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Viewing 181 to 210 of 4689
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0527
Anthony Berejka, Dan Montoney, Dan Dispenza, Len Poveromo, Rick Galloway, Marshall Cleland, Mark Driscoll
Abstract The power demands in terms of kilowatt-hour electrical use were compared for autoclave curing commercial thermosetting carbon fiber pre-pregs with an innovative alternative of high energy X-ray curing. An automotive component, now made with carbon fiber composites, was selected as an illustrative example, an Aston-Martin hood. Temperature resistant polyester molds for these hoods were used and manufacturer recommended autoclave curing conditions were followed. X-rays, which can penetrate about 15 cm (6 inches) in unit density materials (or less into higher density materials as molds), were used to cure pre-pregs made with a specialty matrix material using the same molds, but doing so without adding any heat for curing. High energy X-ray equipment, generated from a 7 MeV, 700 kW electron beam, is in commercial use for medical device sterilization. This same equipment can also be used for composite curing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0475
Lingzhi Li, Jun Li, Bingwu Lu, Yingjie Liu, Zhi Zhang, Hailong Cheng, Yan Zhang, Hangsheng Hou
Abstract Excessive wind noise is one of the most complained problems by owners of new vehicles as evidenced by JD Power Initial Quality Study (IQS) in recent years. After the vehicle speed surpasses 100 km/h, wind noise is gradually becoming the dominant noise source. In an effort to reduce aeroacoustic noise level, Beamforming (BF) is a very effective noise source identification technique used during vehicle wind noise development phases. In this work, based on the planar BF methodology, a large semi-circle microphone array is designed in accordance with the desired resolution and dynamic range pertaining to actual noise source distribution on a typical passenger vehicle. Acoustic array calibration and mapping deformation correction are accomplished by multi-point source method, and the Doppler Effect due to wind is corrected by the location calibration method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0473
Muthukumar Arunachalam, S Arunkumar, PraveenKumar Sampath, Abdul Haiyum, Beverly Katz
Abstract Current generation passenger vehicles are built with several electronic sensors and modules which are required for the functioning of passive safety systems. These sensors and modules are mounted on the vehicle body at locations chosen to meet safety functionality requirements. They are mounted on pillars or even directly on panels based on specific packaging requirements. The body panel or pillar poses local structural resonances and its dynamic behavior can directly affect the functioning of these sensors and modules. Hence a specific inertance performance level at the mounting locations is required for the proper functioning of those sensors and modules. Drive point modal frequency response function (FRF) analysis, at full vehicle model for the frequency range up to 1000 Hz, is performed using finite element method (FEM) and verified against the target level along with test correlation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0406
Akihiko Asami, Tomoyuki Imanishi, Yukio Okazaki, Tomohiro Ono, Kenichi Tetsuka
Abstract High-tensile steel plates and lightweight aluminum are being employed as materials in order to achieve weight savings in automotive subframe. Closed-section structures are also in general use today in order to efficiently increase parts stiffness in comparison to open sections. Aluminum hollow-cast subframe have also been brought into practical use. Hollow-cast subframe are manufactured using sand cores in gravity die casting (GDC) or low-pressure die casting (LPDC) processes. Using these manufacturing methods, it is difficult to reduce product thickness, and the limitations of the methods therefore make the achievement of weight reductions a challenge. The research discussed in this paper developed a lightweight, hollow subframe technology employing high-pressure die casting (HPDC), a method well-suited to reducing wall thickness, as the manufacturing method. Hollow-casting using HPDC was developed as a method of forming water jackets for water-cooled automotive engines.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0407
Da-Zhi Wang, Guang-Jun Cao, Chang Qi, Yong Sun, Shu Yang, Yu Du
Abstract The increasing demand for lightweight design of the whole vehicle has raised critical weight reduction targets for crash components such as front rails without deteriorating their crash performances. To this end the last few years have witnessed a huge growth in vehicle body structures featuring hybrid materials including steel and aluminum alloys. In this work, a type of tapered tailor-welded tube (TTWT) made of steel and aluminum alloy hybrid materials was proposed to maximize the specific energy absorption (SEA) and to minimize the peak crushing force (PCF) in an oblique crash scenario. The hybrid tube was found to be more robust than the single material tubes under oblique impacts using validated finite element (FE) models. Compared with the aluminum alloy tube and the steel tube, the hybrid tube can increase the SEA by 46.3% and 86.7%, respectively, under an impact angle of 30°.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0434
Roshan N. Mahadule, Jaideep Singh Chavan
