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2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1805
Florian Zenger, Clemens Junger, Manfred Kaltenbacher, Stefan Becker
Abstract A low pressure axial fan for benchmarking numerical methods in the field of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics is presented. The generic fan for this benchmark is a typical fan to be used in commercial applications. The design procedure was according to the blade element theory for low solidity fans. A wide range of experimental data is available, including aerodynamic performance of the fan (fan characteristic curve), fluid mechanical quantities on the pressure and suction side from laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements, wall pressure fluctuations in the gap region and sound characteristics on the suction side from sound power and microphone array measurements. The experimental setups are described in detail, as to ease reproducibility of measurement positions. This offers the opportunity of validating aerodynamic and aeroacoustic quantities, obtained from different numerical tools and procedures.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1830
Denis Blanchet, Luca Alimonti, Anton Golota
Abstract This paper presents new advances in predicting wind noise contribution to interior SPL in the framework of the Wind Noise German Working Group composed of Audi, Daimler, Porsche and VW. In particular, a new approach was developed that allows to fully describe the wind noise source using CFD generated surface pressure distribution and its cross-correlation function and apply this source on an SEA side glass. This new method removes the need to use a diffuse acoustic field or several plane waves with various incidence angle to approximate the correct acoustics source character to apply on the SEA side glass. This new approach results are compared with results previously published which use more deterministic methods to represent the side glass and the interior of a vehicle.
2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1808
Manfred Kaltenbacher, Andreas Hüppe, Aaron Reppenhagen, Matthias Tautz, Stefan Becker, Wolfram Kuehnel
Abstract We present a recently developed computational scheme for the numerical simulation of flow induced sound for rotating systems. Thereby, the flow is computed by scale resolving simulations using an arbitrary mesh interface scheme for connecting rotating and stationary domains. The acoustic field is modeled by a perturbation ansatz resulting in a convective wave equation based on the acoustic scalar potential and the substational time derivative of the incompressible flow pressure as a source term. We use the Finite-Element (FE) method for solving the convective wave equation and apply a Nitsche type mortaring at the interface between rotating and stationary domains. The whole scheme is applied to the numerical computation of a side channel blower.
2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1815
Augusto Della Torre, Gianluca Montenegro, Angelo Onorati
Abstract In the last decades numerical simulations have become reliable tools for the design and the optimization of silencers for internal combustion engines. Different approaches, ranging from simple 1D models to detailed 3D models, are nowadays commonly applied in the engine development process, with the aim to predict the acoustic behavior of intake and exhaust systems. However, the acoustic analysis is usually performed under the hypothesis of infinite stiffness of the silencer walls. This assumption, which can be regarded as reasonable for most of the applications, can lose validity if low wall thickness are considered. This consideration is even more significant if the recent trends in the automotive industry are taken into account: in fact, the increasing attention to the weight of the vehicle has lead to a general reduction of the thickness of the metal sheets, due also to the adoption of high-strength steels, making the vibration of the components a non negligible issue.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9148
Saeed Asgari, Shailendra Kaushik
Abstract A linear parameter varying (LPV) reduced order model (ROM) is used to approximate the volume-averaged temperature of battery cells in one of the modules of the battery pack with varying mass flow rate of cooling fluid using uniform heat source as inputs. The ROM runs orders of magnitude faster than the original CFD model. To reduce the time it takes to generate training data, used in building LPV ROM, a divide-and-conquer approach is introduced. This is done by dividing the battery module into a series of mid-cell and end-cell units. A mid-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between two half -cells. A half-cell has half as much heat capacity as a full-cell. An end-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between full-cell and a half-cell. A mass flow rate distribution look-up-table is generated from a set of steady-state simulations obtained by running the full CFD model at different inlet manifold mass flow rate samples.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1091
