This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the functional, design, construction, and test requirements for Automatic Braking Systems. Installation information and lessons learned are also included.
This recommended practice covers minimum requirements for air brake hose assemblies made from reinforced elastomeric hose and suitable fittings for use in automotive air brake systems including flexible connections from frame to axle, tractor to trailer, trailer to trailer and other unshielded air lines with air pressures up to 1 MPa, that are exposed to potential pull or impact. This hose is not to be used where temperatures, external or internal, fall outside the range of -40 °C to +100 °C.
This recommended practice contains dimensions and tolerances for outboard mounted brake drums and disc wheel hubs in the interface areas. This recommended practice is intended for outboard mounted brake drums and disc wheel hubs commonly used on class 7 and 8 commercial vehicles. Included are SAE J694 mounting systems II, III, IV, XIV, and X. Special and less common applications are not covered.
This SAE Standard describes the performance and part requirements for elastomeric seals used in highway vehicle disc brake calipers. Seals covered by this specification may be the solid section type (square, rectangular, O-ring, etc.) mounted stationary in the cylinder bore or on the movable piston. The specification contains the following major sections:
This SAE Standard covers performance requirements and methods of test for master cylinder reservoir diaphragm gaskets that will provide a functional seal and protection from outside dirt and water.
This SAE Recommended Practices specifies a procedure for determining structural strength and fatigue life of disc-brake caliper assemblies which are satisfactory for vehicle usage. It is applicable to new caliper assemblies which are employed in passenger car and truck brake systems utilizing hydraulic brake fluids. Brake design and vehicle performance requirements are not included. Specification limits are left to the discretion of the responsible manufacturer. This procedure was developed for base brake operation and does not consider some unusual effects of ABS (Anti-Lock-Brake System) or Traction Control systems which may have a significant effect on the caliper. Careful analysis of the particular type ABS and/or Traction Control should be made and additional tests may be required which are not included in this document.
Low-duty Inertia Dynamometer Hydraulic Brake Wear Test Procedures for Vehicles Above 4536 kg (10 000 lb) of GVWR
This Recommended Practice is derived from OEM and tier-1 laboratory tests and applies to two-axle multipurpose passenger vehicles, or trucks with a GVWR above 4536 kg (10 000 pounds) equipped with hydraulic disc or drum service brakes. Before conducting testing for a specific brake sizes or under specific test conditions, review, agree upon, and document with the test requestor any deviations from the test procedure. Also, the applicable criteria for the final test results and wear rates deemed as significantly different require definition, assessment, and proper documentation; especially as this will determine whether or not Method B testing is needed. This Recommended Practice does not evaluate or quantify other brake system characteristics such as performance, noise, judder, ABS performance, or braking under extreme temperatures or speeds. Minimum performance requirements are not part of this recommended practice.
The procedure describes how to measure the deflection of a brake pad, noise insulator, and brake pad assembly.
This SAE Standard covers motor vehicle brake fluids of the nonpetroleum type, based upon glycols, glycolethers and appropriate inhibitors, for use in the braking system of any motor vehicle such as a passenger car, truck, bus, or trailer. These fluids are not intended for use under arctic conditions. These fluids are designed for use in braking systems fitted with rubber cups and seals made from styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), or a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene, and a diene (EPDM).
This SAE Standard covers motor vehicle brake fluids of the nonpetroleum type, based upon glycols, glycol ethers, and borates of glycolethers, and appropriate inhibitors, for use in the braking system of any motor vehicle such as a passenger car, truck, bus, or trailer. These fluids are not intended for use under arctic conditions. These fluids are designed for use in braking systems fitted with rubber cups and seals made from styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), or a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene, and a diene (EPDM).
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the design approaches used for current applications of aircraft Brake-by-Wire (BBW) control systems. The document also discusses the experience gained during service, and covers system, ergonomic, hardware, and development aspects. The document includes the lessons that have been learned during application of the technology. Although there are a variety of approaches that have been used in the design of BBW systems, the main focus of this document is on the current state of the art systems.
