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Viewing 1 to 30 of 4165
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitoring systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions while at the same time improve driver visibility in future cars with a more aerodynamic profile. This improvement in visibility is expected to be more beneficial during the night or under extreme weather conditions. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit. The CMS is intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of mandatory and legally prescribed interior and exterior mirrors in vehicles as specified in various international regulations and standards such as FMVSS 111 and SAE J985. Such system must take into consideration not only the required external field of view (FoV), but also the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity. This captured information is subsequently displayed to the driver inside the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0724
Liangxu Ma, Liangyao Yu, Jian Song, Xuhui Liu, WenWei Xuan
Magneto-rheological (MR) fluid is a novel composite material and can be used in different components of vehicle. Magneto-rheological fluids (MRF) are suspensions of micron sized whose yield stress varies rapidly as the change of magnetic field applied. The use of magneto-rheological (MR) fluids in vehicles has been gaining popular recently due to its strong rheological effect, fast response, good stability and low energy consumption, which give automotive designers more dimensions of freedom in functional designs. Nowadays, most of the related research of MRF is about the construction of the prototype and the realization of the brake force. However, due to a lack of optimal design and the understanding of MRF and magnetic field, the main research progress is only about the simulation which makes the braking effect of the prototype can hardly meet the requirement of vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0368
Janampally Sandeep Kumar Reddy, Shailendra Deopa, Abhay Sharma, Piyush Aggarwal
The condenser opening area plays a vital role in the A/C Performance of the vehicle particularly during the idling. This paper presents the detail study on the effects of the condenser opening area on the A/C performance. Based on the theory, the effect of the condenser opening area is studied and it is validated by the experimental results. Based on these results an optimum value of the condenser opening area required for the best A/C performance is concluded.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1312
MyoungKwon Je
The power sliding door system(PSD) is being equipped in the MPV(Multi-Purposd Vehicle) vehicle for convenience in the door operation. This study will be done to optimize package for interior design and package in the vehicle which equips PSD system. To optimize the package, investigation for PSD's structure need to be done and the examples of other vehicle maker will be investigated and compared. And the study to reconcile between the performance and good package of PSD system made the unique PSD design method in this study. And finally, this study will show the result vehicle in which the optimized mechanism is applied. So we will realize the effect from this study.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1319
Eitaro Koya, Yukihide Fukuda, Shinya Kitagawa, Mitsunori Murakami, Atsushi Kawauchi, Sadanori Furue
Weight reduction is a key measure to enhance fuel economy of a vehicle. When a weight reduction is applied to suspension parts, high stiffness is also required. To achieve both high stiffness and light weight, it is effective to adopt a hollow structure to the main structure. For manufacturing of a hollow structure by aluminum casting, Gravity Die Casting (GDC) has been widely applied because of its slow charging speed contributing to avoid high pressure to the foundry sand core. In GDC, the molten metal is generally charged at a speed of 1 m/s or slower and this low speed keeps the pressure low. However, in this method, the charging time is prolonged and the wall thickness reduction is restricted. Accordingly, it was needed to establish a method of hollow structure casting that can be implemented to HPDC, because HPDC is capable of thin wall casting and realizing a short process time. However, in HPDC, the injection speed is usually 30 to 40 m/s.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1741
Ashish Jashvantlal Modi, Mohitsinh Padheriya, Prakashkumar Chaudhari
As concerned with the IC engine now a day’s energy conservation and higher thermal efficiency are the main issues. As there is a big amount of heat loss in atmosphere due to which the efficiency is lower for the standard engine. There is one possible solution to reduce such problem by converting the conventional CI engine in to the Low Heat Rejection (LHR) engine. For the current work, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive framework for the material selection process to fabricate LHR engine (also called Thermal Barrier Coated Engine or Adiabatic Engine). Multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) methods have been applied to rank out the alternatives. MATLAB code is used to identify best suitable material based on various attributes like physical properties of materials and thermal performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1317
Golam Mainuddin, Mohamad Qatu