Sujan Dhar, Homa Afjeh, Chiranth Srinivasan, Raj Ranganathan, Yu Jiang
Abstract This paper reports on a comprehensive, crank-angle transient, three dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the complete lubrication system of a multi-cylinder engine using the CFD software Simerics-Sys / PumpLinx. This work represents an advance in system-level modeling of the engine lubrication system over the current state of the art of one-dimensional models. The model was applied to a 16 cylinder, reciprocating internal combustion engine lubrication system. The computational domain includes the positive displacement gear pump, the pressure regulation valve, bearings, piston pins, piston cooling jets, the oil cooler, the oil filter etc… The motion of the regulation valve was predicted by strongly coupling a rigorous force balance on the valve to the flow.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1084
Chendi Sun, Vinson Jia
Abstract With rigorous fuel consumption regulation and emission law implemented, accuracy requirement of design and measurement signal is increasing, it becomes more and more indispensable to consider the influence on pressure loss and flow behavior coming from the incrementally loaded dust on filter element of Air Intake System (AIS). Dust is composed of many different sizes of particles, and studies shows that these different sizes of particles have very distinct influence on pressure loss of filter elements, which makes dust a challenge to model in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. In order to precisely simulate pressure loss behavior of dust loaded filter element, a methodology for 3-D CFD dust loading simulation is developed, where the influence of particles sizes on pressure loss of filter element are taken into consideration by introducing a pressure loss weighting factors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1054
Jorge Martins, Carlos Pereira, F.P. Brito
Abstract One way to increase efficiency and performance of 2-stroke engines is the addition of an exhaust valve to control the opening/closure of the exhaust port. With this implementation it is possible to change the exhaust timing for different conditions. However, conventional systems cannot change the exhaust opening and closure timings independently. The work herein presented shows the development of a new exhaust rotary valve enabling the control of the opening independently from the control of the closure of the exhaust port. The study is based on kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. Some manufacturers use exhaust rotary valves but none of them performs a fully rotary motion. This kind of motion has various benefits such as smoothness and most notably the ability to control both the opening and the closure timing of the exhaust independently. Regarding the kinematic analysis, a simple model was created to determine the most suitable valve angles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1618
Yoshihiro Okada, Takuji Nakashima, Makoto Tsubokura, Yousuke Morikawa, Ryousuke Kouno, Satoshi Okamoto, Tanaka Matsuhiro, Takahide Nouzawa
Abstract A road vehicle’s cornering motion is known to be a compound motion composed mainly of forward, sideslip and yaw motions. But little is known about the aerodynamics of cornering because little study has been conducted in this field. By clarifying and understanding a vehicle’s aerodynamic characteristics during cornering, a vehicle’s maneuvering stability during high-speed driving can be aerodynamically improved. Therefore, in this study, the aerodynamic characteristics of a vehicle’s cornering motion, i.e. the compound motion of forward, sideslip and yaw motions, were investigated. We also considered proposing an aerodynamics evaluation method for vehicles in dynamic maneuvering. Firstly, we decomposed cornering motion into yaw and sideslip motions. Then, we assumed that the aerodynamic side force and yaw moment of a cornering motion could be expressed by superposing linear expressions of yaw motion parameters and those of sideslip motion parameters, respectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1617
Yoshinobu Yamade, Chisachi Kato, Shinobu Yoshimura, Akiyoshi Iida, Keiichiro Iida, Kunizo Onda, Yoshimitsu Hashizume, Yang Gou
Abstract A wall-resolving Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has been performed by using up to 40 billion grids with a minimum grid resolution of 0.1 mm for predicting the exterior hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations in the turbulent boundary layers of a test car with simplified geometry. At several sampling points on the car surface, which included a point on the side window, the door panel, and the front fender panel, the computed hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations were compared with those measured by microphones installed on the surface of the car in a wind tunnel, and effects of the grid resolution on the accuracy of the predicted frequency spectra were discussed. The power spectra of the pressure fluctuations computed with 5 billion grid LES agreed reasonably well with those measured in the wind tunnel up to around 2 kHz although they had some discrepancy with the measured ones in the low and middle frequencies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1616
