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Viewing 181 to 210 of 4667
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1334
Christopher Flegel, Parth Bhivate, Liang Li, Yash Mathur, Sanket Phalgaonkar, Mark Benton, Prasanth Muralidharan, Johnell Brooks, Srikanth Pilla, Paul Venhovens, David Lewis, Garrett DeBry, Craig Payne
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a multimaterial lightweight Body-in-White (BiW) structure to support an all-electric powertrain combined with an interior package that maximizes volume to enable a variety of interior configurations and activities for Generation Z users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1335
Abhishek Sinha, Kamlesh Yadav, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. Working on global platform is challenging in order to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) and, at the same time, to meet the styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper: a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem in meeting both the requirements with limited space.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1332
Fredrik Henriksson, Kerstin Johansen
Abstract In the automotive industry, mass reduction and lightweight design is a continuing trend that does not show signs of declining. When looking at where to reduce weight in a vehicle, the body is a preferential subsystem due to its large contribution to overall mass and the stability of body composition over a specific model range. The automotive industry of today moves toward a greater differentiation in materials that compose a car, which can be seen in the several different multi material vehicle bodies that have been introduced by manufacturers in recent years. But while mixing materials may contribute to a good compromise between weight reduction and vehicle cost, it also proposes a number of challenges that need to be addressed. Among other material factors, the different coefficients of thermal expansions might introduce new stresses during painting and curing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1339
Piyush Bubna, Marc Wiseman
Abstract OEMs are investigating opportunities to reduce vehicle mass, driven by a need to meet upcoming CAFE targets, increase the range and reduce battery size of EVs. A number of lightweight materials including high strength steels, aluminum alloys, plastics and composites are now in production. To facilitate development of corporate R&D and commercialization plans for new materials, it is beneficial to understand the current manufacturing costs for production components, and their impact on piece price at different volumes. This paper investigates design and cost impact of light-weighting with respect to front door and floor assembly of Toyota Corolla and BMW i3. Toyota Corolla has a traditional steel body and is sold in high volumes while BMW i3 has relatively low annual sales and is primarily made of composite, aluminum and plastic parts.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1338
Syed F. Haider, Zissimos Mourelatos
Abstract Weight reduction is very important in automotive design because of stringent demand on fuel economy. Structural optimization of dynamic systems using finite element (FE) analysis plays an important role in reducing weight while simultaneously delivering a product that meets all functional requirements for durability, crash and NVH. With advancing computer technology, the demand for solving large FE models has grown. Optimization is however costly due to repeated full-order analyses. Reanalysis methods can be used in structural vibrations to reduce the analysis cost from repeated eigenvalue analyses for both deterministic and probabilistic problems. Several reanalysis techniques have been introduced over the years including Parametric Reduced Order Modeling (PROM), Combined Approximations (CA) and the Epsilon algorithm, among others.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1327
Zhenfeng Wang, Mingming Dong, Junfeng Xiang, Pu Gao, Liang Gu, Yushuai Wang
Abstract The study of mechanical properties special in the characteristics of elastic element is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Since torsion bar spring acts as an important part of elastic element, and improves performance of torsion bar spring is of great concern. The effects of the torsion bar spring pre-setting precision on the presetting performance are presented. Based on elastic-plastic theories, the algebraic model of torsion bar spring is established to analyze the stress, torque and residual stress under the yield and plastic conditions in pre-setting process. Then, the stress and strain states of various torsion bar springs in different conditions are simulated using the validated finite element model in ABAQUS software. The simulation results show the effects of torsion error on the pre-setting performance are less than 5% in the pre-setting process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1330
Lei Shi, Peng Yi, Zhan Zhang
Abstract The body joint stiffness plays an important role in achieving vehicle attribute targets. One of the major drawbacks of joint stiffness evaluation is the lack of a rigorous criterion to assess whether the stiffness is proper for a body structure. This paper presents a general joint stiffness metric based on Hooke's law to better evaluate the stiffness of a body joint. A strategy for target setting of body joint stiffness was developed for vehicle body design. Finally, a vehicle body example was presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1331
Shingo Hanano, Kanehiro Nagata, Yusuke Murase
