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Viewing 151 to 180 of 4667
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1532
Kyoungtaek Kwak, Seungwoo Seo, Randi Potekin, Antoine Blanchard, Alexander Vakakis, Donald McFarland, Lawrence Bergman
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop a dynamic model that can accurately predict the motion of the door handle and counterweight during side impact crash tests. The door locking system, mainly composed of the door outside handle and door latch, is theoretically modeled, and it is assumed that the door outer panel can rotate and translate in all three directions during a side impact crash. Additionally, the numerical results are compared with real crash video footage, and satisfactory qualitative agreement is found. Finally, the simplified test rig that efficiently reflects the real crash test is introduced, and its operation is analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0276
Mahalingesh Burkul, Hemant Bhatkar, Mahesh Badireddy, Narayanan Vijayakumar
Abstract In an automotive product development environment, identifying the premature structural failures is one of the important tasks for Body-In-White (BIW), sub-assemblies and components. The integrated car body structure i.e. monocoque structure, is widely used in passenger cars and SUVs. This structure is subjected to bending and torsional vibrations, due to dynamic loads. Normally the stresses due to bending are relatively small compared to stresses due to torsion in Body-In-White under actual road conditions [1]. This paper focuses on evaluating the life of Body-In-White structures subjected to torsional loading. An accelerated test method was evolved for identifying failure modes of monocoque BIW by applying torsion fatigue. The observation of the crack generation and propagation was made with respect to a number of torsion fatigue cycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0256
Hideaki Nagano, Kenji Tomita, Yasuhiro Tanoue, Yuji Kobayashi, Itsuhei Kohri, Shinsuke Kato
Abstract In the winter, windshield glass fogging must be prevented through the intake of outdoor air into a vehicle. However, the corresponding energy loss via the ventilation system cannot be ignored. In the present study, the defogging pattern on the windshield is evaluated and the water vapor transportation in the flow field in the vehicle is analyzed in order to investigate the ventilation load by means of a numerical simulation. Some examined cases involve new outlet positions. Additionally, a new, energy-saving air supply method for defogging, with so-called “double-layer ventilator”, is proposed. In this method, one air jet layer is obtained via a conventional defogging opening in the vicinity of the windshield, supplying an outdoor air intake. The other jet consists of recirculated air that covers the outdoor air, preventing it from mixing with the surrounding air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0208
Xuzhi Du, Zhigang Yang, Hua Zhou, Qiliang Li, Zheyan Jin
Abstract The effect of jet geometry on flow, heat transfer and defrosting characteristics was numerically investigated for elliptic and rectangular impinging jets on an automobile windshield. Initially, various turbulence models within the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT were employed and validated for a single jet, and the results indicated that the impinging jet heat transfer was more accurately predicted by the SST k -ω turbulence model, which was then utilized for this study. The aspect ratios (AR) of elliptic and rectangular jets were respectively 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0, with jet-to-target spacing h/d=2, 4 and jet-to-jet spacing c/d=4, and all those situations were numerically analyzed with the same air mass flow and jet open area. It was observed that the heat transfer coefficient and defrosting performance of the inclined windshield were significantly affected by the shape of the jet, and the best results were obtained with the elliptic jet arrangements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0216
Ramanand Singh, Remesh Kuzhikkali, Nitesh Shet, Sekarapandian Natarajan, Govind Kizhedath, Murugan Arumugam
Fogging (i.e. condensation of water vapor) in headlamps in severe weather conditions present both a performance and potential safety concern for automotive companies. Conventional headlamps are based on incandescent bulbs. In recent times, LED lighting has increasingly become the norm. However, LED based headlamps are prone to higher levels of fogging because they inherently produce less heat than the conventional incandescent or halogen bulbs. A headlamp design must be able to dispose all the formed condensate/fog in a fixed time even under severe thermal conditions. It is of great importance for the car manufacturer to be able to simulate the risk of condensation early in the design stage with an eye on the overall cost reduction. The combined use of experimental studies and numerical modelling is important to optimize headlamp design and to produce high-performance headlamps.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0240