Keiichiro Iida, Kunizo Onda, Akiyoshi Iida, Chisachi Kato, Shinobu Yoshimura, Yoshinobu Yamade, Yoshimitsu Hashizume, Yang Guo
Abstract One-way coupled simulation method that combines CFD, structural and acoustical analyses has been developed aiming at predicting the aeroacoustical interior noise for a wide range of frequency between 100 Hz and 4 kHz. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has been widely used for evaluating transmission of sound through a car body and resulting interior sound field. Instead of SEA, we directly computed vibration and sound in order to investigate and understand propagation paths of vibration in a car body and sound fields. As the first step of this approach, we predicted the pressure fluctuations on the external surfaces of a car by computing the unsteady flow around the car. Secondly, the predicted pressure fluctuations were fed to the subsequent structural vibration analysis to predict vibration accelerations on the internal surfaces of the car.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0847
Le Zhao, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber, Sam Barros, William Atkinson
Abstract Impingement of jet-to-jet has been found to give improved spray penetration characteristics and higher vaporization rates when compared to multi-hole outwardly injecting fuel injectors which are commonly used in the gasoline engine. The current work studies a non-reacting spray by using a 5-hole impinging-jet style direct-injection injector. The jet-to-jet collision induced by the inwardly opening nozzles of the multi-hole injector produces rapid and short jet breakup which is fundamentally different from how conventional fuel injectors operate. A non-reacting spray study is performed using a 5-hole impinging jet injector and a traditional 6-hole Bosch Hochdruck-Einspritzventil (HDEV)-5 gasoline direct-injection (GDI) injector with gasoline as a fuel injected at 172 bar pressure with ambient temperature of 653 K and 490 K and ambient pressure of 37.4 bar and 12.4 bar.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0851
Alexander Nygaard, Mireia Altimira, Lisa Prahl Wittberg, Laszlo Fuchs
Abstract It has been observed that intermittent injection leads to improved spray characteristics in terms of mixing and gas entrainment. Although some experimental work has been carried out in the past, the disintegration mechanisms that govern the breakup of intermittent jets remain unknown. In this paper we have carried out a systematic numerical analysis of the breakup of pulsated jets under different injection conditions. More specifically, the duty cycle (share of active injection during one cycle) is varied, while the total cycle time is kept constant. The advection of the liquid phase is handled through the Volume of Fluid approach and, in order to provide an accurate, yet computationally acceptable, resolution of the turbulent structures, the implicit Large Eddy Simulation has been adopted. The results show that the primary disintegration results from a combination of stretching, collision and aerodynamic interaction effects.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0850
Lorenzo Bartolucci, Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner, Andrew Swantek, Christopher F. Powell, Alan Kastengren, Daniel Duke
Abstract Using natural gas in an internal combustion engine (ICE) is emerging as a promising way to improve thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. In the development of such engine platforms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a fundamental role in the optimization of geometries and operating parameters. One of the most relevant issues in the simulation of direct injection (DI) gaseous processes is the accurate prediction of the gas jet evolution. The simulation of the injection process for a gaseous fuel does not require complex modeling, nevertheless properly describing high-pressure gas jets remains a challenging task. At the exit of the nozzle, the injected gas is under-expanded, the flow becomes supersonic and shocks occur due to compressibility effects. These phenomena lead to challenging computational requirements resulting from high grid resolution and low computational time-steps.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0858
Piotr Strek, Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell, David P. Schmidt
Abstract The salient features of modern gasoline direct injection include cavitation, flash boiling, and plume/plume interaction, depending on the operating conditions. These complex phenomena make the prediction of the spray behavior particularly difficult. The present investigation combines mass-based experimental diagnostics with an advanced, in-house modeling capability in order to provide a multi-faceted study of the Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector. First, x-ray tomography is used to distinguish the actual injector geometry from the nominal geometry used in past works. The actual geometry is used as the basis of multidimensional CFD simulations which are compared to x-ray radiography measurements for validation under cold conditions. The influence of nozzle diameter and corner radius are of particular interest. Next, the model is used to simulate flash-boiling conditions, in order to understand how the cold flow behavior corresponds to flashing performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1022