Abstract The need to add more color variations to the traditional black gloss has increased globally in recent years. The intention is for automobile manufacturers to differentiate their products in terms of appearance design. The most noticeable trend is to add embellishment around the front grill. The same trend can be seen in the areas around vehicle doors. It is most common to use a coating material to emphasize the black gloss. However, in overseas countries it is a challenge to meet the required appearance quality, and under the current circumstances CKD is imported from Japan to meet such requirements. Recently, a new film-transfer technique has been established that can express black gloss as well as any coating material by transferring the roughness of the film surface. It is achieved by crimping the PET film onto the vinyl-chloride surface after the extrusion molding is performed. Moreover, we have successfully localized this technique and reduced the manufacturing cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1329
Fulin Wei, Yanhua Shen, Tao Xu
Abstract Off-road dump truck body is exposed to abrasive wear during handling of granular materials. The wear rate of body of dump truck has direct influence on maintenance and replacement during its service process. In this paper the discrete element method (DEM) is used to simulate the granular materials of dump truck. The wear of body floor during one dumping process can be achieved by cosimulation of FEM-DEM. The wear depth variation of body has the stochastic characteristic which can be modeled by Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM). The two parameters in the stochastic differential equation, drift coefficient and diffusion coefficient, can be estimated by the wear depth measuring data. It is possible to quantitatively predict the wear evolution of every grid point of the body floor by solving this stochastic differential equation. The simulation result of the wear model is helpful to optimize design of off-road dump truck body.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1328
Praneeth Kurisetty, Naveen Sukumar, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract To compete with the current market trends, there is always a need to develop cost effective frame designs to meet the needs of the customer. During the development of new vehicles, the major focus is on weight reduction, so as to improve the load carrying capacity and fuel efficiency. Due to the introduction of new high strength materials, the static strength conditions can be met by the use of thinner frames, but the dynamic behavior of the frame deteriorates. The dynamic behaviors like ride and handling, comfort are affected by the stiffness of the vehicle frame. The stiffness of the frame is majorly defined by its vertical stiffness, lateral stiffness and torsional stiffness. The vertical stiffness of the frame plays major role in isolating road vibrations to frame mounted aggregates. The lateral stiffness plays a very important role in the handling of the vehicle and cornering ability of the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1351
Simhachalam Bade
Abstract Aluminum alloys are widely used in the transportation because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and outstanding capability in absorbing energy. In this paper, performance of bumper with crash tubes using aluminum alloy AA7003 materials is compared with that of AA6061 and high strength steel (DP800) using numerical methods. Quasi-static test is simulated using the LS-DYNA implicit finite element program. Bumper and crash tubes are included in the finite element model. Symmetric Holes are provided in the crash tubes to initiate crushing. The energy absorbed by bumper and crash tubes are compared. Dynamic simulation is done using LS-Dyna explicit program. True stress-true plastic strain curves at different strain rates from the literature is used in the dynamic simulation of AA7003 material to study the strain rate effects on impact behavior of tubes. The impact mass is represented by RigidWall Planar Moving Force option in LSDYNA.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1349
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
Abstract In the current scenario, the major thrust is to simulate the customer usage pattern and lab test using virtual simulation methods. Going ahead, prime importance will be to reduce the number of soft tool prototype for all tests which can be predicted in CAE. Automotive door slam test is significantly complex in terms of prediction through simulation. Current work focuses on simulating the slam event and deriving load histories at different mounting locations through dynamic analysis using LSDyna. These extracted load histories are applied to trimmed door Nastran model and modal transient analysis is performed to find the transient stress history. This approach has a significant advantage of less computation time and stress-convergence with Nastran for performing multiple design iterations compared to LSDyna. Good failure correlation is achieved with the test using this approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1365
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
