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Viewing 1 to 30 of 4187
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1737
Jean-louis Ligier, Mathieu Benoit, Sylvain Damaz
Today new automotive engine design is optimized in term of mass. However, in term of stiffness, optimizations mainly consider eigenfrequency criteria. But in assembly components with quite low stiffness cumulated microslip phenomena can occur when the structures are subject to cyclic loadings. After a while, macro-displacements will be observed and then failures of the assembly will take place. Bush, plain bearing, roller bearing in conrod or in gearbox can be subject to this kind of problem. In this paper, after a short description of various mechanisms which can cause microreptation phenomena, two types of cumulated microslip occurring in engine and gearbox are presented. Behavior specifities will be highlighted to remind how particular are cumulated microslip. From the field, it appears that both phenomena arise with a low probability of occurrence. It implies not to use the devices concerned by this problem to investigate the phenomenon.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1128
Amrut A. Patki
Several critical factors influence the conventional practice of defining driveline propeller shafts. One of these is the location of the center bearing bracket mounting. This in-turn depends on the frame ladder’s crossmember. It has been observed that this dependence results in more number of joints and propeller shafts. “Driveline optimization by mini crossmember” is one of the solutions that offers flexibility in regards to the location of the center bearing bracket. Also this helps in achieving optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0673
Rohit Ray, Nagarjun Jawahar
Automotive OEM’s are looking to develop plastic parts with maximum life and durability through virtual simulations with help of CAE tools, thereby saving the mold cost, material cost and time. The design constrains would be manufacturability, loads, boundary condition and aesthetics. This work involves the multi-discipline approach to virtually visualize the effect of fluid structure interaction due to splashing on the rear fender of a motorcycle which acts as mud guard. This study shows effect of splashing of water over rear fender on wet roads. First, the pressure developed on the rear fender due to impingement of water on surface is obtained through a multiphase volume of fluid analysis using CFD software Fluent. Secondly, these pressure values are taken as input in Abaqus software and the part is analyzed for its durability along with road excitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0526
Timo Faath, Lay Knoerr
In the new ThyssenKrupp InCar®plus project, numerous solutions were developed for body parts and systems that contribute to increased efficiency through the use of new materials and manufacturing technologies. They are superior to current production solutions in terms of weight, cost, performance and sustainability, while also meeting the demand for cost-effective weight reduction. One example is the front bumper: This part offers major weight reduction potential in the front end of the car. Both steel and aluminum versions are currently in serial production. In the ThyssenKrupp InCar®plus project, a highly efficient steel solution was developed that matches the weight level of current aluminum solutions at much lower cost. The hot-formed lightweight steel crash beam is around 20% lighter than conventional steel solutions. The latest safety requirements such as the new R-CAR barrier test and the IIHS Small Overlap Test were taken into account during development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1378
Takeshi Sasaki, Tatsuya Ohmaru, Taisuke Goto
We developed a windshield washer system that enhances washing performance while reducing the amount of washer fluid consumed. This system reduces the time required to remove dirt and reduces stress on users. To enhance washing efficiency, we studied how the windshield wiper and washer remove dirt. The washer fluid contacts and floats the dirt from the glass surface then wipes it away with the wiper blade. The amount of windshield washer fluid required and the time after the windshield washer fluid floats the dirt from the windshield and wipes it away were analyzed. When mounting the system in a vehicle, the required amount of windshield washer fluid and the required time were correlated to the washer fluid spray and control. The washer spray format, the target amount of washer fluid that contacts the glass surface and the target wiping timing can be achieved by locating the windshield washer nozzle near the center of the wiper blade.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1304
G Karthik, K V Balaji, Rao Venkateshwara, Bagul Rahul
This paper describes about recycled polyethylene terephthalate(R-PET) material for canopy strip part in automotive application. This recycled PET is a compounded material which is made out of used PET bottles and it is compounded with glass fibre to meet the product functional requirements. Canopy strip is a structural exterior part which requires better mechanical and thermal properties. The major function of this part is to act like a structural frame to hold the canopy sheet which is present at the both sides of the vehicle. Generally, PET bottles are use and throw product. PET is inert and takes an extremely long time to degrade so the empty bottles would also take an enormous amount of space in landfills which will directly affect rain water percolation. This compounded material is one of the sustainable solution for the environment where the waste bottles get converted to useful automotive parts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1493
