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Viewing 1 to 30 of 4102
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0225
Prashant R Pawar
The tire is generally characterized on the basis of forces and moments being generated at the contact patch, which generally describes the friction potential of the tire in both longitudinal and lateral directions at different load conditions. The field conditions under which the tires perform is diverse which results in varied performance for the same product. To understand this there is a need to understand range of friction values the tire undergoes in different conditions which cannot be replicated in indoor test-rigs. The longitudinal potential of tire is the important factor in determining the acceleration and braking behaviour, so braking test was performed to measure the longitudinal slip and forces. A joint project has been undertaken between Apollo Tyres and ARAI, where both have used their technical expertise to work on tire characterization out of road test.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0227
Saraf M R
Road roughness induces dynamic loads on vehicles, which cause fatigue damage as a result. Design of vehicle for durability is one of the key steps during vehicle development process. Vehicle durability is verified on test tracks, on test rigs, or, increasingly, by computer simulations. Does the test represent real-life vehicle usage? How many times should a vehicle travel over the test tracks to verify the durability? For doing this kind of analysis, it is always required to measure the vehicle response parameters such as wheel forces, axle and chassis acceleration etc. These measurement based approaches have high cost and are time consuming. As these are vehicle dependent parameters, exercises need to be repeated on each type/class of vehicle . Hence it is needed to accelerate this process using parameter which is vehicle independent i.e road profiles. This paper discuss about the methodology, process developed at ARAI for generation of 3d road profile database (in .CRG /.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0233
Marc Pinilla, Pau Kuipers
KEYWORDS – Asphalt concrete mixture, Wet Handling, Coefficient of adherence, aging procedure, Pavement durability, Binder, Additives. ABSTRACT – Asphalt specifications for a Wet Handling tracks are very stringent in the sense of Coefficient of adherence and homogeneity of this coefficient along the time. Currently, asphalt mixture pavements used in wet conditions have a very limited useful life and this keeps degrading following different patterns according to the different asphalt mixtures used. This is because of many reasons but mainly as a consequence of supporting big strains and the extreme conditions during its whole useful life submitted for having the asphalt completely deep in water for most of its live time as well as climatic weather conditions. Moreover, Wet Handling pavements should provide very specific and stable adherence values for vehicle testing during the asphalt aging evolution.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0224
Ramsai Ramachandran, Nilesh Kumar Dehariya, Gaurav Kumar, Himanshu Agarwal, Sukhchain Singh
BIW (Body-in White) is a type of vehicle structure formed by spot welding of different sheet metal components. The BIW structure should be designed to support the maximum load potential under various performance conditions. Thus the structure should have good strength as well as stiffness. Torsion Stiffness of BIW is the amount of torque required to cause a unit degree of twist. It is often considered as a benchmark of its structural competence due to its effect on various parameters like ride, handling, lateral load distribution and NVH performance of vehicle. This paper presents a case study in which physical testing was carried out for obtaining the global torsional stiffness, simulation was carried out replicating the physical test conditions. The simulation result was found to be 94% correlated with the test results.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0221
Jitesh Agrawal
In commercial Vehicles, the purpose of suspension is not only passenger's ride comfort and load carrying, but also accompanying vehicle's handling. Road profile, vehicle design and driver input contribute a lot to the vehicle behavior specially when vehicle is turning, braking and bouncing. One of the vehicle behaviors is brake steering where vehicle itself steers on braking and can be a major cause for life threatening accidents on highways and express ways. In this paper, leaf spring wind-up and vehicle behavior on braking is studied analytically, observed experimentally and characteristics were analyzed. Also, the effect of the same on design parameters is studied and thereby recommendation is derived. In analytical part of paper, various spring's wind off parameters such as Dynamic load on spring, perpendicular distance of projected twisted surface, Angle of spring wind-up, and Induced stress during braking are calculated.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0229
Jibing Zhang, Sanbao Hu, Xuexun Guo, Quan Zhou