Ruobing Zhan, Gangfeng Tan, Bo Yang, Zhiwei Zhang, Tie Wang, Cenyi Liu, Xintong Wu, Yanjun Ren, Haobo Xu
Abstract The Organic Rankine Cycle System (ORC) is an effective means to use the solar energy. The system adopts the solar energy on the car roof as the heat source to make the ORC work and drive the thermoelectric air-conditioner. It can improve the entering comfort on the parking condition and the vehicle energy utilization efficiency. In this research, the system comprehensively applied the principle of sunshine concentration, heat collection and photo electricity. Then considering the working condition and performance features of ORC system, the car roof was designed to have a compact structure, through which the efficiency of the solar vehicle system could be improved. Firstly, the research analyzed the heat source temperature and the heat flux impact on the output power of the ORC system. After that, the performance of heat collection was identified according to the given thermoelectric air-condition’s power requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0246
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
Abstract Vehicle occupants, unlike building occupants, are exposed to continuously varying, non-uniform solar heat load. Automotive manufacturers use photovoltaic cells based solar sensor to measure intensity and direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Use of the time of the day and the position - latitude and longitude - of a vehicle is also common to calculate direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Two angles - azimuth and elevation - are used to completely define the direction of solar radiation with respect to the vehicle coordinate system. Although the use of solar sensor is common in today’s vehicles, the solar heat load on the occupants, because of their exposure to the direct-beam solar radiation remains the area of in-car subjective evaluation and tuning. Since the solar rays travel in parallel paths, application of the ray tracing method to determine solar insolation of the vehicle occupants is possible.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0217
Somnath Sen, Mayur Selokar, Diwakar Nisad, Kamal Kishore
Abstract Adequate visibility through the vehicle windshield over the entire driving period is of paramount practical significance. Thin water film (fog) that forms on the windshield mainly during the winter season would reduce and disturb the driver’s visibility. This water film originates from condensing water vapor on inside surface of the windshield due to low outside temperatures. Primary source of this vapor is the passenger’s breath, which condenses on the windshield. Hot and dry air which impinges at certain velocity and angle relative to the windshield helps to remove the thin water film (defogging) and hence improves driver’s visibility. Hence a well-designed demisting device will help to eliminate this fog layer within very short span of time and brings an accepted level of visibility. An attempt is made here to design and develop a demisting device for a commercial vehicle with the help of numerical and analytical approach and later on validated with experimental results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0526
Sumiran Manghani, Girish Kumar
Abstract Vehicle performance is highly dependent on the design and material used. Fairing of a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) is responsible for the reduction in the aerodynamic drag force and its material determines the overall weight and the top speed of the vehicle. Selection of material for fairings depends on various physical, mechanical and manufacturing properties along with practical considerations like availability of material. Today, an ever-increasing variety of composite materials and polymers are available, each of them possessing their own characteristics, applications, advantages and limitations. Many automotive composites are used for manufacturing fairings. Materials like Carbon fiber, Glass fiber (E glass, S glass), Aramid fiber (Kevlar 29, Kevlar 49) are some of the viable options that have been used in the past for manufacturing fairing of HPVs.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0519
Xiaoqing Xu, Bohan Liu, Yan Wang, Yibing Li
Abstract The mechanical behavior of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film plays an important role in windshield crashworthiness and pedestrian protection and should be depth study. In this article, the uniaxial tension tests of PVB film at various strain rates (0.001 s-1, 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, 1 s-1) and temperatures (-10°C, 0°C, 10°C, 23°C, 40°C, 55°C, 70°C) are conducted to investigate its mechanical behavior. Then, temperature and strain rate dependent viscoelastic characteristics of PVB are systematically studied. The results show that PVB is a kind of temperature and strain rate sensitive thermal viscoelastic material. Temperature increase and strain rate decrease have the same influence on mechanical properties of PVB. Besides, the mechanical characteristics of PVB change non-linearly with temperature and strain rate.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0527
