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Viewing 1 to 30 of 714
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1613
Guy Larose, Leanna Belluz, Ian Whittal, Marc Belzile, Ryan Klomp, Andreas Schmitt
In an effort to quantify the aerodynamic drag changes associated with drag reduction technologies recently introduced for light-duty vehicles, a multi-year, multi-vehicle study was commissioned by Transport Canada and Environment Canada. The intent was to evaluate the level of drag reduction associated with each technology as a function of vehicle category. Drag reduction technologies were evaluated through direct measurements of their aerodynamics on full-scale vehicles in the National Research Council’s 9 m wind tunnel, which is equipped with a the Ground Effect Simulation System (GESS) composed of a moving belt, wheel rollers and a boundary layer suction system. A total of 23 vehicles equipped with drag reduction technologies were evaluated, beginning in early 2014 to summer 2015. Testing included 11 sedans, 8 sport utility vehicles, 2 mini-vans and 2 light trucks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0907
Matthew Blanks, Nathan Forster
In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent. This yearly increase in fuel economy standards and the increasing price of oil are driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to increase fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1582
Dirk Wieser, Sabine Bonitz, Lennart Lofdahl, Alexander Broniewicz, Christian Nayeri, Christian Paschereit, Lars Larsson
In this experimental investigation the surface flow pattern is visualized on a full scale passenger car in the Volvo wind tunnel in Gothenburg. The entire rear end of a Volvo S60 was equipped with a large amount of tufts. The movement of the tufts is recorded by a single lens reflex camera which takes pictures continuously. A new and efficient tuft image processing algorithm has been developed to calculate the statistical behavior of the tuft orientation. This allows the extraction of the mean angle and the standard deviation for individual tufts. This information on the surface flow can be used to identify unsteady and steady flow phenomena such as separation and reattachment lines, flow direction, stagnation points, and regions with increased turbulence and footprints of vortices. The main advantages over other flow visualization methods such as oil paint is that experimental facilities are not soiled and that statistical data can be extracted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1547
Jun Yin, Xinbo Chen, Lixin Wu, Jianqin Li
Traditional active suspension which is equipped with hydraulic actuator or pneumatic actuator features slow response and high power consumption. However, electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits quick response and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. To design a novel active and energy regenerative suspension utilized electromagnetic actuator, this paper analyze the benchmark cars available on the market, and concludes the target cars which are possible to be equipped with electromagnetic actuated active suspension in the future. And the suspension structure of the target cars are analyzed. Compared the linear type and rotary type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), the rotary type is selected to construct the actuator of the active suspension. And the traditional mechanisms to transfer the linear motion of the suspension to the rotation motion of the rotary type PMSM are analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0357
Daniel J. Branagan, Andrew E. Frerichs, Brian E. Meacham, Sheng Cheng, Alla V. Sergueeva
The historical development of autobody steels has demonstrated a paradoxical relationship between strength and ductility, with increasing strength necessary for lightweighting commensurate with reductions in ductility necessary for cold formability. This in turn creates geometric constraints in part design and manufacturing, ultimately limiting usage of these higher strength steel grades in automobiles. Attempts to overcome this paradox have focused on quench and tempering including variants such as quench, partitioning, and tempering to increase strength and three distinct deformation mechanisms including; 1) shear band induced plasticity (SIP), 2) transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), and 3) twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) to increase ductility.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1490
Hans W. Hauschild, Frank Pintar, Dale Halloway, Mark Meyer, Rodney Rudd
Oblique crashes to one corner of the vehicle may not be characteristic of either frontal or side impacts. This research objective was to evaluate occupant response in oblique crashes for a driver, rear adult passenger, and a rear child passenger. Occupant responses and injury potential were evaluated for seating positions as either a far- or near-side occupant. Two crash tests were conducted with a subcompact car. The vehicle’s longitudinal axis was oriented 45 degrees to the direction of travel on a moving platform and pulled into a wall at 56-km/h. The initial point of contact was the right front corner in one test and the left front corner in the other test. Dummies utilized for the seating positions were an adult dummy (50th percentile male HIII and THOR) for the driver position, 5th percentile female HIII for the right-rear position, and a 3-year-old HIII for the left-rear position.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0095