Abstract The overall automotive industry is moving toward first time right test which in turn needs first time right analysis. This is due to the enormous pressure of cost, mass, time to market and availability of prototype vehicles for testing. Use of finite element methods enables to upfront predict the system behavior in operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. In vehicle product development process, hood slam durability evaluation is one of the important tests for body closure structure. Current work showcases an effort made for developing virtual hood slam test. The virtual model consists of BIW, hood, hinge joint, interface like CRFM (cooling-radiator-fan module) and latch mechanism with spring preload. Analysis performed with LSDyna solver. An impact loading is applied by converting potential energy to kinetic energy, mimicking the hood dropping from a specified height on the hood latch.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1380
S. Khodaygan, Amir Ghasemali, Hamed Afrasiab
Abstract One of the most important characteristics of industrial products, especially mechanical set-ups, is considering the tolerances of production and assembly of these set-ups, which directly influences the products’ operations. In sheet metal structures, due to the high flexibility of the sheets, the errors appeared while assembly will be as highly influential as the errors due to the production tolerance of the sheets. As a result, having a comprehensive model which could analyze the assembly process of these structures and also clarifies the relation between the tolerance of the parts and the ultimate changes of the set-up will be of considerable importance. During the assembly process, the contact effect between the components is inevitable. If such effect is not considered, the contact surfaces will permeate. The purpose of this paper is to present a method to analyze the tolerance of flexible sheet structures, considering the contact effect between surfaces.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1384
Mengshi Deng, Jian Lan
Abstract Glass lifter is a key part of automobile door system. Guide rail is the carrier of glass lifter, and it bears various load cases when glass lifer works. Mass, stiffness and natural frequencies are the factors that influence the performance of glass lifter. In order to design a lighter and reasonable glass lifter, topology optimization methods are studied in this paper. In a rope-wheel glass lifter, design domain is determined by the mechanical structure and working conditions. Firstly, the single target continuum structure topology optimization mathematic models of guide rail are built in this paper, and analysis of multi-stiffness topology optimization are carried out accordingly in which volume fraction is set as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. These models are based on SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization) theory.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1401
Thomas M. Cleary, Timothy Huten, Daniel Strong, Chester S. Walawender
Abstract The use of lightweight materials to produce automotive glazing is being pursued by vehicle manufacturers in an effort to improve fuel economy. As glazing’s become thinner, reduced rigidity means that the critical flaw size needed to create fracture becomes much smaller due to increased strain under load or impact. This paper documents experiments focused on the impact performance of several alternative thin laminate constructions under consideration for windshield applications (including conventional annealed soda-lime glass as well as laminates utilizing chemically strengthened glass), for the purpose of identifying new and unique failure modes that result from thickness reduction. Regulatory impact tests and experiments that focused on functional performance of laminates were conducted. Given the increased sensitivity to flaw size for thin laminates, controlled surface damage was introduced to parts prior to conducting the functional performance tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1398
Ahmet Turan
Abstract Optimization of a structure which is subjected to simultaneous multiple load cases starts with the investigation of worst possible load case combination. This is called conventional optimization approach, which can be considered impractical due to the excessive CPU times in the application of multiple load cases. This computational difficulty can be overcome by deploying singular value decomposition (SVD) to find the worst possible load case against which the structure should be optimized. To this end, the SVD based optimization approach to optimization of a structure subject to simultaneous multiple load cases is presented. Conventional Multiobjective optimization and SVD based Multi-objective optimization approaches are applied to a sample Commercial Truck Chassis Frame structure for durability vs. weight objectives. This will enable designer to select the optimum design parameters out of the calculated Pareto sets.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1395
Syed F. Haider, Zissimos Mourelatos
Abstract To improve fuel economy, there is a trend in automotive industry to use light weight, high strength materials. Automotive body structures are composed of several panels which must be downsized to reduce weight. Because this affects NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) performance, engineers are challenged to recover the lost panel stiffness from down-gaging in order to improve the structure borne noise transmitted through the lightweight panels in the frequency range of 100-300 Hz where most of the booming and low medium frequency noise occurs. The loss in performance can be recovered by optimized panel geometry using beading or damping treatment. Topography optimization is a special class of shape optimization for changing sheet metal shapes by introducing beads. A large number of design variables can be handled and the process is easy to setup in commercial codes. However, optimization methods are computationally intensive because of repeated full-order analyses.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1411
