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Viewing 211 to 240 of 4665
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0750
Yosuke Tsuchiya, Teppei Matsuzaki, Tetsuo Takeshige, Tsuyoshi Oguchi
So far, the application of LED headlights to the motorcycle has been limited for only high-priced models, because LED light units and the drivers are expensive. In our development, the cost reduction of light source units was examined by implementing multiple medium intensity LEDs. Distributed mounting scheme was created for LEDs placed on the circuit board to meet the heat dissipation requirement without a heat sink, which is usually installed. By new mounting scheme, the requirement of heat dissipation has been successfully fulfilled by only using the copper foil layer. Moreover, by connecting LEDs in series, the driver circuit configuration was made simple while separate circuits are generally required both for a high-beam and a low-beam. By this configuration, the driver cost was reduced. With this circuitry change, some associated issues arose and measures were devised to cope with them.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0811
Daichi Kano, Nagasaka Kazuya, Go Matsubara, Takumi Kawasaki, Akiyuki Yamasaki, Hiroyuki Kasugai, Hideaki Saito
In the development of a motorcycle frame, the balance between high performance and reliability and a short development period are important. In this study, a fatigue durability evaluation technique for a motorcycle frame was developed to enable highly accurate development within a short period of time. Furthermore, we developed a shaking table excitation system as a means to supplement the road test.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0839
Koichiro Kawata
In motorcycle race represented by MotoGP, the motorcycle bank angle in turning state reaches approximately 60 degrees. In such a large bank angle, it is important that response of the motorcycle for the road surface displacement input is relaxed by designing the frame with low stiffness in the side direction to secure the speed on cornering. On the other hand, strong frame stiffness of longitudinal direction is required with a proper frame displacement to resist large force by the rapid deceleration. As seen above, regarding stiffness of longitudinal and side direction of the frame of motorcycle, one should be high, and the other should be low. However, in general, the ratio estimated by stiffness of side direction per that of longitudinal direction is approximately constant with existing frame. This means that if the frame stiffness of side direction is lowered, that of the longitudinal would also be lowered accordingly.
2015-11-17
Journal Article
2015-32-0813
Yutaka Aikyo, Yuki Kobayashi, Takashi Sato, Tomohiko Akashi, Makoto Ishiwatari
An airbag system for motorcycle applications was developed and commercially released in 2006 based on many research results on that system. In the airbag system, the bag should be supported during the period in a collision. The previously developed system employed a configuration in which the airbag was supported by the structures of the motorcycle, such as the instrument panel and the surrounding structures. These structures receive the reaction force to hold the airbag during a crash to properly absorb the rider's kinetic energy. Meanwhile, the previous system requires a larger area for these reaction structures and is applicable only to the motorcycles that can provide the area. To overcome this limitation, we propose an airbag system employing another concept. In this concept, the airbag does not use its vehicle structures as reaction structures but uses the structures of an opposing vehicle, such as doors and/or pillars.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2837
Subramanian Premananth, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed, Dharmar Ganesh
Abstract Overall in-vehicle visibility is considered as a key safety parameter essentially mandated due to the increasing traffic scenario as seen in developing countries. Driver side bottom corner visibility is one such parameter primarily defined by A-pillar bottom and outside rear-view mirror (OSRVM). While defining the OSRVM package requirements such as size, position and regulatory aspects, it is also vital to consider other influencing parameters such as position of pillars, waist-line height, and Instrument panel which affect the in-vehicle visibility. This study explains the various package considerations, methods to optimize OSRVM position, shape and housing design in order to maximize the in-vehicle visibility considering the road and traffic conditions. A detailed study on in-vehicle visibility impacted by OSRVM packaging explained and had been verified for the results.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2867
Sanket Pawar
Abstract Work lights with high power rating consume high current. Since the battery voltage is fixed, high currents are needed to generate the necessary power (wattage). This makes it difficult to manage the load on the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) responsible for controlling the work lights and also on the entire electrical system of the vehicle. It is possible to prevent the system from getting over loaded by employing effective means of work light control techniques. These techniques differ based on the type of work lights connected on the vehicle. There are three types of work lights available in the market. Halogen work lights, High Intensity Discharge (HID) work lights and Light Emitting Diode (LED) work lights. HIDs are not preferred by most customers due to their high warm up times & cost/unit. The other two types of lights, i.e. LED & Halogen, are comparatively less expensive. They also need negligible warm up times which are not objectionable to the vehicle operators.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2903
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab
Abstract Similar to Passenger Vehicles (PV), Commercial Vehicles and Trucks (ComVecT) use standard rearview mirrors to improve the visibility of the surrounding environment and facilitate a safer maneuvering of large vehicles. Standard rearview mirrors used in ComVecT are large and flat to cover outside areas as specified in theFMVSS 111 standard, or other requirements like ECE-R46. In addition, ComVecT are also equipped with optional mirrors with different Field of View (FoV), such as wide angle, look-down cross proximity, and front mirrors. These optional mirrors cover wider or specific areas around the vehicle which might not be possible otherwise with standard mirrors only. While these mirrors tend to enhance the visibility around the truck, they create undesirable blind zones to the driver. These blind zones can be gaps between the direct vision through the windows and indirect vision provided by the mirror.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2894
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Mithun Shetty
Abstract The performance of several aerodynamic technologies and approaches, such as trailer skirts, trailer boat tails, gap reduction, was evaluated using track testing, model wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation, in order to assess the influence of the design, position and combination of various aerodynamic devices. The track test procedure followed the SAE J1321 SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedure - Type II. Scale model wind tunnel tests were conducted to have direct performance comparisons among several possible configurations. The wind tunnel tests were conducted on a 1/8 scale model of a tractor in combination with a 53-foot semi-trailer. Among others, the wind tunnel tests and CFD simulations confirmed the influences of trailer skirts' length observed during the track tests and that the wider skirt closer to the ground offer better results.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2892
Carlos A. Pereira, Max Morton, Claire Martin, Geert-Jan Schellekens
Abstract The current trend towards energy efficient commercial vehicles requires a substantial improvement in their aerodynamic performance. This paper describes the design methodology for a new roof fairing design with integrated ducts and the predicted effects of the final design on downstream flow. It also provides a baseline comparison with the fairing of a commercial platform and highlights the advantages of using rapid prototyping technologies to test aerodynamic improvements on commercial vehicles. By integrating into the design of a thermoplastic roof fairing ducts that divert and speed-up air flow it is possible to obtain reduction of drag in the trailer gap and alter the trailer wake favorably. The resulting decrease in yaw-averaged overall drag coefficient is of 5.8%. This translates into an improvement in fuel efficiency of 2.9% when compared to the baseline.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0516
Esdras Guimarães Fernandes, Bruno Cesar Pockszevnicki, Geisiel Moreira de Assis, Fabio Fernandes Ribeiro
Abstract This paper aims at analytical and numerical evaluation of the structure of a Baja. It will be described some load conditions to analyze the overall structure of Baja well as localized elements, in order to prevent premature failure of the vehicle during the competition and improvements in the design phase. The numerical analysis will be conducted via finite elements to establish the optimization of weight and gain performance of the vehicle. Analytical evaluation it will conducted via propositions of physics. Results obtained for the initial concept of the project and compared with the structural changes after the trial proposition will be presented. Analysis of study resulted in improvements in manufacturing reducing weight. Also it was expected to increase the structural performance associated to a better understanding of the vehicle as a whole.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0144
Alisson Sarmento, André Luiz J. Pereira, Bruno Segobi, Fausto Saito, Pedro Maciel
Abstract This paper aims present information regarding Automotive Body in White (BIW) development fundamentals, providing a link between physics fundamentals and real automotive development. An introduction about product development process will be shown in order to allow the reader comprehension about timeline decision process. A properly revision regarding applied loads, body in white materials, safety and virtual/physical validation will be covered. Structural fundamental knowledge has a key role of Design Engineer background mindset to achieve challenges vehicle targets about cost, mass and performance. The paper information provides a clear technical reader understanding how product engineers use structural fundamental theories to design BIW in real design development application. A study of case regarding Front-end tie-bar was used. A real vehicle load application was simulated by CAE analysis.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0155
André Luiz Pereira, Bruno Bennati, Carlos Kuba, Mauro Marcial, Percio Amoroso, William Yamada
Abstract Nowadays, OEM’s challenge is to harmonize vehicle’s performance, design and cost. Furthermore, all of these antagonistic key performance factors must be integrated in a much faster pace than ever before in the automotive industry. Thinner parts and low cost materials Body-in-White (BIW) systems struggles to deliver the same/higher performance and quality levels as the previous generations. On top of that, considering that BIW structures typifies almost 30% in a vehicle mass, and almost 40% of a vehicle cost, focusing in this system, this paper will study the body upper structure, more specifically its roof panels. Currently, almost all small vehicles are composed by three to four roof bows (figure 1) within its structure. A Roof Bow is a sheet metal part, usually spot welded to the BIW inner frame, forming the inner structure of the vehicle body. Its primary function is to supporting the roof panel loads, such as Oil Canning and local stiffness.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0173