Abstract Door closing velocity (DCV) is one of the important design parameter for door durability performance. The closing velocity varies with the design parameters and physical properties of the door. The variation in door closing effort may increase or decrease the durability of the door and body components, this can be a concern when the overall vehicle durability performance is considered. This paper gives a mathematical model to calculate the door closing effort accounting the energy sink from various door design parameters such as door seal, latch, hinge, door weight, checkstrap and cabin-pressure. In addition to this, the MS-Excel based computation tool has been developed, which aims to calculate the door closing velocity and energy contribution from each design parameter. This tool is very interactive and effective for durability engineer and helps in improving the quality of vehicle door design.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0652
Ravi Ranjan, Lakshmaiah Brahmasani, Parvej Khan
Abstract This paper reports a study on Charge air cooler effectiveness, Air intake pressure drop, Acceleration Performance and Rise over ambient temperature of a utility vehicle for different layouts of Inter cooler, radiator, condenser and fan module in order to finalize an efficient Power train cooling system layout. The main objective is effective utilization of front end opening area, eliminating inter cooler heat load on the radiator, so that radiator size, fan size and fan motor wattage can be optimized to achieve desired cooling performance requirements with the cooling system (CRFM) module. Effect of the intercooler effectiveness, Intake pressure drop, Vehicle acceleration performance and Rise over ambient temperature are studied and both the advantages and disadvantages of the proposals are discussed to finalize the better position of inter-cooler along with other engine cooling components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0350
Andre Camboa, Bernardo Ribeiro, Miguel Vaz, Luis Pinheiro, Ricardo Malta
The development of an automotive hood for an electric vehicle based on a polymer-metal hybrid configuration is described in this paper. Here, special focus is given only to the engineering design and prototyping phases which are the initial stages of a much bigger project. A project that aims to evaluate the cost efficiency, weight penalty and structural integrity of adopting polydicyclopentadiene as an exterior body material in low production volume vehicles, among them the electric ones. For the engineering design and prototyping phases, three different reinforcement geometries were developed and six mechanical simulations were done through finite element analysis to aid best frame geometry selection and optimization. The entire hood was then prototyped containing the optimized geometry. The fabrication of the frame was made through metal stamping and the exterior panel through reaction injection moulding. Adhesive bonding was used for its assembly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0397
Wenxin Qin, Sandip Datta, Weidong Zhang
Abstract In automotive FEA analysis, there are many components or assemblies which can be simplified to two-dimensional (2D) plane or axisymmetric analytical problems instead of three-dimensional (3D) simulation models for quick modeling and efficient analysis to meet the timing in the design development process, especially in the advanced design phase and iteration studies. Even though some situations are not perfectly planar or axisymmetric problems, they may still be approximated in 2D planar or axisymmetric models, achieving results accurate enough to meet engineering requirements. In this paper, the authors have presented and summarized several complex 3D analytical situations which can be replaced by simplified plane axisymmetric models or 2D plane strain analytical models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0399
Dinesh Munjurulimana, Amit Kulkarni, Dhanendra Nagwanshi, Joel Luther Thambi, Ruud Winters, Matthew Delaney
Abstract Automotive OEMs are proactively working on vehicle light-weighting, powertrain optimization, alternate/renewable energy sources and combinations of the three to meet challenging corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. Light-weighting of the body-in-white (BIW) is an obvious choice for vehicle light-weighting as this structure contributes to more than 30-35% of the total weight of a car. Changing manufacturing and assembly lines requires substantial investment. As such, OEMs are exploring short-term light-weighting strategies that do not require any major changes to the BIW. Local reinforcement for the BIW are pertinent solutions that does not require any major changes in the existing assembly lines. This paper focuses on the development of BIW reinforcement solutions using engineering thermoplastic materials that can be mounted at appropriate locations on a vehicle’s BIW to achieve significant weight savings without compromising crash performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0402
Eric S. Elliott, Christopher Roche, Jashwanth Reddy
Since the inception of the IIHS Small Overlap Impact (SOI) test in 2012, automotive manufacturers have implemented many solutions in the vehicle body structure to achieve an IIHS “Good” rating. There are two main areas of the vehicle: forward of vehicle cockpit and immediately surrounding the vehicle cockpit, which typically work together for SOI to mitigate crash energy and prevent intrusion into the passenger zones. The structures forward of vehicle cockpit are designed to either 1) absorb vehicle energy from impact to the barrier, or 2) provide enough strength and rigidity to aid deflection of the vehicle away from the barrier. The structures which are immediately surrounding the vehicle cockpit (known as pillars and rocker/sills) are traditionally components designed to be highly rigid sheet metal panels to protect the occupant during crash events.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0404
Qianqian Du
