Abstract The design of modern diesel-powered vehicles involves optimization and balancing of trade-offs for fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise. To meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, diesel powertrains employ aftertreatment devices to control nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter emissions and use active exhaust warm-up strategies to ensure those devices are active as quickly as possible. A typical strategy for exhaust warm-up is to operate with retarded combustion phasing, limited by combustion stability and HC emissions. The amount of exhaust enthalpy available for catalyst light-off is limited by the extent to which combustion phasing can be retarded. Diesel cetane number (CN), a measure of fuel ignition quality, has an influence on combustion stability at retarded combustion phasing. Diesel fuel in the United States tends to have a lower CN (both minimum required and average in market) than other countries.
Emission Performance of Low Cetane Naphtha as Drop-In Fuel on a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment System
Abstract Greenhouse gas regulations and global economic growth are expected to drive a future demand shift towards diesel fuel in the transportation sector. This may create a market opportunity for cost-effective fuels in the light distillate range if they can be burned as efficiently and cleanly as diesel fuel. In this study, the emission performance of a low cetane number, low research octane number naphtha (CN 34, RON 56) was examined on a production 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using only production hardware, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions were examined during the heavy-duty emission testing cycles using naphtha and ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. Without any modifications to the hardware and software, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using either naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty test cycles.
Abstract This paper investigates the effect of the cetane number (CN) of a diesel fuel on the energy balance between a light duty (1.9L) and medium duty (4.5L) diesel engine. The two engines have a similar stroke to bore (S/B) ratio, and all other control parameters including: geometric compression ratio, cylinder number, stroke, and combustion chamber, have been kept the same, meaning that only the displacement changes between the engine platforms. Two Coordinating Research Council (CRC) diesel fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) were studied. The two fuels were selected to have a similar distillation profile and aromatic content, but varying CN. The effects on the energy balance of the engines were considered at two operating conditions; a “low load” condition of 1500 rev/min (RPM) and nominally 1.88 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), and a “medium load” condition of 1500 RPM and 5.65 BMEP.
Derived Cetane Number, Distillation and Ignition Delay Properties of Diesel and Jet Fuels Containing Blended Synthetic Paraffinic Mixtures
Abstract Aviation turbine fuel and diesel fuel were blended with synthetic paraffins produced via two pathways and the combustion properties measured. Both aviation and diesel fuel containing synthetics produced from the fermentation of sugars, had a linear response to blending with decreasing ignition delay times from 5.05 - 3.52 ms for F-34 and 3.84 - 3.52 ms for F-76. For the same fuels blended with synthetics produced from the fermentation of alcohols, ignition delay times were increased out to 18.66 ms. The derived cetane number of the blends followed an inversely similar trend. Additionally, simulated distillation using ASTM D2887 at high synthetic paraffinic kerosene blend ratios resulted in the recovery temperatures being incorrectly reported. In this case, higher recovery volumes were at lower temperatures than earlier recovery points i.e. T90< T50, for SIP-SPK.
The vast stores of biomass available worldwide have the potential to displace significant amounts of petroleum fuels. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is one of several possible paths by which we can convert biomass to higher value products. Pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from wood has been regarded as an alternative fuel to be used in diesel engines. However, the use of PO in a diesel engine requires engine modifications due to the low energy density, high acidity, high viscosity, high water content, and low cetane number of PO. The easiest way to adopt PO without engine modifications is blending with other fuels that have a high cetane number. However, PO has poor miscibility with light petroleum fuel oils; the most suitable candidate fuels for direct fuel mixing are alcohol fuels. Early mixing with alcohol fuels has the added benefit of significantly improving the storage and handling properties of the PO.
The effect of properties of lubricating oil on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) was investigated. Three different factors of oil properties such as cetane number, distillation characteristics and Calcium (Ca) additive (with and without) are prepared and examined. Then actual engine test of LSPI was carried out to evaluate the effect and to clarify the mechanism and role of lubricating oil. Finally it is clarified that the oil cetane number and/or Ca additive strongly affect LSPI phenomena.