Ahsanul Karim, Anthony Morelli, Keith Miazgowicz, Brian Lizotte, Robert Wade
The use of Swirl-Vanes or Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) in gas engines is well-known and has demonstrated their ability to improve compressor surge margin at low flow rates. But, the use of swirl-vanes is not too common in large diesel engine turbo-chargers where compressor housing inlet has some form of Casing-Treatment (CT). Recently, Ford engineers tested swirl-vanes in a diesel engine turbocharger where the compressor inlet had a ported shroud casing-treatment and the experimental data showed no improvement in surge margin. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to investigate reasons why the surge margin did not improve after introducing swirl-vanes at the compressor inlet. The CFD results showed strong interactions between swirling flow at the compressor inlet and flow stream coming out of the compressor inlet casing-treatment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1018
Shan Wang, ZhenFeng Zhao, Shuanlu Zhang, Jinxiang Liu, Yuhang Liu
Abstract In this paper, a new method for the driving of the hydraulic free piston engine (HFPE) is proposed. Hydraulic differential drive achieves the compression stroke automatically rather than special recovery system, which has a great influence on the engine dynamic performance. The purpose of this paper is to solve the key operation and control problems for HFPE to commix fuel with air. HFPE adopts two-stroke loop-scavenging and semi-direct injection. The semi-direct injection nozzle is located in the liner wall inside the main intake port, with the axes oriented towards the piston at the Bottom Dead Center (BDC). Different scavenging pressures and injection angles result in different impacts on the mixture of fuel and air in the cylinder. This study analyzes the changes of the combustion heat release rate by simulation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1316
Vincent Rovedatti, Jacob Milhorn, Richard DeJong, Gordon Ebbitt
Abstract A 1/4 scale model vehicle profile has been tested in a wind tunnel with speeds up to 360 km/h. In order to simulate the free field flow over the vehicle, the top surface of the wind tunnel is contoured. A CFD simulation of the free field flow at various speeds is used to identify the desired top streamline. Then the boundary layer growth on the top surface is calculated and the top contour is adjusted accordingly. Since this contour changes very little with flow speeds of interest, an average contour is used for a fixed top surface of the wind tunnel. Pressure drop measurements are used to verify the flow similarity to the CFD model. Wind noise measurements using surface mounted pressure transducer arrays are used to determine the acoustic loads on the vehicle surfaces.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1340
Vikram Dang, Subhash Chander
Abstract This paper presents a CFD simulation methodology for solving complex physics of methane/air swirling turbulent flame impinging on a flat surface. Turbulent Flow in burner is simulated using Re-Normalized Group k-ε model while Stress-omega Reynolds Stress Model is used for flame structure. Methane/air combustion is simulated using global combustion reaction mechanism. To account for Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction of methane/air combustion, Eddy - Dissipation Model is used. The effect of varying plate distance to burner exit nozzle diameter is also investigated and comparisons of simulated results with experiments are discussed. Change in flame structure is observed with variation of plate distance from burner exit. A dip in the heat flux distribution is observed for all cases. This is due to the presence of central weak flow region created at and around the central axis due to swirl.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1346
Tomoyuki Hosaka, Taisuke Sugii, Eiji Ishii, Kazuhiro Oryoji, Yoshihiro Sukegawa
Abstract We developed the numerical simulation tool by using OpenFOAM® and in-house simulation codes for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine in order to carry out the precise investigation of the throughout process from the internal nozzle flow to the fuel/air mixture in engines. For the piston/valve motions, a mapping approach is employed and implemented in this study. In the meantime, the spray atomization including the liquid-columnbreakup region and the secondary-breakup region are simulated by combining the different numerical approaches applied to each region. By connecting the result of liquid-column-breakup simulation to the secondary-breakup simulation, the regions which have different physical phenomena with different length scales are seamlessly jointed; i.e., the velocity and position of droplets predicted by the liquid-column-breakup simulation is used in the secondary breakup simulation so that the initial velocity and position of droplets are transferred.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1345