Abstract Crashworthiness is one of the most important performances of vehicles, and the front rails are the main crash energy absorption parts during the frontal crashing process. In this paper, the front rail was simplified to a thin-walled beam with a cross section of single-hat which was made of steel and aluminum. And the two boards of it were connected by riveting without rivets. In order to optimize its crashworthiness, the thickness (t), radius (R) and the rivet spacing (d) were selected as three design variables, and its specific energy absorption was the objective while the average impact force was the constraint. Considering the error of manufacturing and measurements, the parameters σs and Et of the steel were selected as the uncertainty variables to improve the design reliability. The algorithm IP-GA and the approximate model-RBF (Radial Basis Function) were applied in this nonlinear uncertainty optimization.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0391
Tanmay Sushant Santra, Vikas Kumar Agarwal, Mihir Bhambri
This paper depict the difference in the endurance factor of safety with usage of static and quasi static FE analysis and corrective measures take to solve the problem. The importance of the dynamic loading and subsequent effect of it on the multi axial fatigue analysis. Considering the modern trend prevailing among the vehicle manufacturers and specifically talking about two wheeler industry, it is clear that while the engine remains the same but the frame is changed to cater the market with new models to cut down on the development time. Initially the crankcase was designed for a double cradle frame where the crankcase was mounted on the frame. Later, the frame design was changed to single cradle where engine acts as a stress member link. This kind of arrangement makes the crankcase mountings participate in the chassis loads. Therefore, the crankcase mounting experiences road loads when the vehicle encounter the road irregularities.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0387
Yunkai Gao, Jingpeng Han, Jianguang Fang, Shihui Wang
Abstract A compiled method of the programmed load spectrum, which can simplify and accelerate the fatigue bench test of a car body, is proposed and its effectiveness is checked by the fatigue simulation. By using the multi-body dynamics model with a satisfactory accuracy, the virtual iteration is applied to cascade body loads from the wheel hubs. Based on the rain-flow counting method and statistics theory, the distributions of the body loads are analyzed, and then the programmed load spectrum is compiled and simplified. Through comparative study, the simulation results of random and programmed load spectrum are found to agree well with each other in terms of the damage distribution and fatigue life, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0372
Thomas Thesing, Neil Bishop
Abstract Conventional approaches for the fatigue life evaluation of automotive parts like headlamps involves the evaluation of random stress conditions in either the time or frequency domain. If one is working in the frequency domain the fatigue life can be evaluated using one of the available methods like the Rayleigh (Narrow Band) approach or the more recent Dirlik method. Historically, the random stresses needed as input to these methods have been evaluated by the FEA solver (eg Abaqus, or Nastran) and these “in built” stress evaluations have limitations which relate to the fact that the stress conditions are complex and so the common “equivalents” for stress like von-Mises or Principal have not been available. There have also been limitations in the location and method of averaging for such stresses. In addition, the fatigue calculation approach for doing the evaluation has been constrained to the linear stress based (S-N) method.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0300
Lei Shi, Ji Yang, Zhaomin Zhang, Zhan Zhang
Abstract Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) has been widely used in the automotive industry to balance overall weight and stringent vehicle attributes, such as safety, NVH, durability, etc. To improve product quality and shorten product development cycle, a comprehensive MDO-based platform for vehicle attribute integration is developed in this paper. Some key issues in the platform development are addressed: Parameter model synchronization, Metamodel predictive capabilities, and Pre/post processing, etc. In addition, a strategy for body design is proposed to achieve weight targets while meeting other vehicle attributes. Lastly, the proposed methodology is demonstrated by a real world example for vehicle body design.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0511
Na Qiu, Yunkai Gao, Jianguang Fang, Shanshan Wang
Abstract As a potential material for lightweight vehicle, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) has proven to perform well in optical behavior and weather resistance. However, the application in automotive glazing has seldom been studied. This paper investigates the defrost performance of PMMA rear window using both numerical and experimental methods. The finite element analysis (FEA) results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated finite element model, we further optimized the defrost efficiency by changing the arrangement of heating lines. The results demonstrated the frost layer on the vision-related region of PMMA rear window can melt within 30 minutes, which meets the requirement of defrost efficiency.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0510
Praveen Mishra, Subramanian Ganeshan