A Comparison of Worldwide Fuels and their Effects on Combustion under Constant Volume Vessel Conditions
Worldwide diesel fuels differ in their composition and therefore in thermo-physical properties. Some of these properties are known to have little effect on the combustion process. Others, like the cetane number, have dramatic influence on the combustion formation and thus on the heat release rate and more important the formation of soot and NOx. In an experiment series various commercially available fuel types, like EN 590 , ASTM D975  and JIS K 2204 , have been compared to alternative diesel fuels such as FAME, GtL and premium diesel fuel with increased cetane number. A specially designed research injector was used in order to provide full optical access to one single fuel jet injected and combusted in a constant volume vessel. First, the liquid fuel phase propagation has been investigated by means of Mie-scattering and the liquid penetration depth and the spray cone angle have been evaluated.
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOX and particulates emissions when used in diesel engines. Indeed, fuels highly resistant to auto-ignition provide more time for fuel and air mixing prior to the combustion and therefore a more homogeneous combustion. Nevertheless, major issues still need to be addressed, particularly regarding UHC and CO emissions at low load and particulate/noise combustion trade-off at high load. The purpose of this study is to investigate how an existing modern diesel engine could be operated with low-cetane fuels and define the most appropriate Cetane Number (CN) to reduce engine-out emissions. With this regard, a selection of naphtha and gasoline blends, ranging from CN30/RON 57 to CN35/RON 41 was investigated on a Euro 5, 1.6L four-cylinder engine. Results were compared to the conventional diesel running mode using a minimum NOX level oriented calibration, both in steady state and transient conditions.
Cetane Number Determination by Advanced Fuel Ignition Delay Analysis in a New Constant Volume Combustion Chamber
Abstract A new constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) apparatus is presented that calculates the cetane number (CN) of fuels from their ignition delay by means of a primary reference fuel calibration. It offers the benefits of low fuel consumption, suitability for non-lubricating substances, accurate and fast measurements and a calibration by primary reference fuels (PRF). The injection system is derived from a modern common-rail passenger car engine. The apparatus is capable of fuel injection pressures up to 1200 bar and requires only 40 ml of the test fuel. The constant volume combustion chamber can be heated up to 1000 K and pressurized up to 50 bar. Sample selection is fully automated for independent operation and low levels of operator involvement. Capillary tubes employed in the sampling system can be heated to allow the measurement of highly viscous fuels.
Numerical Study of RCCI and HCCI Combustion Processes Using Gasoline, Diesel, iso-Butanol and DTBP Cetane Improver
Abstract Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to be an attractive concept to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion. RCCI can be realized by applying two fuels with different reactivities, e.g., diesel and gasoline. This motivates the idea of using a single low reactivity fuel and direct injection (DI) of the same fuel blended with a small amount of cetane improver to achieve RCCI combustion. In the current study, numerical investigation was conducted to simulate RCCI and HCCI combustion and emissions with various fuels, including gasoline/diesel, iso-butanol/diesel and iso-butanol/iso-butanol+di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) cetane improver. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-iso-butanol-DTBP mechanism was formulated and coupled with the KIVA computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict the combustion and emissions of these fuels under different operating conditions in a heavy duty diesel engine.
Effect of Cetane Number and Fuel Properties on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of an HCCI-DI Combustion Engine Using a Novel Dual Injection Strategy
Abstract Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion was studied as a means of reducing PM and NOx emission simultaneously while maintaining high thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption. An innovative low cost dual injection strategy is developed to investigate HCCI-DI combustion. This study is focused on the effect of fuel properties and cetane number on HCCI-DI combustion to understand the combustion and emission behavior of a direct injection HCCI engine using double injection strategy with blends of n-heptane and isooctane as fuel. A comparison is also made to understand the behavior and benefits of HCCI-DI combustion over the conventional combustion system. All experiments were carried out at a constant speed of 1350 rev/min and at zero, 15% and 30% of the full load conditions to avoid high knock intensity for high cetane fuel which occurs beyond this operating load condition.
Impact of Cetane Number on Combustion of a Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Heavy-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine
Abstract Dual-fuel combustion using liquid fuels with differing reactivity has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated efficiency. Varying fractions of gasoline-type and diesel-type fuels enable operation across a range of low- and mid-load operating conditions. Expanding the operating range to cover the full operating range of a heavy-duty diesel engine, while maintaining the efficiency and emissions benefits, is a key objective. With dissimilar properties of the two utilized fuels lying at the heart of the dual-fuel concept, a tool for enabling this load range expansion is altering the properties of the two test fuels - this study focuses on altering the reactivity of the diesel fuel component. Tests were conducted on a 13L six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to run dual-fuel combustion with port gasoline injection to supplement the direct diesel injection.