Vinay L. Virupaksha, Stuart Brown
Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10.5 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma and finite element analysis is used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0590
Dae-Un Sung, Young Hyun Ryu, Soon Cheol Park
Recently, many kinds of new technology systems are adapted to a new developing vehicle. However the field usage information of a new technology system could not be easily obtained because this system has not been used by customers. It is not easy to evaluate the reliability and durability of these kinds of new systems. In this research, the durability test mode of AFLS (Adaptive Front Lightning System) with LED (Light Emitting Diode) lamp has been developed. First of all, The failure modes were analyzed by considering failure mechanism for each component. The thermal load, vibration, swiveling movement and electrical loads were investigated. The RLDA (Road Load Data Acquisition) technique was used for obtaining the vibration and temperature of LED AFLS in proving ground. The vibration test mode was developed by PSD (Power Spectral Density). The thermal load effect on life time of LED was investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitoring systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions while at the same time improve driver visibility in future cars with a more aerodynamic profile. This improvement in visibility is expected to be more beneficial during the night or under extreme weather conditions. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit. The CMS is intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of mandatory and legally prescribed interior and exterior mirrors in vehicles as specified in various international regulations and standards such as FMVSS 111 and SAE J985. Such system must take into consideration not only the required external field of view (FoV), but also the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity. This captured information is subsequently displayed to the driver inside the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0725
Mohamed Eghfaier, Nassif E. Rayess
Cellular materials in general and metal foams in particular are becoming more accessible to the automotive industry as technologies get further developed and the supply chain expands. Among the recognized properties of metal foams are high plastic deformation energy and light weight, which is a combination that could be leveraged advantageously in impact and crash applications. In this study, cylindrical shells with aluminum foam cores were crushed in the longitudinal direction, an embodiment that approximates those found in vehicle crumple zones and roof pillars. The cores were made of Duocel®, which is an aluminum foam of the open cell variety. The foam is made of 6101 T6 aluminum and has a 10 % relative density (90% of the volume is air) and a linear pore density of 20 pores per inch. The materials investigated for the shell were aluminum and carbon fiber composite. The columns were tested with and without a core and with and without adhesive bonding between the core and shell.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0723
Sebastian Bender, Raymond Khoo, Christoph Große, Felix M. Wunner, Heong Wah Ng, Markus Lienkamp
Upcoming stringent regulations on emissions and fuel efficiency are driving the automotive industry towards light-weight vehicle design. A higher share of carbon fiber composite materials in vehicle structures is expected. Current literature addresses development processes of composite components under a limited scope but the considerations of design parameters used in these studies are inadequate for the realistic development of a full vehicle structure, especially in a resource-constrained development project. In addition, existing vehicle structure design philosophies used for metallic structures cannot be directly ported over for composites design due to the differences in material properties, failure modes and design for manufacturing limitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0728
Ravindra Rachappa Malagi, Bharatesh Adappa Danawade
The behavior of composite material is a result of integrated contribution of fiber, matrix, and fiber/matrix interface. Applied load to members must effectively get transferred from matrix to fibers via interface. It is extremely important to study and understand the nature of the interface of any given composite system. The flexural behavior of wood filled steel tubes is largely dependent on interactions at wood/steel interface. The objective of this paper is to present the work carried out study the behavior and determine the interfacial shear stress. Interfacial shear stress is studied considering simple mechanical bonding by interference fit and adhesive bonding by structural epoxy adhesive. The experimental results obtained indicate that the interfacial shearing strength is higher in the case of adhesively bonded wood/steel interface. And also the moment capacity of rectangular wood filled steel tubes of adhesive bonded wood/steel interface is higher.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1701