Blade Electric Vehicles (BEVs) have received more and more attention from both consumers and automotive enterprises because of their being safer, more energy-saving and environmental friendly. However, BEVs’ development and promotion have had the major challenges such as high use cost, short driving distance and safety issues since they came up initially. To overcome those difficulties, the technologies for driving cell,motor and controller have recently achieved some progresses. Besides, vehicle lightweight technology was also a valid solution for those issues above and it could be much simpler and more effective. According to previous research, in terms of reducing the body weight, the application of new materials (such as light metals and composite materials) was a well-known method whereas their high cost caused the overall increasing of BEVs’ price.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0220
Sachin W. Thor, Shriniwas Chippa, Abhijit Majage
Dynamic Analysis of Outside rear view mirror of a car S. W. Thor1, S. P. Chippa1*, A. S. Majage2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune 2Finite Four Technologies, Pune *Correspondence author : chippashriniwas@gmail.com Abstract:- An Automobile rear view mirror is attached at the side of the vehicle which is used to provide clear vision outside the vehicle. In the running condition of vehicle, various vibrations occur and are transferred to the mirror which may disturb driver's rear view. Since this issue is related to safety consideration, it becomes essential to minimize the vibration of mirror. Vibration analysis is very much important for the successful design and development of new parts in automobile. In present work, Vibration analysis of existing design of outside rear view mirror is investigated through numerical model using FEM. Furthermore, these results are verified through experimental work.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0199
Parandhamaiah Gorre, Pln Prasad, Kantha Mekala, Mansinh Kumbhar
In vehicle Front End Flow (FEF) analysis, the basic objective is to predict the mass flow/velocity of air at radiator inlet with constant fan rotation. In general, the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model is used to model the fan. The flow velocity distribution at radiator inlet due to fan rotation should be uniform in circumferential direction whereas it should vary in radial direction depending upon the blade geometry. But the drawback with MRF model is that, it gives higher velocities on radiator inlet at regions corresponding to the fan blades and lower velocities at other regions, which is not realistic. This problem is more predominant especially when the vehicle is at low speeds or when radiator is placed at mid or back of the vehicle or the fan is having less number of blades. In order to nullify this uneven velocity distribution at radiator inlet, a Mixing Plane (MP) approach was used in addition to the MRF model.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0070
Dinesh D. Welukar
Light weighting is the Current trends in automotive to achieve better fuel economy which helps for meeting fuel economy standards & to offset the higher fuel prices. Thus there is a need to develop composite running board which is light weight & structurally sound enough to meet the performance. The present paper provides a composite running board assembly for an automobile. The running board assembly includes a board, an insert body and a plurality of brackets. Upon stepping of a passenger on the board, the board transfers load on the insert body which subsequently transfers the load to the plurality of brackets thus facilitating even distribution of the load on the automobile body. This paper also put lights on the use of improved TRIZ application - an approach to inventive problem solving for designing highly affordable & light weight running board.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0185
Kartik Panchal
The front and rear wings are essential in race cars in order to increase the down-force and enhance the stability of vehicle at high speed. The present work focuses on the computational modelling of NACA 4412 airfoil for front and rear wing of the racing vehicle and assesses its performance characteristics. The effect on wing characteristics in vicinity of ground and tire for varying angle of attack in moving ground frame has been studied. The computation has been carried out using high fidelity computational fluid dynamics model to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The front wing has been split into two parts main wing and flap with chord length of 0.3 meters and 0.15 meters respectively. Similarly, the rear wing was modelled with the chord length 0.3meter and aspect ratio of 1.5. The pressure and velocity flow distribution over the body of the vehicle has been studied for varying angle of attack.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0045
Akiko Tanaka, Ikue Sato
Abstract Currently, there is a growing demand for application of plastic coverings for motorcycles in the market. Accordingly, decorative features for plastic coverings are increasingly important to enhance the attractiveness of exterior designs of those motorcycles. Under these circumstances, the magnetically formed decorative painting had been adopted to a mass-production model sold in Thailand in 2008. Magnetically formed decorative painting is a method in which the design patterns are formed by painting a material that contains flakes movable along with magnetic fields, while applying magnetic sheets in the ornamenting design shapes underneath the part being painted. It offers a three-dimensional appearance even though its surface has no protrusions or indentations. The degree of three-dimensionality on the paint surface appearance was defined as “plasticity” [1] (a term used in pictorial arts).