Anthony Berejka, Dan Montoney, Dan Dispenza, Len Poveromo, Rick Galloway, Marshall Cleland, Mark Driscoll
Abstract The power demands in terms of kilowatt-hour electrical use were compared for autoclave curing commercial thermosetting carbon fiber pre-pregs with an innovative alternative of high energy X-ray curing. An automotive component, now made with carbon fiber composites, was selected as an illustrative example, an Aston-Martin hood. Temperature resistant polyester molds for these hoods were used and manufacturer recommended autoclave curing conditions were followed. X-rays, which can penetrate about 15 cm (6 inches) in unit density materials (or less into higher density materials as molds), were used to cure pre-pregs made with a specialty matrix material using the same molds, but doing so without adding any heat for curing. High energy X-ray equipment, generated from a 7 MeV, 700 kW electron beam, is in commercial use for medical device sterilization. This same equipment can also be used for composite curing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0475
Lingzhi Li, Jun Li, Bingwu Lu, Yingjie Liu, Zhi Zhang, Hailong Cheng, Yan Zhang, Hangsheng Hou
Abstract Excessive wind noise is one of the most complained problems by owners of new vehicles as evidenced by JD Power Initial Quality Study (IQS) in recent years. After the vehicle speed surpasses 100 km/h, wind noise is gradually becoming the dominant noise source. In an effort to reduce aeroacoustic noise level, Beamforming (BF) is a very effective noise source identification technique used during vehicle wind noise development phases. In this work, based on the planar BF methodology, a large semi-circle microphone array is designed in accordance with the desired resolution and dynamic range pertaining to actual noise source distribution on a typical passenger vehicle. Acoustic array calibration and mapping deformation correction are accomplished by multi-point source method, and the Doppler Effect due to wind is corrected by the location calibration method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0473
Muthukumar Arunachalam, S Arunkumar, PraveenKumar Sampath, Abdul Haiyum, Beverly Katz
Abstract Current generation passenger vehicles are built with several electronic sensors and modules which are required for the functioning of passive safety systems. These sensors and modules are mounted on the vehicle body at locations chosen to meet safety functionality requirements. They are mounted on pillars or even directly on panels based on specific packaging requirements. The body panel or pillar poses local structural resonances and its dynamic behavior can directly affect the functioning of these sensors and modules. Hence a specific inertance performance level at the mounting locations is required for the proper functioning of those sensors and modules. Drive point modal frequency response function (FRF) analysis, at full vehicle model for the frequency range up to 1000 Hz, is performed using finite element method (FEM) and verified against the target level along with test correlation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0406
Akihiko Asami, Tomoyuki Imanishi, Yukio Okazaki, Tomohiro Ono, Kenichi Tetsuka
Abstract High-tensile steel plates and lightweight aluminum are being employed as materials in order to achieve weight savings in automotive subframe. Closed-section structures are also in general use today in order to efficiently increase parts stiffness in comparison to open sections. Aluminum hollow-cast subframe have also been brought into practical use. Hollow-cast subframe are manufactured using sand cores in gravity die casting (GDC) or low-pressure die casting (LPDC) processes. Using these manufacturing methods, it is difficult to reduce product thickness, and the limitations of the methods therefore make the achievement of weight reductions a challenge. The research discussed in this paper developed a lightweight, hollow subframe technology employing high-pressure die casting (HPDC), a method well-suited to reducing wall thickness, as the manufacturing method. Hollow-casting using HPDC was developed as a method of forming water jackets for water-cooled automotive engines.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0407
Da-Zhi Wang, Guang-Jun Cao, Chang Qi, Yong Sun, Shu Yang, Yu Du
