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Viewing 1 to 30 of 4306
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1338
Weight reduction is very important in automotive design because of stringent demand on fuel economy. Structural optimization of dynamic systems using finite element (FE) analysis plays an important role in reducing weight while simultaneously delivering a product that meets all functional requirements for durability, crash and NVH. With advancing computer technology, the demand for solving large FE models has grown. Optimization is however costly due to repeated full-order analyses. Reanalysis methods can be used in structural vibrations to reduce the analysis cost from repeated eigenvalue analyses for both deterministic and probabilistic problems. Several reanalysis techniques have been introduced over the years including Parametric Reduced Order Modeling (PROM), Combined Approximations (CA) and the Epsilon algorithm, among others.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1406
Rainer Neumann
Adaptive driving beam (ADB), which was first homologated in the ECE world (ECE 123) in 2012 has changed the automotive Front Lighting philosophy completely. Whereas we currently live with separate low beam and high beam features, also used in a combined way, we will have in the future a camera driven light distribution, which is a kind of modified high beam light pattern. ADB is a camera based lighting system, which enables the driver to achieve at night nearly high beam visibility without glaring oncoming or proceeding vehicles and road users. Once the presence of other vehicles is detected the headlamps change the light pattern and block the light where the oncoming or proceeding vehicles are located. The typical low beam light distribution with given and specified cutoff line will only be used in small speed areas. In US this development was well recognized and NHTSA is preparing a way to enable and approve the ADB systems with specific boundary conditions also for the US market.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1329
Fulin Wei, Yanhua Shen, Tao xu
Abstract: The wear degree of body which is one of major parts of off- road dump truck has direct influence on maintenance and replacement during its service process. In this paper the discrete element method is used to simulate the dumping work for one 110t dump truck body, and the wear variation curve at one point of body floor is achieved in terms of Archard wear theory during one dumping process. Assuming that the variation of body wear is consistent with geometric Brown movement, the mathematical model of body wear is built based on the stochastic differential theory. The two parameters in the stochastic differential equation, drift coefficient and diffusion coefficient, can be evaluated by the wear variation curve. It is possible to quantitatively predict the wear evolution at any position of the body floor. The wear trend of mathematical model shows the same trend with the first two periods (running-in and mild wear) of general mechanical wear process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0530
Jon Goering, Harun Bayraktar
Due to the presence of through-thickness reinforcement, 3D woven composites have superior fracture toughness, fatigue life, and damage tolerance when compared to conventional laminated composites. These materials also exhibit a progressive damage behavior which is more benign than the brittle failure typical of laminated composites, and have high specific energy absorption (SEA). These properties make 3D composites attractive for applications that require light-weighting without sacrificing crashworthiness. This paper summarizes a study that was conducted to compare the energy absorption performance of 3D woven composites to that of laminated composites.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1339
Piyush Bubna, Marc Wiseman
OEMs are investigating opportunities to reduce vehicle mass, driven by a need to meet upcoming CAFE targets and increase the range/reduce battery size of EVs. A number of lightweight materials including high strength steels, aluminum alloys, plastics and composites are now in production. To facilitate development of corporate R&D and commercialization plans for new materials, it is beneficial to understand the current manufacturing costs for production components, and their impact on piece price at different volumes. This paper investigates design and cost impact of light-weighting with respect to front door and floor assembly of Toyota Corolla and BMW i3. Toyota Corolla is a typical high production volume vehicle made of steel body while BMW i3 has relatively low annual sales and is primarily made of composite, aluminum and plastic parts. Use of light-weight materials in automotive have been widely researched.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1330
Lei Shi, Peng Yi, Zhan Zhang
The body joint stiffness plays an important role in achieving vehicle attribute targets. One of the major drawbacks of joint stiffness evaluation is the lack of a rigorous criterion to assess whether the stiffness is proper for a body structure. This paper presents a general metric based on Hooke's low to better evaluate the stiffness of a body joint. A strategy for target setting of body joint stiffness was developed for vehicle body design. Finally, a vehicle body example was presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1331
Shingo Hanano, Kanehiro Nagata, Yusuke Murase