Mauro Marcial, André Luiz Pereira, Eduardo Orfale, Lessandre Serigiolle, William Yamada
Abstract Global automotive companies have heavily invested in the vehicle development in order to provide higher energy efficiency performance to meet the new regulations, and to obtain tax incentives offered by the INOVAR AUTO PROGRAM. One way to improve the vehicle energy efficiency is reducing it mass or apply an optimization. The Body in White (BIW) optimization can be achieved applying aluminum parts, considering the aluminum is a lighter material than the steel, and the BIW is responsible for a significant percentage of the total mass of a vehicle. The Brazilian market to apply the aluminum in the car will face a great challenge, regarding the high vehicle production using aluminum parts. The main challenges are raw materials suppliers to meet the potential demand, the connections between aluminum parts and metal parts, material cost, manufacturing cost, reparability, skilled specialists, etc.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0242
Tiago Sartor, Bruno Daga Cacace, Sergio Ricardo Espada
Abstract Structural integrity is a characteristic that must be evaluated during development of plastic parts as door trim panels. One of the critical areas in door trims is the interface between different parts that often use heat stakes due to process capacity and low costs. To predict issue on those interfaces, a methodology combining finite element analysis (FEA) and physical test results was applied to drive design in two door trim designs, with different material combinations. Aiming to support FEA conclusions, physical tests were performed to determine the maximum retention force that a heat stake withstands, indicating values about 168N for heat stakes of medium impact polypropylene blend >PP+EP(D)M-T<. and 216N for stakes of unfilled polypropylene copolymer >PP<. These values were used as upper limits for reaction forces provided by FEA in each heat stake under a load of 600 N at Pull Handle.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0374
João Henrique Neme, Max Mauro Dias Santos, Evandro Leonardo Silva Teixeira
Abstract Model-Based Design (MBD) has been widely used for automotive embedded software design. Automobile manufacturers and suppliers have often underlined the importance of an unified approach for electrical and electronic (E/E) system design. In this scenario, MBD can provide a mutual benefit for stakeholders due to the share of information, workflow, and tool-chain. In this paper, we highlight MBD application for automotive Exterior Lighting System (ELS) design. In fact, ELS is an event-driven control system typically needed for car lighting and signalization, in particular at night. Furthermore, this system is mandatory for every road vehicle according to current Brazilian laws and legislation. Also, it provides safety drive preventing car accidents and pedestrian injury. In this context, we present how to boost ELS design using MBD concepts. ELS was developed in three MBD workflow (Model-In-the-Loop, Software-In-the-Loop, and Processor-In-the-Loop), from supplier’s viewpoint.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0561
Antonio C. C. Nascimento Filho
Abstract In the design of automotive structural components is common scaling of the data for the "worst case", i.e. a condition of the component of least resistance (stress) and maximum load conditions applied (strength). However, in a real situation, it is not possible to determine with absolute certainty these amounts due to the random nature of the parameters involved. Thus, this design should be treated in a probabilistic manner, where the parameters involved could be considered as random variables, and the project could be qualified for a desired condition of reliability. This paper presents a proposed process (flowchart) for performing computational experiments for reliability analysis in automotive structural components regarding stochastic conditions of involved parameters. The process showed itself as able to identify the most adequate method of predicting reliability to solve problems of stress -strength interference in a design of structural automotive component.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0156
Felipe Magazoni, Filipe Fabian Buscariolo, Flavio Maruyama, Julio Cesar Lelis Alves, Leonardo D. Volpe
Abstract Nowadays, one of the most important roles in vehicle development is the aerodynamic, which aims efficiency on fuel consumption and leads to a green technology. Several initiatives around the world are regulating emissions and efficiency of vehicles such as EURO for European Marketing and the INOVAR Project to be implemented in Brazil on 2017. Thus, this study intend to perform an optimization to minimize the drag force of a hatchback vehicle. The main goal of this work is demonstrate the potential of optimization techniques to provide an aerodynamic shape improvement for the driver side outside rear view mirror of a hatchback vehicle. The optimization solver used in this work is the Adjoint Solver, which makes shape sensitivity analysis and mesh/volume morphing. The study was conducted using CFD simulations to reduce the drag force of current production hatchback vehicle previously validated and correlated in wind tunnel test.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0158
Filipe Fabian Buscariolo, Felipe C. Magazoni, Flavio Maruyama, Julio Cesar Lelis Alves, Leonardo D. Volpe
Abstract Aerodynamics plays a key role in nowadays vehicle development, aiming efficiency on fuel consumption, which leads to a green technology. Several initiatives around the world are regulating emissions and efficiency of vehicles such as EURO for European Marketing and the INOVAR Auto Project to be implemented in Brazil on 2017. In order to meet requirements in terms of performance, especially on aerodynamics, automakers are focusing on aero-efficient exterior designs and also adding deflectors, covers, active spoilers and several other features to meet the drag coefficient. Usually, the aerodynamics properties of a vehicle are measured in both CFD simulations and wind tunnels, which provide controlled conditions for the test that could be easily reproduced. During the real operations conditions, external factors can affect the flow over the vehicle such as cross wind in open highways.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2402
