Jeon, ShinWook Kim, ShinWan Kim, Seong Rhee, Wan Gyu Lee, Young Sun Cho, Jeongkyu Kim
When two identical brakes are simultaneously tested on a vehicle chassis dynamometer, very often the left hand brake is found to squeal more or less than the right hand brake, all at different frequencies. This study was performed to develop some understanding of this puzzling phenomenon. It is found that as the wear rate difference between the inner pad and the outer pad increases, low frequency (caliper and knuckle) squeals occur more and more, and as the differential wear becomes larger and larger, high frequency (disc) squeals occur less and less, finally disappearing all together. Discs and calipers are found to affect the differential pad wear, in turn affecting brake squeal generation.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1954
Zhe Xiong, Xiaofei Pei, Xuexun Guo, Chengcai Zhang
Abstract In this paper a new pressure control method of a modified accumulator-type Electro-hydraulic Braking System (EHB) is proposed. The system is composed of a hydraulic motor pump, an accumulator, an integrated master cylinder, a pedal feel simulator, valves and pipelines. Two pressurizing modes are switched between by-motor and by-accumulator to adapt different pressure boost demands. A differentiator filtering raw sensor signal and calculating pedal speed is designed. By using the pedal feel simulator, the relationship between wheel pressures and brake force is decoupled. The relationships among pedal displacement, pedal force and wheel pressure are calibrated by experiments. A model-based PI controller with predictor is designed to lower the influences caused by delay. Moreover, a self-tuning regulator is introduced to deal with the parameter’s time-varying caused by temperature, brake pads wearing and delay variation.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1953
Michael Herbert Putz, Harald Seifert, Maximilian Zach, Jure Peternel
Abstract Since more than eight years Vienna Engineering (VE) is working on an electro-mechanical brake (EMB) actuated by eccentrics and a highly non-linear actuation mechanism. The principle allows full braking in approx. 70 milliseconds (including air gap) and only approx. 3 A RMS actuator current at 12 V for classical ABS with oscillations. This EMB reached an elaborated state. Versions for passenger cars, elevators, railway and commercial vehicles (CVs) were derived. Now, as the EMB is going to road tests, it is necessary to fulfill safety requirements closely. What are these safety requirements and how can they be fulfilled? The properties of the overall system, of the mechanics and electronics of the single brake are discussed in this paper. The overall brake system for EMBs needs a truly redundant power supply, a safe control bus and a safe brake pedal. The mechanics of a single brake can be required to release when power is off and it must not get mechanically stuck.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1951
Björn Dingwerth
Abstract Caused by a number of beneficial properties inherently from the zinc-nickel material, this electrodeposited alloy is used more and more for cathodically protecting layers on ferrous components like cast iron brake calipers. Direct plating from acidic solutions is the state-of-the-art solution for zinc-nickel surface finishing of these components. To contribute to the continuous improvement of the final component and reduce the finishing cost, areas for improvement have been scrutinized in a current finishing system. Areas for improvement have been identified in the uniformity of the nickel distribution within different current densities and in the handling and economy of the metallic zinc anodes used for zinc metal replenishment. While today’s acidic zinc-nickel electrolytes suit and usually exceed the requirements for an alloy containing 10-15% nickel, nickel incorporation may drop just below 12% incorporation rate in areas which are plated at high current densities.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1950
Guirong Zhuo, Subin Zhang, Kun Xiong
Abstract As is known to all, the structure of the chassis has been greatly simplified as the application of in-wheel motor in electric vehicle (EV) and distributed control is allowed. The micro EV can alleviate traffic jams, reduce the demand for motor and battery capacity due to its small size and light weight and accordingly solve the problem that in-wheel motor is limited by inner space of the wheel hub. As a result, this type of micro EV is easier to be recognized by the market. In the micro EV above, two seats are side by side and the battery is placed in the middle of the chassis. Besides, in-wheel motors are mounted on the rear axle and only front axle retains traditional hydraulic braking system. Based on this driving/braking system, distribution of braking torque, system reliability and braking intensity is analyzed in this paper.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1916
Raffaele Gilardi, Davide Sarocchi, Loredana Bounous
Abstract A wide range of different carbon powders is available and currently used in friction materials like coke, graphite and carbon black. The effect of the type of carbon on braking performance has been extensively investigated in the past and it has been demonstrated that graphite can play an important role in copper-free brake pads. However, there are no studies about the influence of carbon powders on the processability of brake pads. Brake pads need to be painted in order to avoid corrosion. Typically electrostatic painting is used on an industrial scale, which requires the brake pads to be conductive. NAO brake pads (and especially Cu-free NAO brake pads) are rather insulating, and therefore difficult to paint. In this presentation we’ll show how special carbon powders can increase the electrical conductivity and therefore allow easy painting of brake pads. Based on these investigations, a new copper-free NAO formulation has been developed.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1917
Bongho Kim, Jeongkyu Kim, Kwang Yun Kim, Jung Hoon Woo
Abstract Creep groan noise occurs in a just moving vehicle by the simultaneous application of torque to the wheel and the gradual release of brake pressure in-vehicle. It is the low frequency noise giving the driver a very uncomfortable feeling. Recently, the field claims regarding the creep groan noise are increasing. So far, creep groan noise has been improved by means of chassis modification the transfer system. But vehicle body the response system does not. In this paper, the effect between vibration characteristics of vehicle body, creep groan noise was analyzed. Then presented analysis method for vehicle body effect regarding creep groan noise.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 8245