This specification covers minimum design and test requirements for aircraft tire inflation-deflation equipment for use on all types of aircraft. It shall be the responsibility of the airframe manufacturer to determine the compatibility of the requirement with the applicable aircraft and to specify requirements in excess of these minimums as necessary.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform procedure for a flat-road simulation of a mountain-fade test of the brake systems of light-duty trucks and multipurpose passenger vehicles up to and including 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVW and all classes of passenger cars. The purpose of this test code is to establish brake system characteristics while simulating a mountain descent. This procedure is intended to be used to evaluate the following characteristics of a brake system: a. Brake temperature relative to fluid boil b. Fade resistance and reserve pedal travel c. Overall structural durability d. Subjective stability
This SAE Standard covers molded rubber boots used as end closures on drum-type wheel brake actuating cylinders to prevent the entrance of dirt and moisture, which could cause corrosion and otherwise impair wheel brake operation. The document includes performance tests of brake cylinder boots of both plain and insert types under specified conditions and does not include requirements relating to chemical composition, tensile strength, or elongation of the rubber compound. Further, it does not cover the strength of the adhesion of rubber to the insert material where an insert is used. The rubber material used in these boots is classified as suitable for operation in a temperature range of -40 to +120 degrees C +/-2 degrees C (-40 to +248 degrees F +/-3.6 degrees F).
This SAE Recommended Practice was prepared by the Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids Subcommittee of the SAE Hydraulic Brake Systems Actuating Committee to provide engineers, designers, and manufacturers of motor vehicles with a set of minimum performance standards in order to assess the suitability of silicone and other low water tolerant type brake fluids (LWTF) for use in motor vehicle brake systems. These fluids are designed for use in braking systems fitted with rubber cups and seals made from natural rubber (NR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), or a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene, and a diene (EPDM). In the development of the recommended requirements and test procedures contained herein, it is concluded that the LWTFs must be functionally compatible with existing motor vehicle brake fluids conforming to SAE J1703 and with braking systems designed for such fluids. To utilize LWTFs to the fullest advantage, they should not be mixed with other brake fluids.
This procedure describes a method for generating, preparing and analyzing samples of new and unused brake friction materials for their chemical constituents.
Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) Methods Used During Production and Operation of Aircraft Wheels and Brakes
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies current nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods used to ensure product integrity and maximize "in service" life of the major structural components of aircraft wheel and brake assemblies.
The scope of the test method is to provide stakeholders including fluid manufacturers, brake manufacturers, aircraft constructors, aircraft operators and airworthiness authorities with a relative assessment of the effect of deicing chemicals on carbon oxidation. This test is designed to assess the relative effects of runway deicing chemicals by measuring mass change of contaminated and bare carbon samples tested under the same conditions.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for brake systems used on military aircraft equipped with wheel-type landing gears.
The focus of this SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) is the integration of thermally actuated pressure release devices, hereafter referred to as fuse plugs, with the wheel and brake assembly. It does not address the manufacturing, quality or acceptance test requirements pertaining to the production of these fuse plugs. It establishes minimum design, installation, qualification, and operational requirements for fuse plugs which are used only in tubeless tire type aircraft braked wheels. Fuse plugs are designed to completely release the contained inflation pressure from a tubeless tire and wheel assembly when brake generated heat causes the tire or wheel to exceed a safe temperature level. The objective is to prevent tire or wheel rupture due to brake generated heat that could cause an unsafe condition for personnel or the aircraft. (Reference: U.S. Department of Transportation FAA Advisory Circular No. 23-17C; Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 25.735 (j); U.S.
This document covers military aircraft wheel and hydraulically actuated brake equipment.
This Aerospace Information Report will summarize several existing aircraft landing gear shimmy analysis techniques and provide guidance on the synthesis and testing of tire properties, strut properties, and other landing gear mechanical properties that support the various shimmy analysis methods. This AIR is applicable to large and small fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft for military or civilian use.
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This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide a recommended minimum laboratory roll performance for main landing gear aircraft wheels without tires installed and applies to both bolted and lock-ring wheel designs for FAA Part 25 and military aircraft main wheels (not required for any nose wheels or main wheels on FAA Part 23, 27 or 29 applications).
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to provide a uniform means of identification which may be used to classify the friction coefficient of brake linings, based on data obtained from tests conducted in accordance with SAE J661 Brake Lining Quality Test Procedure and SAE J2975 Measurement of Copper and other elements in Brake Friction Materials. NOTE: It is emphasized that this document does not establish friction requirements for brake linings, nor does it designate significant characteristics of brake linings which must be considered in overall brake performance. Due to other factors that include brake system design and operating environment, the friction codes obtained from this document cannot reliably be used to predict brake system performance.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform procedure for testing the brake systems (service and parking) of all passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and multipurpose passenger vehicles up to and including 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVWR. The purpose of the test code is to evaluate brake system performance of vehicles in service for compliance with regulations. The test code is expected to be utilized as a basis for a brake evaluation conducted by State or Federal officials engaged in highway safety programs. The primary consideration is that this test requires a minimum of instrumentation, time, driver skill, and cost to conduct.
This document specifies minimum performance and durability requirements for satisfactory vehicle usage, and it is applicable to wheel cylinder assemblies from commercial production, after production shipment, shelf storage, and remanufacture (factory rebuild).