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0021
Kazuhiro Ito, Yoshitaka Tezuka, Atsushi Hoshino, Keita Sakurada
Abstract In this study, we developed a simulation method for rough road running condition to reproduce the behaviors of a vehicle body and to precisely estimate the input loads to the frame. We designed the simulation method focusing on a front fork model and a rider model optimized for this type of analysis. In the suspension model development, we conducted detailed measurement of the suspension characteristics on a test bench. Based on the yielded results, the friction force, as well as the spring reaction force and the damping force, was reproduced in the suspension model. The friction of the suspension varies depending on the magnitude of the reaction force associated with bending and this effect was also implemented in the model. Regarding the rider model, the actual behavior of a rider was investigated through the recorded motion video data and used to define the necessary degrees of freedom.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2446
Marc Ratzel, Warren Dias
Abstract This paper discusses the behavior of a flexible flap at the rear end of a generic car model under aerodynamic loads. A strong bidirectional coupling between the flap's deflection and the flow field exists which requires this system to be simulated in a coupled fluid-structure manner. A coupled transient aerodynamic and structural simulation is performed for a generic car model with a flexible/deformable flap at the rear end. An automatic workflow is established which generates new flap designs, derived from an initial flap design by applying a mesh deformation technology, and performs the coupled fluid-structure interaction analysis. For each shape variation, the flap's maximum displacement is monitored and used to classify the individual flap designs. This process allows for design of experiment (DOE) studies in an automated manner. Several shape variations of the flap and their impacts on the maximum deflection are investigated.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2319
Iman Hazrati Ashtiani, Mehrnoosh Abedi
Abstract Road train vehicles have been applied as one of the common and efficient ways for transportation of goods, specifically hazardous liquid cargos, in different nations. These vehicles have a wide variety of lengths and towing systems such as the fifth wheel or the dolly draw-bar. Based upon specific regulations, they could be authorized to move on specific roads. In order to avoid hazard and danger in case of accidents, safety performance of a B-train vehicle as a specific type of road train vehicles is investigated in this paper. A Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) model, which consists of a prime mover and two trailers coupled by fifth wheels, are simulated in the initial phase of the study. The developed dynamic model is capable of simulating required tests as well as the SAE lane change, along with a constant radius turn for the purpose of roll and yaw stability analysis and safety evaluation. The effects of variation of the fluid fill level are considered in this research.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2308
Zhigang Wei, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Litang Gao
Road vibrations cause fatigue failures in vehicle components and systems. Therefore, reliable and accurate damage and life assessment is crucial to the durability and reliability performances of vehicles, especially at early design stages. However, durability and reliability assessment is difficult not only because of the unknown underlying damage mechanisms, such as crack initiation and crack growth, but also due to the large uncertainties introduced by many factors during operation. How to effectively and accurately assess the damage status and quantitatively measure the uncertainties in a damage evolution process is an important but still unsolved task in engineering probabilistic analysis. In this paper, a new procedure is developed to assess the durability and reliability performance, and characterize the uncertainties of damage evolution of components under constant amplitude loadings.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2315
John Anderson
Abstract This paper describes the development and testing of a Dynamic Vibration Absorber to reduce frame beaming vibration in a highway tractor. Frame beaming occurs when the first vertical bending mode of the frame is excited by road or wheel-end inputs. It is primarily a problem for driver comfort. Up until now, few options were available to resolve this problem. The paper will review the phenomenon, design factors affecting a vehicle's sensitivity to frame beaming, and the principles of Dynamic Vibration Absorbers (AKA Tuned Mass Dampers). Finally, the paper will describe simulation and testing that led to the development of an effective vibration absorber as a field fix.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2411
Marc Auger, Larry Plourde, Melissa Trumbore, Terry Manuel
Abstract Design of body structures for commercial vehicles differs significantly from automotive due to government, design and usage requirements. Specifically, heavy truck doors are not required to meet side impact requirements due to their height off the ground as compared to automobiles. However, heavy truck doors are subjected to higher loads, longer life, and cannot experience permanent deformation from overload events. Aluminum has been used intensively in commercial vehicle doors and cab structures for over 50 years by several different manufacturers in North America. It has been only in the last few years that aluminum has appeared in automotive door structures other than in high-end luxury vehicles. Commercial vehicle customers are expecting the same features found in premium automobiles resulting in opportunities to learn from each other's designs. In order to optimize the strength and weight of a commercial vehicle door, a new aluminum intensive structure was developed.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2137
Fabrizio Re