The need to add more color variations to the traditional black gloss has increased globally in recent years. The intention is for automobile manufacturers to differentiate their products in terms of appearance design. The most noticeable trend is to add embellishment around the front grill. The same trend can be seen in the areas around vehicle doors. It is most common to use a coating material to emphasis the gloss of black. However, in overseas countries it is a challenge to meet the required appearance quality, and under the current circumstances CKD is imported from Japan to meet such requirements. We have recently established a new film-transfer technique that can express black gloss as well as any coating material by transferring the roughness of the film surface. It is achieved by crimping the PET film onto the vinyl-chloride surface after the extrusion molding is performed. Moreover, we have successfully localized this technique and reduced the manufacturing cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1408
John D. Bullough, Nicholas P. Skinner, Timothy T. Plummer
Although adaptive driving beam headlight systems are not presently defined in North American headlighting standards, evidence for the potential safety benefits of these systems is increasing. Field measurements of the photometric performance of an adaptive driving bean system were made in response to simulated headlight and tail light conditions. Roadway geometries were varied and multiple measurements for many conditions were made to assess repeatability of measurements. The results of the testing are summarized in the context of validating the likely safety impacts of these systems and of providing recommendations for standardized measurement conditions to ensure reliability.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0434
Roshan N. Mahadule, Jaideep Singh Chavan
Door closing velocity (DCV) is one of the important design parameter which determines durability of the door. DCV varies according to the design and physical properties of the door. The physical properties of the Door assembly can affect DCV and may increase or decrease durability of the door and attached body components, this can be a concern when the overall vehicle durability performance is considered. This paper present a new tool that gives usable input data to durability engineers, which helps to bridge the gap between CAE simulations and physical tests while also reducing computation time.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1380
S. Khodaygan, Amir Ghasemali, Hamed Afrasiab
One of the most important characteristics of industrial products, especially mechanical set-ups, is considering the tolerances of production and assembly of these set-ups, which it directly influences the products’ operations. In sheet metal structures, due to the high flexibility of the sheets, the errors appeared while assembly will be as highly influential as the errors due to the production tolerance of the sheets. As a result, having a comprehensive model which could analyze the assembly process of these structures and also clarifies the relation between the tolerance of the parts and the ultimate changes of the set-up will be of considerable importance. During the assembly process, the contact effect between the components is inevitable. If such effect is not considered, the contact surfaces will permeate. The purpose of this paper is to present a method to analyze the tolerance of flexible sheet structures, considering the contact effect between surfaces.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1327
Zhenfeng Wang, Mingming Dong, Junfeng xiang, Pu Gao, Liang Gu, Yushuai Wang
The study of properties special in the characteristics of elastic element is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Due to torsion bar spring act an important part of elastic element, and improve performance of torsion bar spring is of great concern. The influences of the torsion bar spring pre-setting precision on the torsional performance are presented. Based on elastic-plastic theory, the model of torsion bar spring is established to analyze the stress, torque and residual stress in the yield and plastic condition pre-setting process. Then, the stress and strain states of various torsion bar springs are simulated in different situations using the validated finite element model in ABAQUS software. The simulation results show the influence of torsion error on the torsional performance is less than 5% in the process of pre-setting process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1336
Hee Sang Park
To develop a Headliner substrate of particularly high strength which would meet the future demands of modular Headliner system construction.The paper concludes by summarising the physical properties achieved and shows design concept examples of pre-assembled Headliner systems ready to be "clip mounted at the Car Plant Trackside.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0531
Pulkit Batra, Arpit Bansal, V Jeganathan ArulMoni
Friction stir processing (FSP) is a method of changing the properties of metal through intense, localized plastic deformation. This deformation is produced by forcibly inserting a non-consumable tool into a workpiece, and revolving the tool in a stirring motion as it is pushed laterally through the workpiece. It comprises of a rotating tool with pin and shoulder which are inserted into a single piece of material and traversed along the desired path to cover the region of interest. Friction between the shoulder and work piece results in localized heating which raises the temperature of the material to the range where it is plastically deformed. During this process, severe plastic deformation occurs and due to thermal exposure of material, it results in a significant evolution in the local microstructure. Carbon nanotubes were dispersed into Al matrix by multipass FSP to fabricate Al6082 T0/Fe-MWCNT.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1415