Abstract As the petroleum depletion, some of this demand will probably have to be met by increasing the production of diesel fuels from heavy oil or unconventional oil in the near future. Such fuels may inevitably have a lower cetane number (CN) with a higher concentration of aromatic components. The objective of the present research is to identify the effects of a typical biodiesel fuel as a CN improver for a light-duty diesel engine for passenger cars. Our previous study indicates that methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated fuel representative of major constituents of many biodiesel types, can reduce soot and NOx emissions simultaneously by optimizing performance under exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when used as a diesel fuel additive. In addition, it was found that MO tends to reduce the ignition delay. We employed a 2.2 L passenger car DI diesel engine complying with the Euro 4 emissions regulation.
Effect of Cetane Improvers on Gasoline, Ethanol, and Methanol Reactivity and the Implications for RCCI Combustion
The focus of the present study was to characterize the fuel reactivity of high octane number fuels (i.e., low fuel reactivity), namely gasoline, ethanol, and methanol when mixed with cetane improvers under lean, premixed combustion conditions. Two commercially available cetane improvers, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate and di-tert-butyl peroxide, were used in the study. First, blends of the primary reference fuels iso-octane and n-heptane were port injected under fixed operating conditions. The resulting combustion phasings were used to generate effective PRF number maps. Then, blends of the aforementioned base fuels and cetane improvers were tested under the same lean premixed conditions as the PRF blends. Based on the combustion phasing results of the base fuel and cetane improver mixture, the effective PRF number, or octane number, could be determined.
Effect of Intake Pressure and Temperature on the Auto-Ignition of Fuels with Different Cetane Number and Volatility
This paper investigates the effect of boost pressure and intake temperature on the auto-ignition of fuels with a wide range of properties. The fuels used in this investigation are ULSD (CN 45), FT-SPK (CN 61) and two blends of JP-8 (with CN 25 and 49). Detailed analysis of in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release traces are made to correlate the effect of intake pressure and injection strategy on the events immediately following start of injection leading to combustion. A CFD model is applied to track the effect of intake pressure and injection strategy on the formation of different chemical species and study their role and contribution in the auto-ignition reactions. Results from a previous investigation on the effect of intake temperature on auto-ignition of these fuels are compared with the results of this investigation.
Premixed compression ignition (PCI) strategies offer the potential for simultaneously low NOx and soot emissions and diesel-like efficiency. However, these strategies are generally confined to low loads due to difficulties controlling the combustion phasing and heat release rate. Recent experiments have demonstrated that dual-fuel reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion can improve PCI combustion control and expand the PCI load range. Previous studies have explored RCCI operation using port-fuel injection (PFI) of gasoline and direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. In this study, experiments are performed using a light-duty, single-cylinder research engine to investigate RCCI combustion using a single fuel with the addition of a cetane improver 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The fuel delivery strategy consists of port-fuel injection of E10 (i.e., 10% ethanol in gasoline) and direct-injection of E10 mixed with 3% EHN.
Low Cetane Number Renewable Oxy-fuels for Premixed Combustion Concept Application: Experimental Investigation on a Light Duty Diesel Engine
This paper illustrates the results of an experimental study on the impact of a low cetane number (CN) oxygenated fuel on the combustion process and emissions of a light-duty (LD) single-cylinder research engine. In an earlier study, it was concluded that cyclic oxygenates consistently outperformed their straight and branched counterparts at equal oxygen content and with respect to lowering soot emissions. A clear correlation was reported linking soot and CN, with lower CN fuels leading to more favorable soot levels. It was concluded that a lower CN fuel, when realized by adding low reactive cyclic oxygenates to commercial diesel fuel, manifests in longer ignition delays and thus more premixing. Ultimately, a higher degree of premixing, in turn, was thought to suppress soot formation rates.
Assessment of the Effect of Low Cetane Number Fuels on a Light Duty CI Engine: Preliminary Experimental Characterization in PCCI Operating Condition
The goal of this paper is to acquire insight into the influence of cetane number (CN) and fuel oxygen on overall engine performance in the Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. From literature, it is known that low reactive (i.e., low CN) fuels increase the ignition delay (ID) and therefore the degree of mixing prior to auto-ignition. With respect to fuel oxygen, it is known that this has a favorable impact on soot emissions by means of carbon sequestration. This makes the use of low CN oxygen fuels an interesting route to improve the applicability of PCCI combustion in diesel engines. In earlier studies, performed on a heavy-duty engine, cyclic oxygenates were found to consistently outperform their straight and branched counterparts with respect to curbing soot. This was attributed to a considerably lower CN.