Abstract Demonstrators and research projects about electric aircraft taxi systems testify the current interest in low- or zero-emission ground propulsion technologies to lower the overall fuel consumption and emissions of commercial flights. Electric motors fitted in the main landing gears are one of the most promising layouts for these systems especially for narrow-body commercial aircraft. From a control theory point of view, the aircraft on ground becomes an over-actuated plant through adoption of this technology, i.e. a commanded ground trajectory can be reached through different combinations of actuator efforts. A strategy is required to choose the most suitable of these combinations in order to reach the best efficiency. This work aims to investigate a strategy for an optimal control allocation during path-following of prescribed ground trajectories.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2237
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Andreas Ginschel, Ortwin Mailahn
Abstract The global competition challenges aircraft manufacturers in high wage countries. The assembly of large components happens manually in fixed position assembly. Especially the completion of the inner fuselage structure is done 100% manually. The shells have to be joined with rivets and several hundred clips have to be assembled to connect the shell to the frames. The poise of the worker is not ergonomic so a lot of physical stress is added to the worker and minimizes the working ability. Aircraft manufacturers need a lot of different production resources and qualified persons for the production, which provokes higher costs. Due to these high costs there is a demand for automated reconfigurable assembly systems, which offer a high flexibility and lower manufacturing costs. The research project “IProGro” deals with this challenge and develops innovative production systems for large parts.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2252
Lucas Irving, Svetan Ratchev, Atanas Popov, Marcus Rafla
Abstract The replacement for the current single-aisle aircraft will need to be manufactured at a rate significantly higher that of current production. One way that production rate can be increased is by reducing the processing time for assembly operations. This paper presents research that was applied to the build philosophy of the leading edge of a laminar flow European wing demonstrator. The paper describes the implementation of determinate assembly for the rib to bracket assembly interface. By optimising the diametric and the positional tolerances of the holes on the two bracket types and ribs, determinate assembly was successfully implemented. The bracket to rib interface is now secured with no tooling or post processes other than inserting and tightening the fastener. This will reduce the tooling costs and eliminates the need for local drilling, de-burring and re-assembly of the bracket to rib interface, reducing the cycle time of the operation.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2249
Thomas G. Jefferson, Svetan Ratchev, Richard Crossley
Abstract Aerospace assembly systems comprise a vast array of interrelated elements interacting in a myriad of ways. Consequently, aerospace assembly system design is a deeply complex process that requires a multi-disciplined team of engineers. Recent trends to improve manufacturing agility suggest reconfigurability as a solution to the increasing demand for improved flexibility, time-to-market and overall reduction in non-recurring costs. Yet, adding reconfigurability to assembly systems further increases operational complexity and design complexity. Despite the increase in complexity for reconfigurable assembly, few formal methodologies or frameworks exist specifically to support the design of Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS). This paper presents a novel reconfigurable assembly system design framework (RASDF) that can be applied to wing structure assembly as well as many other RAS design problems.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2186
Neno Novakovic
Abstract Since the early 1970s, when microprocessors became commercially available, they quickly became a common part of all aircraft control and indication systems. With an ever-increasing number of microprocessor-based airborne applications, safety regulations and software standards like RTCA DO-178 evolved, demanding rigorous requirements and processes for software development, testing, life cycle, and certification. Over the years, as development of aerospace software applications increased, engineering costs of development and product certification costs exponentially increased, having a significant impact on the market. Landing Gear Actuation system is one of many aircraft systems whose control functions are based on microprocessors and software application.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2263
Eric Barton, Dan Hasley, Joey Jackson
Abstract The following is a unique case study expounding on automatic fastening technology designed and engineered to ramp up a Tier 2 supplier that had no experience with automatic fastening, to efficiently produce a large volume of fuselage panel assemblies with demanding process requirements in a very short amount of time. The automation technology integrated for the skin to stringer & skin to window frame fastening were two GEMCOR G12 five-axis CNC All-Electric fastening systems coupled with a Cenit offline part programming system. This joint solution served as a launch vehicle for Center Industries to efficiently supply the full rate of fuselage panel assemblies for a large volume commercial aircraft program without having any automatic riveting experience.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2264
Peter B. Zieve, Osman Emre Celek, John Fenty
Abstract The E7000 riveting machine installs NAS1097KE5-5.5 rivets into A320 Section 18 fuselage side panels. For the thinnest stacks where the panel skin is under 2mm (2024) and the stringer is under 2mm (7075), the normal process of riveting will cause deformation of the panel or dimpling. The authors found a solution to this problem by forming the rivet with the upper pressure foot extended, and it has been tested and approved for production.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2265