Qiao Fengying, Vincenzo Sacco, Gilles Delorme, Yevheniy Soloshenko
Over the last decades, the industry has provided a steady improvement in the safety of automobiles. Advances in modern electronics have accelerated the number and features of safety systems. Semiconductor devices, sensors, actuators and computer controlled systems with complex software are integral to these system designs. This increasing complexity drives the need for a systematic process for safety systems development and engineering to achieve their full operation potential. ISO-26262 "Road vehicles — Functional Safety" provides appropriate standardized requirements, processes and an automotive-specific risk-based approach to determine integrity levels, also known as Automotive Safety Integrity Levels or ASILs.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1569
Kiho Yum
In this research, the influence of tire force and moment (F&M) characteristics on vehicle on-center steering performance was analyzed and then how to improve vehicle on-center performance was studied through controlling tire structure design parameter and tire tread grip characteristics. First, the relationship between vehicle on-center steering performance and tire F&M characteristics was identified by comparing vehicle steering measurement and tire F&M measurement. It was found that on-center steering performance is improved as the aligning torque at slip angle 1° increases. Secondly the influence of tire structure design parameter on tire aligning torque was studied by tire F&M finite element analysis. It was also found aligning torque increases as tire tread and sidewall stiffness decreases. However it shows trade-off characteristics with tire cornering force stiffness so it is necessary to optimize cornering force stiffness and aligning torque stiffness.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0486
Sakthinathan Ganapathy, K R Viswanathan, Saravanan Raju, Anand Kumar Appancheal
The intervention of Nanotechnology in the field of lubricants have found path to several new lubricants for high temperature applications. Nanolubricants are the nanoparticles suspended in base lubricants, are being developed to increase the performance of machine components at high temperatures, which reduces friction and wear in sliding contact encountered in many heat engines and industrial applications. An attempt has been made to study the effect of the Yttria stabilized zirconia(YSZ), Calcia stabilized zirconia(CSZ), and Aluminium oxide nanoparticles in the lube oil base stock. The nanoparticles were synthesized using Ball mill and the nanoparticles were found to be in the range of 50 to 90 nm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0081
Husein Dakroub, Adnan Shaout, Arafat Awajan
Connectivity has become an essential need for daily device users. With the car projected to be the "ultimate mobile device", connectivity modules will eventually be mainstream in every car. Network providers are expanding their infrastructure and technology to accommodate the connected cars. Besides making voice and emergency calls the connected car will be sharing data with telematics service providers, back end systems and other vehicles. This trend will increase vehicle modules, complexity, entry points and vulnerabilities. This paper will present the current connected car architectures. The paper will present current architectural issues of the connected car and its vulnerabilities. The paper will present a suggested architecture for the future connected car that enhances efficiency and security.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1555
Jack Ekchian, William Graves, Zackary Anderson, Marco Giovanardi, Olivia Godwin
It is widely anticipated that autonomous vehicles will offer increased productivity and convenience by freeing all occupants from the responsibility of driving. However, studies indicate that the occurrence of motion sickness in autonomous vehicles will be substantially higher than in conventionally driven vehicles. Occupants of autonomous vehicles are more likely to be involved in performing tasks and activities, such as reading, writing and using a computer or tablet, that typically increase the occurrence of motion sickness. The authors present a novel high bandwidth active suspension system, GenShock®, and tailored control algorithms targeted toward mitigating motion sickness in autonomous vehicles. GenShock actuators can actively push and pull the wheels of a vehicle in order to keep the chassis level and reduce heave, pitch, and roll motion.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0039
Vijay Antony John Britto, Sudipto Karmakar, Madhan Muthuveeraswamy, Balasubramanian Natarajasundaram
NVH refinement of a vehicle with light weight structure[1] focusing on fuel efficiency is a challenging task. Resonance between the air volume of the cabin and revolving engine excitation generates booming. This booming noise affects the annoyance of sound quality in the cabin. Engine torque variation, penetration of air intake and exhaust system, and tire unbalance caused by engine auxiliary resonance are the most influential sources for high speed booming. This paper describes the booming noise level reduction between 100-200 Hz during high RPM driving conditions in one of the passenger cars. Detailed CAE iterations and testing has been done to identify the root cause of the booming noise. By considering the cost vs NVH performance trade off, the optimized NVH countermeasure has been chosen and validated. Modal analysis, operational deflection shapes, Input point inertance and Noise transfer function techniques have been used for root-cause analysis and counter measure proposal.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2510
Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Martin Güdel, Andreas Mayer, Jacques Lemaire, Felix Reutimann, Adm Heinz Berger
Abstract As a result of increased use of catalytic exhaust aftertreatment systems of vehicles and the low-sulfur Diesel fuels there is an increasing share of nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the ambient air of several cities. This is in spite of lowering the summary nitric oxides NOx emissions from vehicles. NO2 is much more toxic than nitrogen monoxide NO and it will be specially considered in the next legal testing procedures. There are doubts about the accuracy of analyzing the reactive substances from diluted gas and this project has the objective to show how NO2 is changing as it travels down through the exhaust- and the CVS systems. For legal measurements of NO2 a WLTP-DTP subgroup (Worldwide Light Duty Test Procedures - Diesel Test Procedures) proposed different combinations of NOx-analyzers and analysis of NO and NOx. Some of these set-ups were tested in this work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1140
Kevin Newman, John Kargul, Daniel Barba
Abstract The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. The ALPHA model has been updated from the previous version to include more realistic vehicle behavior and now includes internal auditing of all energy flows in the model. As a result of the model refinements and in preparation for the mid-term evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule, we are revalidating the model with newly acquired vehicle data. This paper presents the benchmarking, modeling and continued testing of a 2013 Chevy Malibu 1LS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1104
Patrick Sexton, Robert A. Smithson, Gordon McIndoe
Abstract In order to introduce Dana's Variglide Continuously Variable Planetary (CVP) technology to the mobility industry, Dana has produced demonstrator transmissions for use in a rear wheel drive C-class car and in a fork lift truck. The intention is to illustrate how the CVP can be combined with conventional transmission technology to produce either a continuously variable transmission with the ratio range comparable to that of the latest step ratio transmissions, or used in a simple IVT configuration for off-highway applications. The co-axial design of the CVP allows it to package well into current drivetrain solutions. The ratio control of the device is fast, precise, and stable and the CVP does not require high power consumption for clamping. Multiple power flow configurations of the CVP are shown to blend well with current conventional transmission technology as well as future hybrid configurations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1535
Kentaro Machida, Munetsugu Kaneko, Atsushi Ogawa
Abstract This paper discusses the characteristic flow field of the new Honda FIT/Jazz as determined from the aerodynamic development process, and introduces the technique that reduced aerodynamic drag in a full model change. The new FIT was the first model to take full advantage of the Flow Analysis Simulation tool (FAST), our in-house CFD system, in its development. The FAST system performs aerodynamic simulation by automatically linking the exterior surface design with a predefined platform layout. This allows engineers to run calculations efficiently, and the results can be shared among vehicle stylists and aerodynamicists. Optimization of the exterior design gives the new FIT a moderate pressure peak at the front bumper corner as compared to the previous model, resulting in a smaller pressure difference between the side and underbody.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1284
Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Alberto Rinaldini
Abstract Among all the reciprocating internal combustion engines, gasoline two-strokes can reach the highest specific power, making this technology a natural enabler of downsizing and/or down-speeding. In addition, multi-cylinder 2-stroke engines may be an ideal match for electrical superchargers, providing very efficient power units. The paper explores through CFD-1d simulations and empirical hypotheses the potential of a 3-cylinder, 1.0 liter, GDI 2-stroke turbocharged engine featuring a patented rotary valve for the optimization of the scavenging process, the latter being of the loop type (piston-controlled ports). The lubrication system is the same of a 4-stroke engine (no crankcase pumps). The supercharging system is made up of a turbocharger and an electric compressor, serially connected. The power of the electric compressor is limited to 2 kW, in order to comply with standard automotive 12 V electric systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1542
Masaaki Arai, Keitaro Tone, Keiichi Taniguchi, Mikako Murakami, Munehiko Oshima