Chiranth Srinivasan, Darshak Joshi, Sujan Dhar, De Ming Wang
Abstract This paper details the capability of PumpLinx® and Simerics® in simulating both Steady-State (Multiple Reference Frame) and transient, three dimensional torque converter performance and predicting the coupling point in a closed torque converter system in automatic transmission. The focuses of the simulation are in predicting the performance characteristics of the torque converters at different turbine to impeller rotating speeds (speed ratios) for 7 different torque converter designs and determine the coupling point at 70°C temperature. The computational domain includes the complex 3D design of all the impeller, turbine and reactor blades, the path ways that the oil travels between the above three components and the leakage gaps between these components. The physics captured in the simulation include the turbulence in the flow field and the rigorous treatment of the Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) for the one-way free wheel reactor in predicting coupling point.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1356
Can Li, Yadong Deng, Yuhua Xin
Abstract As a key component of airstream system equipped in the road sweeper, the structure of the suction nozzle determines its internal flow field distribution, which affects the dust-sucking efficiency to a great degree. This research is aiming to determine a better suction nozzle structure. Starting with an analysis of the one used in a certain type of road sweeper, the initial model of the suction nozzle is established, and the internal flow field is simulated with typical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software named FLUENT. Based on the simulation results, the dust-sucking capability of the initial structure is evaluated from the aspects of pressure and velocity distribution. Furthermore, in order to explore the influence of different structural parameters on the flow field distribution within the suction nozzle, models with different cavity heights and shoulder angles are established, and Univariate Method is utilized to analyze the contrast models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1276
Hanzhengnan Yu, Xingyu Liang, Ge-Qun Shu, Yuesen Wang, Hongsheng Zhang, Weijian Chen
Abstract Impingement of spray against the cylinder wall or piston bowl is an unavoidable physical process in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engines using early injection strategy. It directly affects fuel-air mixture formation, combustion and exhaust emission. In addition, the alcohol fuels such as methanol, ethanol and n-butanol are regarded as hopeful alternative fuels as well as fuel additive for HCCI and PCCI diesel engines to improve the emission level. The better understanding for the effect of alcohol-diesel blending fuel on the spray-wall impingement process is helpful for the improvement of HCCI and PCCI diesel engines. In this paper, the effects of three different alcohol-diesel blending fuels (methanol, ethanol and n-butanol) on the spray-wall impingement process were studied. Numerical investigation was performed in AVL FIRE code.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1683
Blago B. Minovski, Lennart Lofdahl, Peter Gullberg
Abstract Presented are results from numerical investigations of buoyancy driven flow in a simplified representation of an engine bay. A main motivation for this study is the necessity for a valid correlation of results from numerical methods and procedures with physical measurements in order to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of the available numerical tools for prediction of natural convection. This analysis is based on previously performed PIV and temperature measurements in a controlled physical setup, which reproduced thermal soak conditions in the engine compartment as they occur for a vehicle parked in a quiescent ambient after sustaining high thermal loads. Thermal soak is an important phenomenon in the engine bay primarily driven by natural convection and radiation after there had been a high power demand on the engine. With the cooling fan turned off and in quiescent environment, buoyancy driven convection and radiation are the dominating modes of heat transfer.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1604
Anton Kabanovs, Max Varney, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore, Adrian Gaylard
Abstract This paper focuses on methods used to model vehicle surface contamination arising as a result of rear wake aerodynamics. Besides being unsightly, contamination, such as self-soiling from rear tyre spray, can degrade the performance of lighting, rear view cameras and obstruct visibility through windows. In order to accurately predict likely contamination patterns, it is necessary to consider the aerodynamics and multiphase spray processes together. This paper presents an experimental and numerical (CFD) investigation of the phenomenon. The experimental study investigates contamination with controlled conditions in a wind tunnel using a generic bluff body (the Windsor model.) Contamination is represented by a water spray located beneath the rear of the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1600