Luciano Lukacs
The challenges around global products have been lately one of the key challenges for the Lighting community. This paper will present a survey which was held with costumers from China, India, Europe and Brazil understanding the difference and similarities regarding the lighting attributes. it brings also a discussion how to develop a lamp globally that fulfils everyone's needs and addresses potential trade-offs in design and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1700
John D. Bullough
Warning lights and beacons on service vehicles such as maintenance trucks, tow trucks, utility service vehicles and delivery vehicles are an important line of defense for the workers who operate them. These lights can also contribute to visual chaos making it difficult to navigate through a work zone location. Research on the flashing configuration and spatial and temporal coordination of warning lights that adapt to ambient conditions and situations will be described, leading to recommendations for preliminary performance specifications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1703
John D. Bullough
Assessing the safety impacts of vehicle forward lighting is a challenge because crash data do not always contain details necessary to ascertain the role, if any, of lighting in crashes. The present paper will describe several approaches to evaluating the safety impacts of lighting using naturalistic driving data. Driving behavioral data and records of near-miss incidents might provide new opportunities to understand how forward lighting improves traffic safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0581
Luke Deptula, Alaa Noah
ABSTRACT The approaching corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) regulations will again increase with new model years (MY). The U.S. Government finalized a regulation requiring cars and light trucks average 54.5 mpg fuel economy for MY2025. Vehicle manufacturers recognize removing weight is a key feature to meeting their targets for fuel economy and emission reductions. One common OEM strategy is the implementation of incremental weight reductions to attain these goals. The automotive industry continues to look for opportunities to reduce weight and cost while continually increasing performance and safety. Lightweighting technologies enhance vehicle performance, (fuel economy, acceleration, braking and emissions). New materials are available to reduce weight; however the incremental cost for the weight reduction can be prohibitive. This study will encompass the utilization of lightweight materials, as well as current and evolving manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0559
Cheryl Caffrey, Kevin Bolon, Greg Kolwich, Robert Johnston, Timothy Shaw
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted FEV to conduct an analysis of the potential for reducing the mass of a light-duty pickup truck in the 2020 to 2025 timeframe. Body-on-frame trucks are designed to meet a broad range of requirements, providing particular utility and performance that are much different from most passenger vehicles. These additional requirements drive unique design considerations which may both limit the amount of mass reduction achievable in the future, and increase the cost. This whole-vehicle study of a pickup truck, the first of its kind to be published, is intended to supplement earlier mass reduction studies for passenger cars and cross-over utility vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1702
Alex Wang, Jung Hsien Yen
This paper presents a novel technology to achieve world lowest power (4W) FOG lamp by single LED design which is much enhanced than the existing 2-3 LEDs solutions. This design saves 92.7% energy than conventional Halogen lamp(55W) and saves 38.4% than existing LED FOG lamp(6.5W). The optical design adopts the optimized multifaceted reflector, with precise and unique optimization design scheme, we are able to generate a very sharp cut-off line with a 3.2W LED to enable stronger light penetration in low vision weather condition. The efficiency of multifaceted reflector optics in this study is 50.9% which is 27% higher than the existing reflector design. Design details, anti-block skills and the manufacturing tolerance control are analyzed in this paper. The total light output of the LED fog lamp is 210lm, the L6-line minimal is 4200cd above the ECE R19 requirement of 2700cd.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1549
Jonathan Jilesen, Adrian Gaylard, Iwo Spruss, Timo Kuthada, Jochen Wiedemann
Driving when it is raining can be a stressful experience. Having a clear unobstructed view of the vehicles and road around you under these conditions is especially important. Heavy rain conditions can however overwhelm water management devices resulting in water rivulets flowing over the vehicle’s side glass. These rivulets can significantly impair the driver’s ability to see the door mirror, and laterally onto junctions. Designing water management features for vehicles is a challenging venture as testing is not normally conducted until late in the design phase. Additionally traditional water management features such as grooves and channels have both undesirable design and wind noise implications. Having the ability to detect water management issues such as A-pillar overflow earlier in the design cycle is desirable to minimize the negative impact of water management features. Numerical simulation of windscreen water management is desirable for this reason.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0360