Abstract An automobile outer rear view mirror (ORVM) is fixed at the front exterior of the vehicle for helping the driver see areas behind and sides of the vehicle which are outside of their peripheral vision. Mirror Scalp is the cover which protects the components inside from human and other environmental damage. Hence the scalp must be properly designed and fitted to the rest of the assembly so that it allows the safe functioning of the ORVM, which is an active safety device. During automatic car washing, sometimes the scalp may get removed due to the huge force exerted by the scrubber, if the scalp is not fitted properly. Mirror scalp is fitted to the rest of the ORVM through snap-fits. Snap-fits are the simplest, quickest and most cost effective method of assembling two parts. When designed properly, parts with they can be assembled and disassembled numerous times without any adverse effect on the assembly and hence are most environmentally friendly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1266
Shinichi Urabe, Kazutaka Kimura, Yuki Kudo, Akinori Sato
Abstract Solar and other green energy technologies are attracting attention as a means of helping to address global warming caused by CO2 and other emission gases. Countries, factories, and individual homes around the world have already introduced photovoltaic energy power sources, a trend that is likely to increase in the future. Electric vehicles powered from photovoltaic energy systems can help decrease the CO2 emmissions caused by vehicles. Unlike vehicles used for solar car racing, it is not easy to equip conventional vehicles with solar modules because the available area for module installation is very small to maintain cabin space, and the body lines of conventional vehicles are also usually slightly rounded. These factors decrease the performance of photovoltaic energy systems and prevent sufficient electric power generation. This research aimed to estimate the effectiveness of a solar module power generating system equipped on a conventional car, the Toyota Prius PHV.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1334
Christopher Flegel, Parth Bhivate, Liang Li, Yash Mathur, Sanket Phalgaonkar, Mark Benton, Prasanth Muralidharan, Johnell Brooks, Srikanth Pilla, Paul Venhovens, David Lewis, Garrett DeBry, Craig Payne
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a multimaterial lightweight Body-in-White (BiW) structure to support an all-electric powertrain combined with an interior package that maximizes volume to enable a variety of interior configurations and activities for Generation Z users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1335
Abhishek Sinha, Kamlesh Yadav, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. Working on global platform is challenging in order to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) and, at the same time, to meet the styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper: a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem in meeting both the requirements with limited space.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1332
Fredrik Henriksson, Kerstin Johansen
Abstract In the automotive industry, mass reduction and lightweight design is a continuing trend that does not show signs of declining. When looking at where to reduce weight in a vehicle, the body is a preferential subsystem due to its large contribution to overall mass and the stability of body composition over a specific model range. The automotive industry of today moves toward a greater differentiation in materials that compose a car, which can be seen in the several different multi material vehicle bodies that have been introduced by manufacturers in recent years. But while mixing materials may contribute to a good compromise between weight reduction and vehicle cost, it also proposes a number of challenges that need to be addressed. Among other material factors, the different coefficients of thermal expansions might introduce new stresses during painting and curing.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1338
Syed F. Haider, Zissimos Mourelatos
Abstract Weight reduction is very important in automotive design because of stringent demand on fuel economy. Structural optimization of dynamic systems using finite element (FE) analysis plays an important role in reducing weight while simultaneously delivering a product that meets all functional requirements for durability, crash and NVH. With advancing computer technology, the demand for solving large FE models has grown. Optimization is however costly due to repeated full-order analyses. Reanalysis methods can be used in structural vibrations to reduce the analysis cost from repeated eigenvalue analyses for both deterministic and probabilistic problems. Several reanalysis techniques have been introduced over the years including Parametric Reduced Order Modeling (PROM), Combined Approximations (CA) and the Epsilon algorithm, among others.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1327
Zhenfeng Wang, Mingming Dong, Junfeng Xiang, Pu Gao, Liang Gu, Yushuai Wang
Abstract The study of mechanical properties special in the characteristics of elastic element is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Since torsion bar spring acts as an important part of elastic element, and improves performance of torsion bar spring is of great concern. The effects of the torsion bar spring pre-setting precision on the presetting performance are presented. Based on elastic-plastic theories, the algebraic model of torsion bar spring is established to analyze the stress, torque and residual stress under the yield and plastic conditions in pre-setting process. Then, the stress and strain states of various torsion bar springs in different conditions are simulated using the validated finite element model in ABAQUS software. The simulation results show the effects of torsion error on the pre-setting performance are less than 5% in the pre-setting process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1330
Lei Shi, Peng Yi, Zhan Zhang