Pruthviraj Mohanrao Palaskar, Vivek Kumar, Rohit Vaidya
Abstract Important vehicle performance parameters such as, fuel economy and high speed stability are directly influenced by its aerodynamic drag and lift. Wind tunnel testing to asses these parameters requires heavy investment especially when test wind tunnel is not available in the country where vehicle development center is present. Hence to save cost and to compress development time, it is essential to asses and optimize parameters of a vehicle in very early stages of development. Using numerical flow simulations optimization runs can be carried out digitally. Industry demands prediction of aerodynamic drag and lift coefficients (CD,CL) within an accuracy of a few counts, consuming minimal HPC resources and in a short turnaround time. Different OEMs deploy different testing methods and different softwares for numerical simulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1608
Asiful Islam, Ben Thornber
Abstract Current vehicle aerodynamic development makes extensive use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to enable cost-effective design and parametric exploration. Although larger-scale, high fidelity simulations are increasingly popular, practical Reynolds number ranges (105-108) necessitate hybrid modelling approaches which offer alternatives to fully-resolved Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) for predictive capability of separated, turbulent flows. A detailed aerodynamic investigation is conducted over a SAE Notchback model which experiences subtle pressure-induced separation near the roof-backlight junction and shear layer roll-up and a low-pressure wake at the rear. Computational results were generated by a novel Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) algorithm implemented in a high-order, compressible CFD code FLAMENCO.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1606
Charalampos Kounenis, Sabine Bonitz, Emil Ljungskog, David Sims-Williams, Lennart Lofdahl, Alexander Broniewicz, Lars Larsson, Simone Sebben
Abstract The aerodynamic drag, fuel consumption and hence CO2 emissions, of a road vehicle depend strongly on its flow structures and the pressure drag generated. The rear end flow which is an area of complex three-dimensional flow structures, contributes to the wake development and the overall aerodynamic performance of the vehicle. This paper seeks to provide improved insight into this flow region to better inform future drag reduction strategies. Using experimental and numerical techniques, two vehicle shapes have been studied; a 30% scale model of a Volvo S60 representing a 2003MY vehicle and a full scale 2010MY S60. First the surface topology of the rear end (rear window and trunk deck) of both configurations is analysed, using paint to visualise the skin friction pattern. By means of critical points, the pattern is characterized and changes are identified studying the location and type of the occurring singularities.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1586
Sinisa Krajnovic, Guglielmo Minelli, Branislav Basara
Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations (PANS) were made of flow around a generic vehicle influenced by side wind at four different yaw angles to investigate the prediction capabilities of PANS. Comparisons with results of LES show clear advantages of PANS in predicting pressure-induced separation resulting in the trailing vortices aligned with the direction of the flow. Poorer agreement was obtained in the near wake when the boundary layer separates at the end of the surface at the rear end. A possible explanation for the lack of accuracy at the rear end of the body was found in the formulation of the switching coefficient fk which produces too low values resulting in too low eddy viscosity in this region.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1584
Kenichi Ando, Naoshi Kuratani, Hideo Fukuda
Abstract An aerodynamic styling evaluation system employed at an early automotive development stage was constructed. The system based on CFD consists of exterior model morphing, computational mesh generation, flow calculation and result analysis, and the process is automatically and successively executed by process automation software. Response surfaces and a parallel coordinates chart output by the system allow users to find a well-balanced exterior form, in terms of aerodynamics and exterior styling, in a wide design space which are often arduous to be obtained by a conventional CAE manner and scale model wind tunnel testing. The system was designed so that 5-parameter study is completed within approximately two days, and consequently, has been widely applied to actual exterior styling development. An application for a hatchback vehicle is also introduced as an actual example.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2104

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