Rotating machinery vibration is an interesting subject, particularly in automotive engineering. Every rotating component has vibration issues. This typically results from issues of balancing, run-out and others. Automotive industries are interested in minimizing noise and vibration to comfort levels. This is a main attribute for automotive customers. Noise and vibration issues also impact warranty claims, which are important to the auto industry as well. Light electric vehicles (EV) show different levels of NVH. The usual abrupt vibration and noise issues typically recorded for internal combustion engine (ICE) do not exist for EV. This research is intended to get an overall idea about NVH levels in EV and to show the differences between internal combustion engine and electric vehicle during cruising mode. Several tests were conducted with a light electric vehicle. Vibration signatures were recorded during cruising (in low speeds) of the electric truck.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0358
Praveen Balaj Balakrishnan, Xiaoyong Yu
An adsorption air conditioning system is proposed to provide cabin comfort cooling for automotives. This report is focused on the development of a compact adsorption cooling system for automobile applications and its experimental performance. This system uses AQSOA – Z01, an adsorbent material that adsorbs and regenerates water efficiently at low temperature ranges. A water circulation system was specially built to simulate the process of obtaining heat from exhaust gas heat and provide low-grade thermal energy for the adsorption cooling system. As this system does not need to be powered by engine as in the conventional system, it can improve fuel efficiency of the engine up to 10% which also results in reduction of pollutants due to combustion. The prototype is capable of producing up to 1310 Watts of cooling power and achieved 650 W/kg as the value for the specific cooling power (SCP) and coefficient of performance (COP) value of 0.45.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0725
Mohamed Eghfaier, Nassif E. Rayess
Cellular materials in general and metal foams in particular are becoming more accessible to the automotive industry as technologies get further developed and the supply chain expands. Among the salient properties of metal foams are high plastic deformation energy and light weight, which is a combination that brings advantages in impact and crash applications. For the purposes of this study, these advantages are embodied in the form of cylindrical shells with aluminum foam cores loaded to failure in the longitudinal direction. Such embodiments can be considered as adequate approximations to those found in vehicle crumple zones and roof pillars. In this study, the aluminum foam is of the open cell variety with the trade name Duocel® manufactured by ERG Materials and Aerospace Corporation. It is made of 6101 T6 aluminum and has a 10 % relative density (90% of the volume is air). The average cell size is denoted by average linear pore density with a unit of pores per inch PPI.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1704
Dee Kivett, John Smith
Several emerging technologies hold great promise to improve the 360-degree awareness of the heavy vehicle driver. However, current industry-standard evaluation methods do not measure all the comprehensive factors contributing to the overall effectiveness of such systems. As a result, industry is challenged to evaluate new technologies in a way that is objective and allows the comparison of different systems in a consistent manner. This research aims to explore the methods currently in use, identify relevant factors not presently incorporated in standard procedures, and recommend best practices to accomplish an overall measurement system that can quantify performance beyond simply the field of view of a driver visibility system. We introduce a new metric, “Clarity of View,” that incorporates several important factors for visibility systems including: gap acceptance, response time, and behavior accuracy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1702
Alex Wang, Jung Hsien Yen
This paper presents a novel technology to achieve world lowest power (4W) FOG lamp by single LED design which is much enhanced than the existing 2-3 LEDs solutions. This design saves 92.7% energy than conventional Halogen lamp(55W) and saves 38.4% than existing LED FOG lamp(6.5W). The optical design adopts the optimized multifaceted reflector, with precise and unique optimization design scheme, we are able to generate a very sharp cut-off line with a 3.2W LED to enable stronger light penetration in low vision weather condition. The efficiency of multifaceted reflector optics in this study is 50.9% which is 27% higher than the existing reflector design. Design details, anti-block skills and the manufacturing tolerance control are analyzed in this paper. The total light output of the LED fog lamp is 210lm, the L6-line minimal is 4200cd above the ECE R19 requirement of 2700cd.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0722
Mathieu Imbert
High speed Reactive Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) is a promising process for the mass production of structural composite parts in the automotive industry. In this technology a low viscosity reactive thermosetting or thermoplastic polymer is injected in a fibrous preform made of glass or carbon fibres fabrics. Continuous fiber reinforcements contain two types of volume to be impregnated: microscopic voids inside the fiber tows and mesoscopic ones between the tows. Because of this double-scale structure, the saturation of fabrics with bi-disperse porous structure is not instantaneous during resin injection. The use of reactive resins aims to reduce both the resin viscosity and part cycle time by beginning curing during the filling stage. However the chemical reactions generate significant evolution in the temperature, composition and properties of the resin during injection, which can affect the filling and quality of the part.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0729