Abstract The body joint stiffness plays an important role in achieving vehicle attribute targets. One of the major drawbacks of joint stiffness evaluation is the lack of a rigorous criterion to assess whether the stiffness is proper for a body structure. This paper presents a general joint stiffness metric based on Hooke's law to better evaluate the stiffness of a body joint. A strategy for target setting of body joint stiffness was developed for vehicle body design. Finally, a vehicle body example was presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1331
Shingo Hanano, Kanehiro Nagata, Yusuke Murase
Abstract The need to add more color variations to the traditional black gloss has increased globally in recent years. The intention is for automobile manufacturers to differentiate their products in terms of appearance design. The most noticeable trend is to add embellishment around the front grill. The same trend can be seen in the areas around vehicle doors. It is most common to use a coating material to emphasize the black gloss. However, in overseas countries it is a challenge to meet the required appearance quality, and under the current circumstances CKD is imported from Japan to meet such requirements. Recently, a new film-transfer technique has been established that can express black gloss as well as any coating material by transferring the roughness of the film surface. It is achieved by crimping the PET film onto the vinyl-chloride surface after the extrusion molding is performed. Moreover, we have successfully localized this technique and reduced the manufacturing cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1329
Fulin Wei, Yanhua Shen, Tao Xu
Abstract Off-road dump truck body is exposed to abrasive wear during handling of granular materials. The wear rate of body of dump truck has direct influence on maintenance and replacement during its service process. In this paper the discrete element method (DEM) is used to simulate the granular materials of dump truck. The wear of body floor during one dumping process can be achieved by cosimulation of FEM-DEM. The wear depth variation of body has the stochastic characteristic which can be modeled by Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM). The two parameters in the stochastic differential equation, drift coefficient and diffusion coefficient, can be estimated by the wear depth measuring data. It is possible to quantitatively predict the wear evolution of every grid point of the body floor by solving this stochastic differential equation. The simulation result of the wear model is helpful to optimize design of off-road dump truck body.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1328
Praneeth Kurisetty, Naveen Sukumar, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract To compete with the current market trends, there is always a need to develop cost effective frame designs to meet the needs of the customer. During the development of new vehicles, the major focus is on weight reduction, so as to improve the load carrying capacity and fuel efficiency. Due to the introduction of new high strength materials, the static strength conditions can be met by the use of thinner frames, but the dynamic behavior of the frame deteriorates. The dynamic behaviors like ride and handling, comfort are affected by the stiffness of the vehicle frame. The stiffness of the frame is majorly defined by its vertical stiffness, lateral stiffness and torsional stiffness. The vertical stiffness of the frame plays major role in isolating road vibrations to frame mounted aggregates. The lateral stiffness plays a very important role in the handling of the vehicle and cornering ability of the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1351
Simhachalam Bade
Abstract Aluminum alloys are widely used in the transportation because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and outstanding capability in absorbing energy. In this paper, performance of bumper with crash tubes using aluminum alloy AA7003 materials is compared with that of AA6061 and high strength steel (DP800) using numerical methods. Quasi-static test is simulated using the LS-DYNA implicit finite element program. Bumper and crash tubes are included in the finite element model. Symmetric Holes are provided in the crash tubes to initiate crushing. The energy absorbed by bumper and crash tubes are compared. Dynamic simulation is done using LS-Dyna explicit program. True stress-true plastic strain curves at different strain rates from the literature is used in the dynamic simulation of AA7003 material to study the strain rate effects on impact behavior of tubes. The impact mass is represented by RigidWall Planar Moving Force option in LSDYNA.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1349
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
Abstract In the current scenario, the major thrust is to simulate the customer usage pattern and lab test using virtual simulation methods. Going ahead, prime importance will be to reduce the number of soft tool prototype for all tests which can be predicted in CAE. Automotive door slam test is significantly complex in terms of prediction through simulation. Current work focuses on simulating the slam event and deriving load histories at different mounting locations through dynamic analysis using LSDyna. These extracted load histories are applied to trimmed door Nastran model and modal transient analysis is performed to find the transient stress history. This approach has a significant advantage of less computation time and stress-convergence with Nastran for performing multiple design iterations compared to LSDyna. Good failure correlation is achieved with the test using this approach.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 4689