Regression Equations for Predicting the Cetane Number of Biodiesel Fuel Based on Fuel Composition and Properties
This study derives regression equations for predicting the cetane number of biodiesel fuels based on chemical analysis data. For conducting the regression analysis, 34 fuel samples with a wide variety of ignition qualities were made by mixing five kinds of biodiesels and five kinds of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) reagents. The relationship between the cetane number, measured in a constant-volume combustion chamber, and fuel properties such as iodine value, saponification number, and boiling point, was investigated. Based on the results, four regression equations were proposed and their accuracies were compared. The results show that the regression equation based on fuel composition gives a cetane number with high accuracy, whereas it can be only be approximately predicted from the iodine value.
Synthetic diesel fuels from Fischer-Tropsch or hydrotreating processes have high cetane numbers with respect to conventional diesel fuel. This study investigates diesel combustion characteristics with these high cetane fuels. A military jet fuel (JP-5 specification), a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic diesel, and normal hexadecane (C16), a pure component fuel with defined cetane number of 100, are compared with operation of conventional military diesel fuel (F-76 specification). The fuels are tested in a AM General GEP HMMWV engine, an indirect-injection, largely mechanically-controlled diesel engine. Hundreds of thousands of these are in current use and are projected to be in service for many years to come. Experimental testing showed that satisfactory operation could be achieved across the speed-load operating map even for the highest cetane fuel (normal hexadecane). The JP-5, FT, and C16 fuels all showed later injection timing.
Effects of Cetane Number on Jet Fuel Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine at High Load
The effects of jet fuel properties on compression ignition engine operation were investigated under high-load conditions for jet fuels with varying cetane number. A single-cylinder oil-test engine (SCOTE) with 2.44 L displacement was used to test a baseline #2 diesel fuel with a cetane number of 43, a Jet-A fuel with a cetane number of 47, and two mixtures of Jet-A and a Fishcer-Tropsch JP-8 with cetane numbers of 36 and 42, respectively. The engine was operated under high-load conditions corresponding to traditional diesel combustion, using a single injection of fuel near TDC. The fuels were tested using two different intake camshafts with closing times of -143 and -85 CAD BTDC. Injection timing sweeps were performed over a range of injection timings near TDC for each camshaft. The apparent net heat release rate (AHRR) data showed an increase in the premixed burn magnitude as cetane number decreased in agreement with previous work.
Heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDE), because of their widespread use and reputation of expelling excessive soot, have frequently been held responsible for excessive amounts of overall environmental particulate matter (PM). PM is a considerable contributor to air pollution, and a subject of primary concern to health and regulatory agencies worldwide. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided PM emissions regulations and standards of measurement techniques since the 1980's. PM standards set forth by the EPA for HDDEs are based only on total mass, instead of size and/or concentration. The European Union adopted a particle number emission limit, and it may influence the U.S. EPA to adopt particle number or size limits in the future. The purpose of this research was to study the effects biodiesel blended fuel and cetane improvers have on particle size and number.
Effects of Cetane Number, Aromatic Content and 90% Distillation Temperature on HCCI Combustion of Diesel Fuels
The effects of cetane number, aromatics content and 90% distillation temperature (T90) on HCCI combustion were investigated using a fuel matrix designed by the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Working Group of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC). The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder, variable compression ratio, Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. The fuels were atomized and partially vaporized in the intake manifold. The engine was operated at a relative air/fuel ratio of 1.2, 60% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and 900 rpm. The compression ratio was varied over the range of 9:1 to 15:1 to optimize the combustion phasing for each fuel, keeping other operating parameters constant. The results show that cetane number and T90 distillation temperature significantly affected the combustion phasing. Cetane number was clearly found to have the strongest effect.