William T. Neale, James Marr, David Hessel
This paper presents a methodology for generating photo realistic computer simulation environments of nighttime driving scenarios by combining nighttime photography and videography with video tracking and projection mapping technologies. Nighttime driving environments contain complex lighting conditions such as forward and signal lighting systems of other vehicles, street lighting, and retro reflective markers and signage. The high dynamic range of nighttime lighting conditions make modeling of these systems difficult to render realistically. Photography and video, especially when using high dynamic range imaging, can produce realistic representations of the lighting environments, but without a computer generated environment, the scenarios that can be represented are limited to the specific scenario recorded.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0526
Sumiran Manghani, Girish Kumar
Vehicle performance is highly dependent on the design and material used. Fairing of a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) is responsible for the reduction in the aerodynamic drag force and its material determines the overall weight and the top speed of the vehicle. Selection of material for fairings depends on various physical, mechanical and manufacturing properties along with practical considerations like availability of material. Today, an ever-increasing variety of composite materials and polymers are available, each of them possessing their own characteristics, applications, advantages and limitations. Many automotive composites are used for manufacturing fairings. Materials like Carbon fiber, Glass fiber (E glass, S glass), Aramid fiber (Kevlar 29, Kevlar 49) are some of the viable options that have been used in the past for manufacturing fairing of HPVs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1411
Sangmin lee, Donghwa Shin, Jongseok Park, Ng Eng Chong, Fabrizio Cortigiani, Youngjae Choi
LED in automotive rear combination lighting (RCL) is becoming widely used in high end to mid class segment car. This is mainly fuelled by the strong influence of styling and requirement of a compact design. With OEMs competing to provide higher value to the customers such as longer warranty and advanced diagnostic features, the topic of semiconductor integration is becoming significant. Integration is a key to enable small form factor, high robustness and implementation of advanced technical functionality in the LED driver. However, the cost of implementing an integrated driver, if not partitioned effectively, will be much higher than the discrete solution. Therefore, it is important to implement the cost optimization strategy right from the conceptualization of the LED driver integrated device. In the beginning of this paper, the LED driving concept that is commonly used in the RCL lighting such as linear current sources and switching supply discussed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1410
Stefan G. Grötsch, Morten Brink, Roland Fiederling, Thomas Liebetrau, Ingo Möllers, Jörg Moisel, Hermann Oppermann, Alexander Pfeuffer
The technology for ADB/AFS systems is facing a transition to addressable LED arrays. ADB concepts today on the market use single row and multi row solutions. The “µAFS” consortium funded by the German Ministry of Research and Education consisting of Daimler, Hella, OSRAM SP and OS, Fraunhofer IZM and IAF and Infineon wants to go one step further. By hetero integration of a LED Chip providing 256 pixels with an intelligent driver IC, a building block for high resolution ADB/AFS light sources with more than 1000 pixels is realized. New headlamp design and optic solutions can be adapted to this illumination source with a pixel size in the range of 0.1 mm. In parallel the electronic infrastructure on the lamp and vehicle side is redefined to deal with the communication requirements coming along with high pixel numbers. New processing concepts create adaptive high resolution light patterns in real time and allow the car integration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1335
Abhishek sinha, Kamlesh Yadav, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. Detailed analysis with innovative techniques and processes are required to make a cost-effective structure. While working on global platform, it is a tremendous challenge to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) with styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper, a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem of meeting both the requirements with less available space.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0532
Masaya Miura, Koichiro Hayashi, Kenichiro Yoshimoto, Natsuhiko Katahira
Weight reduction for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) is important to ensure the long driving distance. One approach to reduce the vehicle weight involves using a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) which has higher specific strength and stiffness. However, a conventional thermoset CFRP needs a long chemical reaction time and is not easy to be introduced for mass production vehicles. In this work, we developed a new stampable thermoplastic CFRP material for a mass production body structural part, and applied the CFRP to the stack frame of "MIRAI". A continuous fiber reinforced composite can utilize fiber strength efficiently, but its shape formability at stamping is poor. To realize a shape formability target, a discontinuous fiber was selected. However, discontinuous fiber reinforced composites tend to have relatively poor mechanical properties, and are not easy to ensure reliability. A carbon fiber-sheet molding compound (C-SMC) is one of the discontinuous CFRP materials.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0529