Lutz Neugebauer
The demand of fulfilling increasing Prime Customer requirements forces Tier 1 suppliers to continually improve their system solutions. Typically, this will involve integration of “state of the art” tools to afford the Tier 1 supplier a throughput and cost advantage. The subject “Production Optimization Approach” addresses the machine and process optimization of automated fastening machines in operation at customer factories. The paper will describe and focus on the main aspects of production optimization of existing machines to meet and exceed the required customer production and reporting criteria. Furthermore, the paper will present existing examples based on use of the established diagnostic tools
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2266
Helen Lockett, Sarah Fletcher, Nicolas Luquet
Abstract The installation of essential systems into aircraft wings involves numerous labour-intensive processes. Many human operators are required to perform complex manual tasks over long periods of time in very challenging physical positions due to the limited access and confined space. This level of human activity in poor ergonomic conditions directly impacts on speed and quality of production but also, in the longer term, can cause costly human resource problems from operators' cumulative development of musculoskeletal injuries. These problems are exacerbated in areas of the wing which house multiple systems components because the volume of manual work and number of operators is higher but the available space is reduced. To improve the efficiency of manual work processes which cannot yet be automated we therefore need to consider how we might redesign systems installations in the enclosed wing environment to better enable operator access and reduce production time.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2151
Abdallah Ben Mosbah, Ruxandra Botez, Thien-my Dao
Abstract A new approach for the prediction of lift, drag and moment coefficients is presented. This approach is based on the Support Vector Machines methodology, and on a optimization algorithm, the Extended Great Deluge. The novelty of this approach is the combination between the SVM and the EGD algorithm. The EGD is used to optimize the SVM parameters to allow it to predict the aerodynamic coefficients of ATR 42 model. The training and validation of this new combination method is realized using the aerodynamic coefficients of an ATR-42 wing model with Xfoil software and experimental tests using the Price-Païdoussis wind tunnel. The results obtained with our approach are compared with the XFoil results, experimental results and XFLR5 software results for different flight cases, expressed as various combinations of angles of attack and Mach numbers. The main purpose of this methodology is to rapidly predict aircraft aerodynamic coefficients.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2112
Jay Wilhelm, Joseph Close
Uneven wing deployment of a Hybrid Projectile (HP), an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is ballistically launched and then transforms, was investigated to determine the amount of roll and pitch produced during wing deployment. During testing of an HP prototype, it was noticed that sometimes the projectile began to slightly roll after the wings were deployed shortly after apogee. In this study, an analytical investigation was done to determine how the projectile body dynamics would be affected by the wings being deployed improperly. Improper and uneven wing deployment situations were investigated throughout the course of this study. The first analyzed was a single wing delaying to open. The second was if only one wing was to lock into a positive angle of incidence. The roll characteristics when both wings were deployed but only one was locked into an angle of incidence resulted in a steady state roll rate of 4.5 degrees per second.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2261
Yvan Blanchard
Abstract Today, the design and optimization of complex 3D composites structures is managed by taking into account engineering and manufacturing constraints. If the manufacturing process is automated, especially using a robot, these constraints are particularly complex and a difficult compromise needs to be reached. Most of the technology available on the market, dedicated to automated processes offline programming, neglects some of these constraints, or can only highlight the manufacturing defects without any automatic or manual tools to solve the tape course programming issues. A new innovative approach has been developed to include engineering, material and process specifications, to help designers and NC programmers to optimize the final layup program in terms of structural properties and productivity rate. An aerospace case study using the automated fiber placement (AFP) process will be presented to highlights these offline programming capabilities.
2014-06-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2051
Barbara Neuhierl, David Schroeck, Sivapalan Senthooran, Philippe Moron
Abstract This paper presents an approach to numerically simulate greenhouse windnoise. The term “greenhouse windnoise” here describes the sound transferred to the interior through the glass panels of a series vehicle. Different panels, e.g. the windshield or sideglass, are contributing to the overall noise level. Attached parts as mirrors or wipers are affecting the flow around the vehicle and thus the pressure fluctuations which are acting as loads onto the panels. Especially the wiper influence and the effect of different wiper positions onto the windshield contribution is examined and set in context with the overall noise levels and other contributors. In addition, the effect of different flow yaw angles on the windnoise level in general and the wiper contributions in particular are demonstrated. As computational aeroacoustics requires accurate, highly resolved simulation of transient and compressible flow, a Lattice-Boltzmann approach is used.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4102