Maryline Leriche, Wolfgang Roessner, Heinrich Reister, Bernhard Weigand
An accurate model to predict the formation of fogging and defogging which occurs for low windshield temperatures is helpful for designing the air-conditioning system in the car. Using a multiphase flow approach and additional user-defined functions within a commercial CFD-software (STAR-CCM+), a model which is able to calculate the amount of water droplets on the windshield from condensation and which causes the fogging is set up. Different parameters like relative humidity, air temperature, mass flow rate and droplet distributions are considered. Because of the condition of the windshield’s surface, the condensation occurs as tiny droplets with different sizes. The distribution of these very small droplets must be obtained to estimate numerically the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation process to predict the defogging time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0363
Vasanth Balashunmuganathan, Ramakrishna Nukala, Sathishkumar Sampath Kumar, Murali Govindarajalu
In recent years clearing the mist on side windows is one of the main criterions for all OEMs for providing comfort level to the passengers while driving. It will create poor visibility to the passengers when the mist is not cleared on side windows to the desired level. “Windows fog up excessively/don’t clear quickly” is one of the JD Power question to assess the customer satisfaction related to HVAC performance. Defrost/Demist is one of the major issues for all OEMs in recent years. In a Mobile Air Conditioning System, HVAC demister duct and outlet plays an important role for removing the mist formation on vehicle side window. Normally demister duct and outlet design is evaluated by the target airflow and velocity achieved at driver and passenger side window. Multiple flow simulation needs to be carried out for various design configurations of demister outlet until the target velocity is achieved before finalizing the design and its time consuming.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0369
Rupesh Sonu Kakade
Apart from thermal comfort of occupants, their safety by ensuring adequate visibility is the primary objective of automotive climate control systems. Integrated dew point and glass temperature is widely used senor among several technologies to detect risk of fog formation on the windshield. The erroneous information from sensor such as the measurement lag can cause imperfect visibility due to delayed response of climate control system. A differential equation model of cabin air humidity is proposed to calculate in real-time the ambient humidity of passenger compartment. The specific humidity from the model is used to determine relative humidity for a known window surface temperature. The uniform spatial distribution of cabin air humidity is used to advantage. However non-uniform distribution of window surface temperature and the uncertainty of parameters of differential equation model are evaluated to determine risk of fogging to an acceptable accuracy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0330
Iman Goldasteh, Shi-Ing Chang, Salamah Maaita, Gursaran Mathur
Proper flow distribution on the windshield and side windows is critical for adequate visibility while driving. Fog or ice which forms on the windshield is the main reason of invisibility and leads to major safety issue. It has been shown that proper clear visibility for the windshield could be obtained with a better flow pattern and uniform flow distribution in the defrost mode of the HVAC system. In this study, a three dimensional numerical model of a car cabin with full HVAC system was developed using Star-CCM+, a commercial CFD package. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) approach with the realizable two-layer k-ε turbulence model was employed for simulating the airflow field on the windshield for the defrost mode. The HVAC unit, ducts and defroster grille were included in the analysis in detail and air distribution on the windshield was studied.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0543
Shawn (Xianggang) Zhang, Taylor Sykes-Green, Barry (Baizhong) Lin
For light duty truck, frame is one of the major structural systems and it must go through a series of duty cycle proving ground events to meet durability fatigue performance requirement. Nowadays, in order to meet stringent CAFE standards, auto manufacturers are seeking to keep the vehicle weight as light as possible. The weight reduction on the frame is a challenging task as it still needs to maintain the strength, safety, and durability fatigue performances. CAE durability fatigue simulation is widely used in frame design before the physical proving ground tests are performed. A typical frame durability fatigue analysis includes both the base metal fatigue analysis and seam weld fatigue analysis. Usually the gauges of the frame components are dedicated by the seam weld fatigue performance so the base metal could be over design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0550
Wenxin Qin, Fred Zweng, Xuefeng Zhang