Michitaro Itoga, Shigetaka Hamada, Seiji Mizuno, Hiroaki Nishiumi, Kazuya Murata, Toshiyuki Tonuma
We aimed at the realization of the vehicle which had clean and fun to drive by achieving high cornering performance and the superior operation stability in the floor lower deployment. Securing of reliability for high efficiency of the FC stack, build reduction by the downsizing and input peculiar to a floor bottom is necessary for the floor lower deployment. The new FC stack achieves a power density of 3.1 kW/L and 2.0 kW/kg (one of the highest in the world). These figures are more than twice as high as the previous model and allow the FC stack to be installed under the floor of the new FCV. We carried out three measures to be equipped with new stack under a floor. The first measures of the low vibration and impact input at the time of road surface interference and the light collision, We prevented cell lamination deviation with the friction constraint structer.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1417
Toshinao Fukui, Kazuhiko Nakamoto, Hiroyuki Satake
Recently, head up displays (HUD) have become a common visual feedback device of advanced technologies as the HUD can display feedback to the driver in a highly visible area. However, a reflection to front windshield is often caused by the outline (mikiri line) of the HUD unit on the dash board when the dash board is in direct sun light. The reflection can lead to driver annoyance on an asphalt road as well as dark view in front of windshield. In certain conditions of the front view, location and thickness, and contrast of the outlines were considered as factors impacting annoyance. These factors were considered to contribute to the visibility of stripe pattern (a contrast sensitivity function). In addition, since the reflection of the outlines can be enhanced by bright sunlight coming to the dash board, the present study considered high illuminance on the dash board as an environmental factor. This additional factor was not considered in the past study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0022
Kenta Morishima, Shigeru Thomas Oho, Satoshi Shimada
A virtual power window control system was built in order to look into and demonstrate applications of microcontroller models. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations and executed step-by-step its control program in binary digital code. Thus, production-ready codes of ECUs are of primary interest in this research. The mechanical system of the power window, the DC motor to lift the window glass, the H-bridge MOSFET drivers, and the current sensing circuit to detect window locking are also modeled. This means that the hardware system of the control system was precisely modeled in terms of mechanical and circuit components. By integrating these models into continuous and discrete co-simulation, the power window control system was analyzed in detail from the microscopic command execution of the microcontroller to the macroscopic motion of the window mechanism altogether.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1328
Praneeth Kurisetty, Naveen Sukumar, Umashanker Gupta
To compete with the current market trends, there is always a need to develop cost effective frame designs to meet the needs of the customer. During the development of new vehicles, the major focus is on weight reduction, so as to improve the load carrying capacity and fuel efficiency. Due to the introduction of new high strength materials, the static strength conditions can be met by the use of thinner frames, but the dynamic behaviour of the frame deteriorates. The dynamic behaviours like ride & handling, comfort are affected by the stiffness of the vehicle frame. The stiffness of the frame is majorly defined by its Vertical stiffness, Lateral Stiffness and Torsional stiffness. The vertical stiffness of the frame plays major role in isolating road vibrations to frame mounted aggregates. The Lateral stiffness plays a very important role in the handling of the vehicle and cornering ability of the vehicle. Torsional stiffness effects the roll and lateral load transfer distribution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0534
Liangxu Ma
Magneto-rheological (MR) fluid is a widely used smart material due to its outstanding properties.Magneto-rheological (MR) fluid is a widely used smart material due to its outstanding properties. In this paper, an MR brake with self-energizing and self-powered capability was modeled, designed and its prototype was developed and tested. It composes mainly of a typical T-shape drum-type MR brake and a wedge mechanism for self-energizing purpose. In addition, a generator was combined to harvest the regenerative energy during braking progress, which offered the system self-powered capability compared with other common brake-by-wire systems used in vehicle. The brake torque analysis was performed and the braking process was simulated in Matlab/Simulink. Finite element analysis in terms of the magnetic field, temperature field as well as mechanical strength of critical components were carried out. The simulation results were used to optimize the design parameters and material selection.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0473
Muthukumar Arunachalam, Arunkumar S, PraveenKumar Sampath, Abdul Haiyum, Beverly Katz