Anshul Mittal, Anindya Deb, Clifford Chou
Rapid progress in the interdisciplinary field of automotive engineering and the pressing need for an environmental friendly alternative to metal and synthetic fiber-reinforced composites for vehicle structure have triggered recent research in the field of natural fiber-based composites. Their potential advantages are attributed to their light weight, low cost and biodegradability. However, their usage in present day automotive systems is restricted due a lower magnitude range of mechanical properties and limited study in this area. In contrast to mechanical joints, adhesively bonded joints aid in reducing stress concentration, joining of dissimilar materials, corrosion prevention, weight reduction and a smoother finish. Thus, in this study, strengths of single lap shear, double lap shear and cleavage joints as a function of joint overlap length are evaluated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1700
John D. Bullough
Warning lights and beacons on service vehicles such as maintenance trucks, tow trucks, utility service vehicles and delivery vehicles are an important line of defense for the workers who operate them. These lights can also contribute to visual chaos making it difficult to navigate through a work zone location. Research on the flashing configuration and spatial and temporal coordination of warning lights that adapt to ambient conditions and situations will be described, leading to recommendations for preliminary performance specifications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1376
Thomas Leonhard, Thomas Cleary, Michael Moore, Shane Seyler, W Keith Fisher
Driven by future emission legislation and consumer requirements fuel efficiency improvement continues to be a focus area for the automotive industry. OEMs are pursuing various technical paths in parallel to meet upcoming CO2 and fuel economy targets. Lightweight designs, being one of them, are becoming increasingly important. In that context automotive glazing offers an attractive potential for vehicle weight reduction above the belt line. This potential grows as the application of laminate windows is expanding from windshields into other vehicle openings. Utilizing conventional soda-lime glass designs for these laminate windows typically comes along with a weight penalty. A new concept using ultrathin chemically strengthened Corning® Gorilla® Glass in automotive glazing laminates has the potential to break that design challenge, enabling the advantages of laminates as well as weight savings. This concept is being evaluated by leading OEMs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1701
Luciano Lukacs
The challenges around global products have been lately one of the key challenges for the Lighting community. This paper will present a survey which was held with costumers from China, India, Europe and Brazil understanding the difference and similarities regarding the lighting attributes. it brings also a discussion how to develop a lamp globally that fulfils everyone's needs and addresses potential trade-offs in design and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1316
Hwawon Lee, Parvath Police, Lisa Koch, Rajmouli komarivelli, Brice Willis
Spot weld separation in vehicle development stage is one of the critical phenomena in structural analyses regarding quasi-static test condition, like roof strength or seat/belt pull. It directly reduces structural performance by losing connected load path and occasionally introduces tearing on surrounding sheet metals. Traditionally many efforts have been attempted to capture parent metal ductile fracture, but not applied to spot weld separations in automotive FEA simulations. [1][2][3] There are two analytical methods that have been widely used in the automotive industry. One is force-based approach. This approach is represented by mesh-independent beam or hex weld with contact definitions to sheet metal. Weld separation is predicted by utilizing developed force and moment criteria, but is limited to capturing interfacial weld fracture mode only. The other approach is strain-based spot weld.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1703
John D. Bullough
Assessing the safety impacts of vehicle forward lighting is a challenge because crash data do not always contain details necessary to ascertain the role, if any, of lighting in crashes. The present paper will describe several approaches to evaluating the safety impacts of lighting using naturalistic driving data. Driving behavioral data and records of near-miss incidents might provide new opportunities to understand how forward lighting improves traffic safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1318
Mohammad Muneer, Yogesh Sharma
The door performance of an automobile is gauged not only by its function but also the “feel” of operating a door which majorly depends upon opening /closing force and closing velocity. This feel is in direct relation to soundness of design and build quality which the customer experiences even before driving the vehicle. The above mentioned performance parameters depend largely on the following factors: 1. Door structure and weight 2. Hinge Axis inclination 3. Body/panel Accuracy 4. Check link/stop comp design 5. Latch mechanism 6. Compression resistance force from sealing 7. Air binding effect 8. Frictional forces (both part and component level) For a sliding door, along with above mentioned factors following also play a major role. 9. Rail design/ door closing/opening locus 10. Door support structure (Hinges) Several studies have been conducted for door open/close performance for a conventional swing door, however little has been done for sliding door.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1544