Substructure Stiffness Synthesis for Fatigue Analysis of Automotive Structure Wenxin Qin (Chrysler Group, LLC, USA) Abstract In automotive chassis, body and powertrain durability fatigue analysis, FEA model becomes bigger and bigger and close to adopt a full vehicle as computer hardware and software improved. However, due to a huge amount of components (more than 20,000 parts in a vehicle), there are still too much computational time needed and a lot of pre/post process works to do for using full car FEA model. Therefore, for saving time and cost it is desirable to reduce the number of subsystems, and getting an effective subsystem model which keeps the main features of the mechanics of a whole vehicle system. In this paper, authors present a useful and effective substructure FEA model: Substructure Stiffness Synthesis (SSS) method in the automotive durability analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0564
Sung Wook Moon, Byunghyun Kang, Jaeyoung Lim, Byoung-Ho Choi
In a car accident involving pedestrians, head injury occurs very frequently as head of the pedestrian hits the windshield. The head injury criterion (HIC) obtained through the windshield impact test is used to evaluate pedestrian injury and car manufacturers are trying to meet the criterion and lightweight at the same time. However, there are some difficulties in the windshield impact test like a large scatter of the test data or windshield shape-dependent property of the test. These problems make it very difficult to obtain the meaningful result from single test and thus, test should be done several times. In this study, lab-scale windshield impact test is done by using modified Instrumented dart impact (IDI) tester. Test was carried out by switching test conditions like impact speed, size of the headform and specimen thickness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1324
Guangtian Gavin Song, Chin-An Tan
In automotive industry, door slam CAE fatigue life analysis is very important in door durability evaluation and optimization to dramatically reduce the design cycle and minimize the expensive durability testing. Couple of linear stress based methodologies, such as inertia relief method, direct transient response solution, or local strain approach, have been applied in CAE. Linear material properties are used in these linear stress based methodologies. In local strain approach, contact surface could be defined in the necessary area. Then the stress time history is retrieved and input to further fatigue life analysis or firstly converted to nonlinear stress with Neuber’s rule to consider plastic deformation effect. But under some circumstances, the structure may have large local area plastic deformation. So the linear stress based methodology can’t precisely predict the load path, and further affect the accuracy of fatigue analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1330
Yoshiyuki Tosa, Hiroyuki Mae
The passenger airbag hits the windshield when it deploys, causing the impulse force to the windshield. To protect passengers, we must adequately support the airbag between the windshield and the instrument panel. We must not fracture the windshield deploying the airbag. We reviewed methods to simulate the stress on the windshield during deployment. This research predicts the dynamic strain on the windshield from deploying the airbag without vehicle tests. Deployment is fast enough to ignore spatial difference in the patterns of the pressure time histories. In this study, the prediction method consists of a deployment test and an FE simulation. The simple deployment test measures the dynamic pressure distribution between the airbag and the flat panel simulating the windshield.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1352
Ashish Kumar Sahu, Abhijit Londhe, Suhas Kangde, Vishal Shitole
Body in White (BIW) is one of the major mass contributors in a full vehicle. Bending stiffness, Torsional stiffness, durability and modal characteristics are the basic performances for which BIW is designed. Usually while meeting these performances, a lot of weight is added to BIW. Sensitivity analysis helps to identify the critical panels contributing to the performance while BIW optimization helps to reduce the overall mass of the BIW without compromising on the basic performances. This paper highlights the optimization study carried out on the BIW of a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) for mass reduction. This optimization was carried out considering all the basic performance parameters. In the initial phase of BIW development, optimization helps to ensure minimum BIW weight rather than carrying out mass reduction post manufacturing and testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1340
Yoichi Toyooka, Kiyoshi Hasegawa
Warping the exteriors of outer panels happens during the application of heat for hardening structural adhesives. Using aluminum and resin promote warping. Simulation of warping at the design stage and evaluating warping during mass-production require us to quantify the degree of warping to evaluate absolute values. These analytic values correspond to values from warping in panels, and display a correlation with visual examinations. Degree of displacement was an evaluative indicator for the quantification of warping. However, warping will not always be recognized due to gradual change in areas of the panel and cases where it will be recognized due to sudden change, despite that the absolute value of the degree of displacement might be the same. This research considered a warping simulation and evaluation using curvature as the evaluative indicator. Curvature is the gradient of change of the curved surface.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4187