Current generation passenger vehicles are built with several electronic sensors and modules which are required for functioning of passive safety systems precisely and thus directly related to overall vehicle level performance. Most of these sensors and modules are needed to be mounted on vehicle body at locations like pillar or even directly on panels based on its safety functionality and packaging requirements. The body panel or pillar poses local structural resonances and its dynamic behavior might directly affect the functioning of these sensors and modules. Hence the sufficient inertance performance level at sensor mounting locations is required for the proper functioning of those sensors and modules to meet the vibrational target requirement. Drive point modal frequency response function (FRF) analysis at full vehicle model for the frequency range up to 1000 Hz is performed using finite element method (FEM) and verified against the target level.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1349
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
In current scenario, tremendous amount of thrust is there on CAE to simulate the customer usage pattern or lab test using virtual simulation methods. And is of prime importance to reduce the number of soft tooled or hard tooled prototype for a test if it can be well predicted in CAE. Door slam event in automobiles is one, where structure’s behaviour is complex due to vibration of panels. Current work focuses to derive load histories at different mounting points like hinges, latch and contact patch of door seal area through dynamic analysis using LSDyna. The extracted load histories are then applied to trimmed door Nastran model and Modal transient analysis performed to find the stress history. There is computational advantage with Nastran for performing multiple design iterations compared to LSDyna. Also, stress convergence is achieved with Nastran model. The stresses shown higher in the region where actual failure happened.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1365
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
The overall automotive industry is moving toward first time right test which in turn needs first time right analysis. This is due to the enormous pressure of cost, mass, time to market and availability of prototype vehicles for testing. Use of finite element methods enables to upfront predict the system behavior in operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. In vehicle product development process, hood slam durability evaluation is one of the important test for body closure structure. Current work showcases an effort made for developing virtual Hood slam test. The virtual model consists of BIW, hood, hinge joint, interface like CRFM and latch mechanism with spring preload. Analysis performed with LSDyna solver. An impact loading is applied by converting potential energy to kinetic energy, mimicking the hood dropping from a specified height on the hood latch.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1332
Fredrik Henriksson, Kerstin Johansen
In the automotive industry, lightweighting and lightweight design is a continuing trend not probable to decrease in coming years. When looking at where to reduce weight in a vehicle, the body is a preferential subsystem due to its large contribution to overall mass and the stability of body composition over a specific model range. The automotive industry of today moves toward a greater differentiation in materials that compose a car, which can be seen in the several different multi material vehicle bodies that have been introduced by manufacturers in recent years. But while mixing materials may make for a good compromise between weight reduction and vehicle cost, it also proposes a number of challenges that needs to be addressed. Among other material factors, the different coefficients of thermal expansions might introduce new stresses during painting and baking.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1508
Gernot Pauer, Michal Kriska, Andreas Hirzer
In view of increasing safety requirements of vehicles, concerning the field of pedestrian safety, it is especially important to support these topics already from a very early stage of the development process, on a completely virtual basis, by CAE- and FE-methods. Especially if different requirements, e.g. for bumper stiffness, pedestrian safety and pedestrian detection may require conflicting structural solutions, design compromises have to be found against a background of an ever reducing number of real prototype testing possibilities, due to economical constraints. One way to overcome conflicting requirements in vehicle design is the usage of active bonnets to fulfill pedestrian head impact requirements. These systems allow increasing the deformation space towards the stiff parts in the engine compartment, but need an extra detection system for reliable activation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1454
Libo Dong, Stanley Chien, Jiang-Yu Zheng, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (PAEB) for avoiding/mitigating pedestrian crashes has been equipped on some passenger vehicles. One of the important components in the PAEB evaluation is the development of standard testing at night. The test facility should include representative low-illuminance environment to enable the examination of the sensing and control functions of different PAEB systems. The goal of this research is to characterize and model light source distributions and variations in the low-illuminance environment and determine possible ways to reconstruct such an environment for PAEB evaluation. Previously, the development of lighting system for PAEB Testing is based only on ANSI/IESNA RP-8-00, which define the average illuminance level and light uniformity of the lighting requirement in US roadway lighting design. This approach is intrinsic and cost effective, but lacks of real lighting characteristic in urban area.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4306