Sangmin Lee, Donghwa Shin, Jongseok Park, Ng Eng Chong, Fabrizio Cortigiani, Youngjae Choi
Abstract LED in automotive rear combination lighting (RCL) is becoming widely used in high end to mid class segment car. This is mainly fuelled by the strong influence of styling and requirement of a compact design. With OEMs competing to provide higher value to the customers such as longer warranty and advanced diagnostic features, the topic of semiconductor integration is becoming significant. Integration is a key to enable small form factor, high robustness and implementation of advanced technical functionality in the LED driver. However, the cost of implementing an integrated driver, if not partitioned effectively, will be much higher than the discrete solution. Therefore, it is important to implement the cost optimization strategy right from the conceptualization of the LED driver integrated device. In the beginning of this paper, the LED driving concept that is commonly used in the RCL lighting such as linear current sources and switching supply is discussed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1410
Stefan G. Grötsch, Morten Brink, Roland Fiederling, Thomas Liebetrau, Ingo Möllers, Jörg Moisel, Hermann Oppermann, Alexander Pfeuffer
Abstract A cooperation of several research partners supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education proposes a new active matrix LED light source. A multi pixel flip chip LED array is directly mounted to an active driver IC. A total of 1024 pixel can be individually addressed through a serial data bus. Several of these units are integrated in a prototype headlamp to enable advanced light distribution patterns in an evaluation vehicle.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1409
J. Christopher Watson, Gennady Dumnov, Alexander Muslaev, Andrey Ivanov, Svetlana Shtilkind
Abstract Condensation occurrence in automotive headlights can be detrimental to consumer acceptance of a product. This paper describes a technique for transient numerical simulation of liquid film formation on surfaces during lighting thermal analysis performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), including how the film’s properties influence the thermal solution. The numerical technique presented accounts for the change in the film thermal state and thickness due to heat exchange with external fluid flow and solid bodies, surface evaporation/condensation, melting/crystallization within the film volume, and its motion due to gravity and friction forces from the surrounding airflow. Additionally, accurate modeling of radiation effects is critical for lighting applications, including the attendant influence on the thermal distribution of the solids that may have surfaces subject to condensation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1408
John D. Bullough, Nicholas P. Skinner, Timothy T. Plummer
Abstract Although adaptive driving beam headlight systems are not presently defined in North American headlighting standards, evidence for the potential safety benefits of these systems is increasing. Field measurements of the photometric performance of an adaptive driving bean system were made in response to simulated headlight and tail light conditions. Roadway geometries were varied and multiple measurements for many conditions were made to assess repeatability of measurements. The results of the testing are summarized in the context of validating the likely safety impacts of these systems and of providing recommendations for standardized measurement conditions to ensure reliability.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1407
Sama Hussein, Benjamin Hamilton, O. Remus Tutunea-Fatan, Evgueni Bordatchev
Abstract Retroreflective (RR) optical elements play a critical role in signaling, safety, and aesthetic/styling functionality of automotive lighting. The commonly-used inverted corner cube (ICC) RR structures with hexagonal aperture have several critical limitations that are primarily rooted in their manufacturing technique that involves complex assemblies/shapes of hexagonal pins and electroforms, particularly in case of freeform surfaces. This study introduces a novel RR micro-optical structure, namely: right triangular prism (RTP). The geometric model underlying this new geometry is defined as the intersection between a cube and a plane placed in a particular relative orientation with respect to each other. Following this, non-sequential optical simulation studies were performed analyzing the effect of incident light orientation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1406
Rainer Neumann
Abstract Adaptive driving beam (ADB), which was first homologated in the ECE world (ECE 123) in 2012 has changed the automotive Front Lighting philosophy completely. Whereas we currently live with separate low beam and high beam features, also used in a combined way, we will have in the future a camera driven light distribution, which is a kind of modified high beam light pattern. ADB is a camera based lighting system, which enables the driver to achieve at night nearly high beam visibility without glaring oncoming or proceeding vehicles and road users. Once the presence of other vehicles is detected the headlamps change the light pattern and block the light where the oncoming or proceeding vehicles are located. The typical low beam light distribution with given and specified cutoff line will only be used in small speed areas.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1414