Abstract The new Murano was developed with special emphasis on improving aerodynamics in order to achieve fuel economy superior to that of competitor models. This paper describes the measures developed to attain a drag coefficient (CD) that is overwhelmingly lower than that of other similar models. Special attention was paid to optimizing the rear end shape so as to minimize rear end drag, which contributes markedly to the CD of sport utility vehicles (SUVs). A lower grille shutter was adopted from the early stage of the development process. When open, the shutter allows sufficient inward airflow to ensure satisfactory engine cooling; when closed, the blocked airflow is actively directed upward over the body. The final rear end shape was tuned so as to obtain the maximum aerodynamic benefit from this airflow. In addition, a large front spoiler was adopted to suppress airflow toward the underbody as much as possible.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1005
Helmut Brunner, Mario Hirz
Abstract Increasing urbanization, the growing degree of motorization and traffic performance in urban areas and environmental aspects like greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are the motivation for a detailed analysis of personal individual mobility in urban areas, which is presented in this study. In the first step, the publication examines a study of market potential of new small and lightweight vehicle concepts. A mobility inquiry conducted in a mid-sized European city enables an estimation of the potential user groups for alternative vehicle concepts for individual urban traffic. In a second step, the CO2 reduction potential of urban car concepts is simulated for a generic vehicle fleet. This fleet consists of conventional vehicles of various classes (subcompact, compact, mid-sized …) as well as new lightweight urban car concepts. A novel vehicle concept for urban transportation will be presented as well.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0475
Joseph Cormier, Mark "Tony" Freund, Enrique Bonugli, Herbert Guzman
Performing a reconstruction of sideswipe interactions is difficult due to the lack of permanent crush sustained by the vehicles involved. Previous studies have provided insight into the forces involved in creating various types of damage for vehicle-to-vehicle interactions during a sideswipe interaction. However, these data may not be applicable to the interaction that occurs when a tractor-trailer steer tire is involved. As demonstrated in previous studies, steer tire interaction produces a unique pattern of markings on the struck vehicle by the protruding lugs (wheel stud) of the steer tire. These studies have demonstrated that the pattern of cycloidal marks created by the wheel lugs can be used to calculate the relative speeds of the vehicles. While this is helpful in understanding the relative motion of the vehicles, it does not provide information regarding the forces applied at the point of contact.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0037
Felix Regin A., Manoraj Manimanoharan, Akepati Bhaskar Reddy, Prakash Nigam
Aerodynamic behavior of the vehicle changes dramatically when a vehicle is modified from a closed body to a convertible vehicle. Change in the flow behavior and its effect on the vehicle road load and consequently on the fuel economy have been studied systematically from a full vehicle closed model to a convertible vehicle model. The flow patterns and the flow velocities both inside and outside the vehicle are studied using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver Star CCM+. In this paper a modified cabriolet is analyzed and is compared with the closed roof production vehicle and the closed roof production vehicle with various windows open configurations. The vehicle drag coefficient and the air flow behavior inside the passenger cabin are compared. Theoretical calculations are also done to compare the changes in road load at different vehicle speeds. The result shows that the Cabriolet vehicle drag coefficient is about 32% higher than the closed roof production vehicle.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0058
Carsten Stechert, K. C. Vora
India already has the highest concentration of megacities and urban growth continues. Together with an increasing need for individual mobility in particular, the Indian market demands new vehicle concepts. German lower-Saxony research centre of Automotive Engineering (NFF) and The Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) together with representatives from the automotive industry develop a research roadmap to satisfy the future demand for metropolitan cars.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1707
Trevor W. Miller, Wim Van Dam, Gary Parsons
New engine technologies are constantly being developed and introduced in order to meet increasing customer demands and government regulations. In many cases, improved engine oil performance is necessary to facilitate the implementation of new engine technologies. In order to meet increasing customer demands for performance, durability, and fuel economy, the engine builders are introducing hardware and operating cycles that place increasing demands on the engine oil. Each new North American Gasoline Engine Oil Performance Category has been developed with specific performance targets and improvements in mind. This paper will primarily focus on the initial steps in the development of engine oils for the GF-6 passenger car engine oil category in North America. GF-6 is scheduled to be introduced during the 1st quarter of 2015 and will supersede GF-5 and previous categories. It will also be backward compatible and will provide improved performance relative to GF-5 in many respects.