Yucheng Liu
Abstract Differential equations play a prominent role in aerospace engineering by modeling aerospace structures, describing important phenomena, and simulating mathematical behavior of aerospace dynamical systems. Presently, aerospace systems have become more complex, space vehicle missions require more hours of simulation time to complete a maneuver, and high-performance missiles require more logical decisions in there phases of flight. Because of these conditions, a computationally efficient algorithm for solving these differential equations is highly demanded to significantly reduce the computing time.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2461
Enrico Troiani, Maria Pia Falaschetti, Sara Taddia, Alessandro Ceruti
Abstract The high number of hull losses is a main concern in the UAV field, mostly due to the high cost of on-board equipment. A crashworthiness design can be helpful to control the extent and position of crash impact damage, minimizing equipment losses. However, the wide use of composite materials has recently put the accent on the lack of data about the behavior of these structures under operative loads, such as the crash conditions. This paper presents the outcome of a set of tests carried out to achieve a controlled crush of UAV structures, and to maximize the Specific Energy Absorption. In this work, a small-scale experimental test able to characterize the energy absorption of a Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer under compression was developed introducing self-supporting sinusoidal shape specimens, which avoid the need for complex anti-buckling devices.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2513
Hans-Juergen Borchers, Kadir Akkuş, Cagatay Ucar
Abstract This paper will discuss the process of drilling large diameter holes within high quality requirements using a Robot positioning concept. This Robot end-effector system provides flexibility to handle different aircraft sections due to its Robot arm design. The material configuration that will be discussed in this paper is a mixed material stack of CFRP and Aluminum. The diameter range is from 7.9 mm to 15.9mm. This paper will focus on the largest diameter (Ø15.9mm). It addresses the process forces to be handled and the solutions. This paper will take an integrated look at the whole process including machine, spindle, cutting tool design and process conditions. Only this integrated view to all process related items enables running an innovative and effective process. The maximum stack size of 40 mm is another condition that requires a specific process to control the chip size to avoid an impact to the material. Here different concepts have been taken under consideration.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2515
Adlai Felser, Peter B. Zieve, Bryan Ernsdorff
Abstract A new style of rivet injector is in production use on a variety of fastening machines used by major aircraft manufacturers. In this injector the opposing sides of the rivet guide blocks are attached to the arms of a parallel gripper. We have implemented the parallel gripper in both vertical axis and horizontal axis riveting applications. It is equally effective in both orientations. We have implemented the parallel gripper rivet injector on headed rivets, threaded bolts, ribbed swage bolts and unheaded (slug) rivets.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2503
Thomas Dr. Schneider
Abstract This paper presents an innovative approach for modular and flexible positioning systems for large aircraft assembly, for instance the manufacturing of the fuselage sections from shell panels and floor grids, the alignment of the sections to build the fuselage, and the joining of wings and tail units to the fuselage. The positioning system features a modular, reconfigurable, and versatile solution for various aircraft dimensions and different applications. This includes the positioning units, the controls, the measurement interface and the product supports. It provides the customer with a holistic solution that considers the specific positioning task taking into account high absolute positioning accuracy, repeatability and synchronization of the motion for all manipulators that constitute the positioning system. Various tools and method which were used during the development process are introduced and the developed standardized Positioning Technology is briefly explained.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2504
Christian Meiners, Weidong Zhu, Yinglin Ke
Abstract The joining and assembly of barrel sections of large aircraft is always cumbersome. Any means to ease this task are welcome. In recent years The Boeing Co. has invented and licensed their “Flex-Track” system. But however flexible this approach may be, double curved surfaces, large variations of cross-section radius and issues with vacuum cup fixture are problems to be dealt with. Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China has developed a new, innovative circumferential splicing system in cooperation with Broetje-Automation, Germany. There is a unique, time-saving setup technology and self-stepping actuation for a one up 360° splicing operation. The process endeffector is based on standard, state of the art components in use for large fastening systems. Features are high speed servo drilling spindle with HSK 32 drill chuck holder, tool changer, vacuum chip removal, reference hole detection and correction, surface normality alignment, pressure foot clamp-up, countersink control.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2578