Sunil patil, Robert Lietz, Sudesh Woodiga PhD, Hojun Ahn, Levon Larson, Ronald Gin, Michael elmore, Alexander simpson
One of the passive methods to reduce drag on the unshielded underbody of a passenger road vehicle is to use a vertical deflectors commonly called as air dams or chin spoilers. These deflectors reduce the flow rate through the non-streamlined underbody and thus reduce the drag caused by underbody components protruding in to the high speed underbody flow. Air dams or chin spoilers have traditionally been manufactured from hard plastics which could break upon impact with a curb or any solid object on the road. To alleviate this failure mode vehicle manufacturers are resorting to using soft plastics which deflect and deform under aerodynamic loading or when hit against a solid object without breaking in most cases. This report is on predicting the deflection of soft chin spoilers under aerodynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads deflect the chin spoiler and the deflected chin spoiler changes the fluid pressure field resulting in a drag change.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0484
Naijia Xiao, Rafi L. Muhanna, Francesco Fedele, Robert L. Mullen
We present a new interval finite element formulation for the response in the frequency domain of structural dynamic systems with uncertainties in load, material and geometry. Overestimation due to dependency is reduced using a new decomposition for the stiffness and mass matrices, as well as for the nodal equivalent load. In addition, primary and derived quantities are simultaneously obtained by means of Lagrangian multipliers that are introduced in the total energy of the system. The obtained interval equations are solved by means of a new variant of the iterative enclosure method resulting in guaranteed enclosures of relevant quantities. Several numerical examples show the accuracy and efficiency of the new formulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0485
Mehdi Modares, Joshua Bergerson
In order to ensure the safety of a structure, adequate strength for structural elements must be provided. Moreover, the catastrophic deformations such as buckling must be prevented. In most buckling analyses, structural properties and applied loads are considered certain. Using the linear finite element method, the deterministic buckling analysis is done in two main steps. First, static analysis is performed using an arbitrary ordinate applied load. Using the obtained element axial forces, the geometric stiffness of the structure is assembled. Second, performing an eigenvalue problem between structure’s elastic and geometric stiffness matrices yields the structure’s critical buckling loads. However, these deterministic approaches do not consider uncertainty the structure’s material and geometric properties. In this work, a new method for finite element based buckling analysis of a structure with uncertainty is developed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0532
Mingchao Guo, Weidong Zhang, Dajun Zhang, Ram Bhandarkar
A tailgate on cargo box is a typical closure with dynamic mechanical connections to box body structure: the pivot joints at lower corners of both left and right hand sides not only rotate free around the lateral axes but also travel free away from the box body structure along the lateral axes within certain range. This causes modeling difficulties for the tailgate to box body connections in durability analysis when a linear static based stress and fatigue damage linear accumulation approach is employed. Any assumptions in the connection modeling will results in inaccurate stresses at the pivot joint areas, both tailgate and box body sides. In this paper, a developed new technique with measured acceleration input is described in details. The acceleration time histories in x, y and z directions at three corners of the tailgate are collected first.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0550
Wenxin Qin
Substructure Stiffness Synthesis for Fatigue Analysis of Automotive Structure Wenxin Qin (Chrysler Group, LLC, USA) Abstract In automotive chassis, body and powertrain durability fatigue analysis, FEA model becomes bigger and bigger and close to adopt a full vehicle as computer hardware and software improved. However, due to a huge amount of components (more than 20,000 parts in a vehicle), there are still too much computational time needed and a lot of pre/post process works to do for using full car FEA model. Therefore, for saving time and cost it is desirable to reduce the number of subsystems, and getting an effective subsystem model which keeps the main features of the mechanics of a whole vehicle system. In this paper, authors present a useful and effective substructure FEA model: Substructure Stiffness Synthesis (SSS) method in the automotive durability analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1313
Donald Jasurda