2012-06-13
Technical Paper
2012-01-1525
Hans Gruber, Jianmin Guan
There are various optimization tools available on the market and they are successfully used for improving vehicle component designs in terms of performance and light weight [6][7][9][10]. But when it comes to full vehicle optimization, optimization tools are only one aspect of the entire process. To build up a FEM Model for NVH analysis the assembly process and load case definition play an important role. Both steps are very complex and the chance to make mistakes is very high. After initial analysis the results has to be interpreted to understand the NVH behavior and detect optimization potential. Diagnostic tools could be used to determine modal or panel participation factors or do transfer path analysis. Then components or subsystems could be optimized using numerical optimization tools. For this step often super elements are used to reduce calculation time without losing too much of accuracy.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0646
Bert Bras, Francisco Tejada, Jeff Yen, John Zullo, Tina Guldberg
Numerous studies have pointed out the growing need to assess the availability of water sources in numerous regions around the world as future forecasts suggest that water demands will increase significantly while freshwater resources are being depleted. In this paper, we highlight the difference between water use versus consumption and analyze the life-cycle water consumption of a car from material extraction through production, use, and final disposition/end of life and determine a car's water footprint using data from the EcoInvent database as well as data collected from literature sources. Although water use is typically metered at the factory level, water consumption (i.e., water lost through evaporation and/or incorporation into a material, part, and/or product) is much harder to quantify. As shown in this paper, the difference can be an order of magnitude or more.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0725
Nickolas Vlahopoulos, Matthew Castanier, Nicholas Stowe, Eric Maes
In this paper a Multi-Level System (MLS) optimization algorithm is presented and utilized for the multi-discipline design of a ground vehicle track. The MLS can guide the decision making process for designing a complex system where many alternatives and many mutually competing objectives and disciplines need to be considered and evaluated. Mathematical relationships between the design variables and the multiple discipline performance objectives are developed adaptively as the various design considerations are evaluated and as the design is being evolved. These relationships are employed for rewarding performance improvement during the decision making process by allocating more resources to the disciplines which exhibit the higher level of improvement. The track analysis demonstrates how a multi-discipline design approach can be pursued in ground vehicle applications.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0649
Shigeki Nitta, Yoshihisa Moriguchi
In previous Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods, environmental burden items to be analyzed, prior to a life cycle inventory analysis, were assumed as the main factors of environmental problems regardless of the product category. Next, the life cycle inventory analysis, in which the total amount of environmental burden items emitted during the life cycle of a product was calculated, and an environmental impact assessment were performed. The environmental impact assessment was based on the initially assumed environmental burden items. The process, in other words, was a particular solution based on this assumption. A general solution unconstrained by this assumption was necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop a general method of LCA that did not require such initially assumed environmental burden items, and to make it possible to perform a comprehensive environmental impact assessment and strategically reduce environmental burden of a product.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0778
Zhengqi Gu, Xin Song, Yejie Jiang, Xu Gong
Realizable k-ε turbulence model has been used widely for engineering development. In this turbulence model, the default values of empirical coefficients such as C₂, σk and σε are obtained from some particular experiments. They are a good choice for most simulations-though may be not the best choice for simulating the aerodynamic characteristics of road vehicle. In order to improve the accuracy of simulation, a set of new empirical coefficients should be designed especially for simulating the aerodynamic characteristics of road vehicle. These empirical coefficients are found out by DoE (design of experiments) in this paper. Firstly the value range of empirical coefficients is decided by the laws that the aerodynamic force coefficients change with altering of empirical coefficients. Secondly 20 sets of empirical coefficients are obtained randomly by applying optimal Latin Hypercube method in Isight.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0635
Heinrich Reister, Walter Bauer
In this paper the latest status of the Vehicle Thermal Management (VTM) simulation at the Mercedes-Benz Car Group is shown. First of all VTM is nowadays a routine simulation application and secondly it is embedded in a standard process which starts with the CAD data collection and ends with standard reporting of the simulation results and thirdly VTM is now an integrated simulation application in terms of VTM includes the classical underhood-underbody analysis, the analysis of electric/electronic components, the brake temperature analysis and last not least the thermal comfort of passengers. There is also a close link to the tests of vehicle hardware. Beside the operational simulation process there is a process installed which guarantees good quality of the results.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0001
Frank Will, James Nicholas Davdison, Paul Couchman, David Bednall
The current automotive industry and todays car drivers are faced with every increasing challenges, not previously experienced. Climate Change, financial issues, rising fuel prices, increased traffic congestion and reduced parking space in cities are all leading to changes in consumer preferences and the requirements of modern passenger vehicles. However, despite the shift in the industry dynamics, the principal layout of a car hasn't changed since its invention. The design of a ‘conventional’ vehicle is still principally a matchbox with four wheels, one at each corner. The concept has served its purpose well for over 100 years, but such a layout is not suited to solving today's problems. To address the range of problems faced by the industry, a number of alternative commuting vehicles have been developed. Yet the commercialization of these ‘alternative’ vehicles has yet to be successful.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 714

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