Alessandro Ceruti, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract The flight simulation of airships and hot air balloons usually considers the envelope geometry as a fixed shape, whose volume is eventually reduced by ballonets. However, the dynamic pressure or helium leaks in airships, and the release of air to allow descent in hot air balloons can significantly change the shape of the envelope leading to potential dangerous situations. In fact, in case of semi-rigid and non-rigid airships a reduction in envelope internal pressure can reduce the envelope bending stiffness leading to the loss of the typical axial-symmetric shape. For hot air balloons thing goes even worse since the lost of internal pressure can lead to the collapsing of the balloon shape to a sort of vertically stretched geometry (similar to a torch) which is not able to sustain the attached basket and its payload.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2615
Donald Jasurda
The aerospace industry is continually becoming more competitive. With an aircraft's large number of components, and the large supplier base used to fabricate these components, it can be a daunting task to manage the quality status of all parts in an accurate, timely and actionable manner. This paper focuses on a proof of concept for an aircraft fuselage assembly to monitor the process capability of machined parts at an aircraft original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and their supply chain. Through the use of standardized measurement plans and statistical analysis of the measured output, the paper will illustrate how stakeholders can understand the process performance details at a workcell level, as well as overall line and plant performance in real time. This ideal process begins in the product engineering phase using simulation to analyze the tolerance specifications and assembly process strategy, with one of the outputs being a production measurement plan.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2514
Scott Tomchick, Joshua Elrod, Dave Eckstein, James Sample, Dan Sherick
Abstract A new automated production system for installation of Lightweight Groove Proportioned (LGP) and Hi-Lock bolts in wing panels has been implemented in the Boeing 737 wing manufacturing facility in Renton, Washington. The system inserts LGP and Hi-Lok bolts into interference holes using a ball screw mechanical squeeze process supported by a back side rod-locked pneumatic clamp cylinder. Collars are fed and loaded onto a swage die retaining pin, and swaging is performed through ball screw mechanical squeeze. Offset and straight collar tools allow the machine to access 99.9% of fasteners in 3/16″, ¼″ and 5/16″ diameters. Collar stripping forces are resolved using a dynamic ram inertial technique that reduces the pull on the work piece. Titanium TN nuts are fed and loaded into a socket with a retaining spring, and installed on Hi-Loks Hi-Lok with a Bosch right angle nut runner.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2462
Claudia Bruni, Enrico Cestino, Giacomo Frulla, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract The innovative highly flexible wings made of extremely light structures, yet still capable of carrying a considerable amount of non- structural weights, requires significant effort in structural simulations. The complexity involved in such design demands for simplified mathematical tools based on appropriate nonlinear structural schemes combined with reduced order models capable of predicting accurately their aero-structural behaviour. The model presented in this paper is based on a consistent nonlinear beam-wise scheme, capable of simulating the unconventional aeroelastic behaviour of flexible composite wings. The partial differential equations describing the wing dynamics are expanded up to the third order and can be used to explore the effect of static deflection imposed by external trim, the effect of gust loads and the one of nonlinear aerodynamic stall.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2493
Dan Vaughan, David Branson, Otto Jan Bakker, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract The aim of this work was to develop a new assembly process in conjunction with an adaptive fixturing system to improve the assembly process capability of specific aircraft wing assembly processes. The inherently complex aerospace industry requires a step change in its capability to achieve the production ramp up required to meet the global demand. This paper evaluates the capability of adaptive fixtures to identify their suitability for implementation into aircraft wing manufacturing and assembly. To understand the potential benefits of these fixtures, an examination of the current academic practices and an evaluation of the existing industrial solutions is highlighted. The proposed adaptive assembly process was developed to account for the manufacturing induced dimensional variation that causes significant issues in aircraft wing assembly.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2565
Nhan Nguyen, Sonia Lebofsky, Eric Ting, Upender Kaul, Daniel Chaparro, James Urnes
Abstract This paper summarizes the recent development of an adaptive aeroelastic wing shaping control technology called variable camber continuous trailing edge flap (VCCTEF). As wing flexibility increases, aeroelastic interactions with aerodynamic forces and moments become an increasingly important consideration in aircraft design and aerodynamic performance. Furthermore, aeroelastic interactions with flight dynamics can result in issues with vehicle stability and control. The initial VCCTEF concept was developed in 2010 by NASA under a NASA Innovation Fund study entitled “Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept,” which showed that highly flexible wing aerodynamic surfaces can be elastically shaped in-flight by active control of wing twist and bending deflection in order to optimize the spanwise lift distribution for drag reduction.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 4665