In the automotive world, thermal expansion and gravity on assembly processes in manufacturing often account for unexpected variation. Issues related to the effects of these forces can cause not just assembly issues, but can also be the cause of non-conformance and warranty problems later in the product life cycle. Using 3d CAD models, engineers can now take advantage of advances in simulation to predict the effect of both thermal forces and gravity on their assembly and processes before production. By designing out these influences through a combination of tooling, process and tolerance changes, manufacturers can reduce the costs stemming from these common issues. This whitepaper delves into the process of simulating the effect of both these forces on automotive structures using real life examples and models based on customer experiences.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1340
Yoichi Toyooka, Kiyoshi Hasegawa
Warping the exteriors of outer panels happens during the application of heat for hardening structural adhesives. Using aluminum and resin promote warping. Simulation of warping at the design stage and evaluating warping during mass-production require us to quantify the degree of warping to evaluate absolute values. These analytic values correspond to values from warping in panels, and display a correlation with visual examinations. Degree of displacement was an evaluative indicator for the quantification of warping. However, warping will not always be recognized due to gradual change in areas of the panel and cases where it will be recognized due to sudden change, despite that the absolute value of the degree of displacement might be the same. This research considered a warping simulation and evaluation using curvature as the evaluative indicator. Curvature is the gradient of change of the curved surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1370
Mehran Ebrahimi, Kamran Behdinan
Energy consumption is one of the most significant challenges in the world today, and has been the source of many struggles in international level. The future of human’s generations is in serious danger because of energy related issues such as resources shortage and global warming. Hence, responsible governments have codified some policies to reduce fuel consumption in energy-dependent industries and their products. Automobile industries as the manufacturers of fuel consumer products are not exempt from these rules, and are always looking for more lightweight industrial designs. In order to achieve more lightweight solutions, changing the material of an available part to a lower density one is the first option in many applications, and aluminum as an accessible material with acceptable mechanical properties can be a suitable replacement for steel in the majority of industrial demands.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1378
Takeshi Sasaki, Tatsuya Ohmaru, Taisuke Goto
We developed a windshield washer system that enhances washing performance while reducing the amount of washer fluid consumed. This system reduces the time required to remove dirt and reduces stress on users. To enhance washing efficiency, we studied how the windshield wiper and washer remove dirt. The washer fluid contacts and floats the dirt from the glass surface then wipes it away with the wiper blade. The amount of windshield washer fluid required and the time after the windshield washer fluid floats the dirt from the windshield and wipes it away were analyzed. When mounting the system in a vehicle, the required amount of windshield washer fluid and the required time were correlated to the washer fluid spray and control. The washer spray format, the target amount of washer fluid that contacts the glass surface and the target wiping timing can be achieved by locating the windshield washer nozzle near the center of the wiper blade.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1377
Hiroshi Yokoyama, Atsushi Otani, Naoyuki Shirota, Takao Umezawa
Windshield wipers and washers are essential for safety driving of motor vehicles and expected to steadily provide a good field of vision under various weather and environment conditions. However, there is a concern that washers are likely to be affected by several factors such as fast air flow at high speed driving and high washer fluid viscosity at low temperature, which may result in unsatisfactory distribution of washer fluid onto windshields. As another example, particularly-high cleaning performance is required while vehicles are running on a winter road with mud and salt. Conversely, if these concerns are resolved, washers can contribute more to vehicle safety. Thus, we have developed a washer nozzle with a self-oscillating flow passage focusing on distributing appropriate amount of washer fluid.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1311
Leland Decker, James Truskin
As CAFE requirements increase, automotive OEMs are pursuing innovative methods to lightweight their Body In Whites (BIWs). Within Chrysler, this lightweighting research and development activity often occurs through Decoupled Innovation projects. A Decoupled Innovation team comprised of engineers from Chrysler’s BIW Structures Group, in collaboration with Tier 1 supplier Magna Exteriors, sought to re-design a loadbearing component on the BIW that would offer significant weight savings when the current steel component was replaced with a carbon fiber composite. This paper describes the design, development, physical validation and partnership that resulted in a composite Rear Package Shelf Assembly solution for a high-volume production vehicle. As the CAFE requirements loom closer and closer, these innovation-driven engineering activities are imperative to the successful lightweighting of Chrysler vehicles.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4165