Investigation of the Effects of Cetane Number, Volatility, and Total Aromatic Content on Highly-Dilute Low Temperature Diesel Combustion
The objective of this study is to increase fundamental understanding of the effects of fuel composition and properties on low temperature combustion (LTC) and to identify major properties that could enable engine performance and emission improvements, especially under high load conditions. A series of experiments and computational simulations were conducted under LTC conditions using 67% EGR with 9.5% inlet O₂ concentration on a single-cylinder version of the General Motors Corporation 1.9L direct injection diesel engine. This research investigated the effects of Cetane number (CN), volatility and total aromatic content of diesel fuels on LTC operation. The values of CN, volatility, and total aromatic content studied were selected in a DOE (Design of Experiments) fashion with each variable having a base value as well as a lower and higher level.
Our research objective is to clarify the effect of the utilization of diesel fuels made from unconventional petroleum sources (GTL, Tar Sand, etc.) on the latest vehicle‛s emission and performance. The target properties studied are mainly cetane number and cyclic compounds. Two diesel vehicles and one engine were used in this study. Varieties of transient driving modes were selected for better understanding under real world driving in the emission test. Startability and operability are examined in the vehicle performance test. It was revealed that the tail-pipe emission from a J-2003 reg-compliant vehicle and the engine-out emission from a J-2005 reg-compliant engine used in this study were changed by cetane number and cyclic compound. For J-2003 reg-compliant vehicle, the decrease in cetane number led to the increase in emissions of THC, CO and NOx, while the increase in cyclic compounds led to increase in emissions of PM, THC, CO and NOx.
Study on the Effects of Nozzle Fuel Spray Pattern on Cetane Number Measurement as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™)
The spatial distribution of drops in sprays is critical to the performance of many atomization systems, including diesel engine injectors, gas turbine injectors, spray coating systems, and furnace burners. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of nozzle fuel spray pattern on the measurement of cetane number as determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™). To determine the effects of spray pattern on cetane number, an optical spray pattern test rig was developed. The test rig was comprised of the IQT™ fuel injection system and data acquisition system, and the Optical Spray Pattern Analyzer from Nexum. Several nozzles from different manufacturers where chosen for this study. Cetane numbers for a diesel reference fuel were obtained for each of the test nozzles in the IQT™ and where compared qualitatively to spray pattern images for each of the test nozzles observed from the spray pattern test rig.
In order to evaluate the influence of diesel ignition quality - represented by its cetane number (CN) - on EURO III engines emissions, a matrix of fuels with cetane number ranging from 42 to 48 has been elaborated. In their formulation, an effort was made to keep the main properties, such as sulphur content, density and distillation (T90), within a narrow variation range, as they are known to influence emissions. Two Brazilian EURO III technology engines were used, one with a Common Rail injection system and, the other with a Unit Pump System (UPS). The following results are shown in this paper: CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and particulate matter emissions, Bosch smoke and specific fuel consumption.
Prediction of Cetane Number of a Biodiesel Based on Physical Properties and a Study of Their Influence on Cetane Number
Cetane number is one of the indispensable parameters in the study and selection of fuels for CI engines. Hence it is an important criterion for selection of bio-diesels, which exhibit a wide variety of characteristics based upon their source, method of preparation etc. Since the conventional techniques for evaluating cetane number are tedious, alternate methods are being developed. This paper attempts to find cetane number based on the properties of the bio-diesel so that cetane number can be found without operating an engine. If a correlation between fuel properties and cetane number is established, the influence of each of the fuel properties on cetane number can be analyzed.
A method for determining the exceptionally high cetane number value of SasolChevron GTL diesel is described. The conventional ASTM D613 method is inadequate at such high cetane number ratings where the reproducibility exceeds ± 8 numbers. The ignition delay of a selection of primary and secondary reference fuels were modeled and characterized using a combustion bomb apparatus and this information was used to calibrate a virtual cetane engine model. CFD simulations of the combustion bomb apparatus was used to validate the calculation process using n-heptane as the reference fuel. The analytical treatment was applied to Sasol GTL diesel and the cetane number was deduced as 86.9 with a 95% confidence interval of ±1.3.
A new method for controlling fuel ignition quality has been developed. A cetane improver, such as organic peroxide, is added to a base fuel to create a fuel with higher ignition quality. The cetane improver in the fuel is then decomposed using a catalyst. This process lowers the ignition quality. To demonstrate this concept, the effects of a cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) addition and its catalytic decomposition on fuel ignition quality were investigated. It was found that addition of CHP improved ignition quality in the base fuel, and that following catalytic decomposition, the ignition quality was reduced below that of the base fuel.