Shigeyoshi Hiratsuka, Shinichi Kojima, Nobuyuki Shiraki, Kazunori Higuchi, Toshihiko Tsukada, Keiichi Shimaoka, Kazuya Asaoka, Sho Masuda, Kazuhiko Nakashima
Abstract We investigated a lighting method that supports pedestrian perception by vehicle drivers. This lighting method makes active use of visual characteristics such as the spatio-temporal frequency of contrast sensitivity. Using reasonable parameter values derived from preliminary experiments using a Campbell-Robson chart, we determined a suitable lighting pattern that improves the driver's pedestrian perception. In order to assess the influence of visual characteristics on a reaction-time-dependent task, such as pedestrian perception in nighttime, tests were performed in the target environment, the results of which validated the proposed method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0022
Kenta Morishima, Shigeru Thomas Oho, Satoshi Shimada
Abstract A virtual power window control system was built in order to look into and demonstrate applications of microcontroller models. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations. The microcontroller program, which was written in binary digital codes, was executed step-by-step as the virtual ECU simulation went on. Thus, production-ready codes of ECUs are of primary interest in this research. The mechanical system of the power window, the DC motor to lift the window glass, the H-bridge MOSFET drivers, and the current sensing circuit to detect window locking are also modeled. This means that the hardware system of the control system was precisely modeled in terms of mechanical and circuit components. By integrating these models into continuous and discrete co-simulation, the power window control system was analyzed in detail from the microscopic command execution of the microcontroller to the macroscopic motion of the window mechanism altogether.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0174
Pankaj Kumar Singh, Naman Taneja, Alok Nath Sharma, Adarsh Gaurav
Abstract In today’s fast moving vehicle scenario, road safety is of utmost importance. Many people have lost their lives while travelling, due to a road accident. So we should mitigate such accidents if we wish to travel safely. To cater this cause, we propose an adaptive steering controlled headlight setup. The system can be adopted in any type of four wheel vehicles/trucks or trailers etc. without being an economic burden on the end user. The notion of steering controlled headlight is not new, but its adaptability according to the steering turning angle is its novel part. A lot of companies have developed technologies that incorporate turn able headlight to better illuminate the path, but these technologies are quite expensive and continue to be distant from the majority of car owners. So we felt the need of developing a mechanism that incorporates few simple components like gears, linkages etc. and can be readily fitted onto any steering column without much of a design variations.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0198
Joydeep Chatterjee, Harveen Talwar, Srishti Garg
Abstract In a typical passenger vehicle, there can be different types of noises generated which are broadly categorized as Interior Noise and Exterior Noise. The interior noise sources can be further classified into noises which can be Structure Borne or Air Borne. One of the major sources of both structure borne and airborne noise generation is the powertrain of the vehicle. The structure-borne noise and vibrations generated from the powertrain is usually transferred to the vehicle body through its attachment points to the body and the powertrain driveline. These induced body vibrations can sometimes cause the acoustic cavity of the passenger cabin to go into resonance which results in an annoying and disturbing noise for the passengers, called Booming Noise. Very often, one or more than one vehicle body panels show a dominant contribution in inducing this acoustic cavity resonance.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0197
Nithin Alex John, Mona Sherki, Sanjay A Patil
Abstract New generation automobiles are equipped with power windows which eases the passenger’s effort in moving the vehicle windows up and down. Many of them are stuffed with advanced features like automatic up/down option for ensuring functionality with a single press of the switch. Even though it adds comfort to driver & passenger, inadvertent use of power window can be fatal if a person’s body part gets trapped inside. An effective solution for this problem is anti-pinch mechanism, which releases the object safely just when it gets trapped. It detects the object trapped and immediately moves the window down so that trapped object will get released easily. The anti-pinch algorithm used in this project is based on the “Method of Monitoring Movable Element”, method monitor traveling distance of a power window pane. In order to achieve this different from conventional techniques we are using Ultrasonic sensor.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0210
Abhishek Sinha, Kamlesh Yadav, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. While working on global platform, it is challenging to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) and at the same time meeting the styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper, a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem in meeting both the requirements with limited space.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 4667