Abstract The increasing demand for lightweight design of the whole vehicle has raised critical weight reduction targets for crash components such as front rails without deteriorating their crash performances. To this end the last few years have witnessed a huge growth in vehicle body structures featuring hybrid materials including steel and aluminum alloys. In this work, a type of tapered tailor-welded tube (TTWT) made of steel and aluminum alloy hybrid materials was proposed to maximize the specific energy absorption (SEA) and to minimize the peak crushing force (PCF) in an oblique crash scenario. The hybrid tube was found to be more robust than the single material tubes under oblique impacts using validated finite element (FE) models. Compared with the aluminum alloy tube and the steel tube, the hybrid tube can increase the SEA by 46.3% and 86.7%, respectively, under an impact angle of 30°.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0434
Roshan N. Mahadule, Jaideep Singh Chavan
Abstract Door closing velocity (DCV) is one of the important design parameter for door durability performance. The closing velocity varies with the design parameters and physical properties of the door. The variation in door closing effort may increase or decrease the durability of the door and body components, this can be a concern when the overall vehicle durability performance is considered. This paper gives a mathematical model to calculate the door closing effort accounting the energy sink from various door design parameters such as door seal, latch, hinge, door weight, checkstrap and cabin-pressure. In addition to this, the MS-Excel based computation tool has been developed, which aims to calculate the door closing velocity and energy contribution from each design parameter. This tool is very interactive and effective for durability engineer and helps in improving the quality of vehicle door design.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0652
Ravi Ranjan, Lakshmaiah Brahmasani, Parvej Khan
Abstract This paper reports a study on Charge air cooler effectiveness, Air intake pressure drop, Acceleration Performance and Rise over ambient temperature of a utility vehicle for different layouts of Inter cooler, radiator, condenser and fan module in order to finalize an efficient Power train cooling system layout. The main objective is effective utilization of front end opening area, eliminating inter cooler heat load on the radiator, so that radiator size, fan size and fan motor wattage can be optimized to achieve desired cooling performance requirements with the cooling system (CRFM) module. Effect of the intercooler effectiveness, Intake pressure drop, Vehicle acceleration performance and Rise over ambient temperature are studied and both the advantages and disadvantages of the proposals are discussed to finalize the better position of inter-cooler along with other engine cooling components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0350
Andre Camboa, Bernardo Ribeiro, Miguel Vaz, Luis Pinheiro, Ricardo Malta
The development of an automotive hood for an electric vehicle based on a polymer-metal hybrid configuration is described in this paper. Here, special focus is given only to the engineering design and prototyping phases which are the initial stages of a much bigger project. A project that aims to evaluate the cost efficiency, weight penalty and structural integrity of adopting polydicyclopentadiene as an exterior body material in low production volume vehicles, among them the electric ones. For the engineering design and prototyping phases, three different reinforcement geometries were developed and six mechanical simulations were done through finite element analysis to aid best frame geometry selection and optimization. The entire hood was then prototyped containing the optimized geometry. The fabrication of the frame was made through metal stamping and the exterior panel through reaction injection moulding. Adhesive bonding was used for its assembly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0351
Yuki Kudo, Akinori Sato, Kazutaka Kimura, Shoichi Iwamoto, Hiroyuki Ohba, Motoya Sakabe, Yasuhiro Shirai
Abstract Replacing the metal car roof with conventional solar modules results in the increase of total car weight and change of center of mass, which is not preferable for car designing. Therefore, weight reduction is required for solar modules to be equipped on vehicles. Exchanging glass to plastic for the cover plate of solar module is one of the major approaches to reduce weight; however, load bearing property, impact resistance, thermal deformation, and weatherability become new challenges. In this paper a new solar module structure that weighs as light as conventional steel car roofs, resolving these challenges is proposed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0397
Wenxin Qin, Sandip Datta, Weidong Zhang
Abstract In automotive FEA analysis, there are many components or assemblies which can be simplified to two-dimensional (2D) plane or axisymmetric analytical problems instead of three-dimensional (3D) simulation models for quick modeling and efficient analysis to meet the timing in the design development process, especially in the advanced design phase and iteration studies. Even though some situations are not perfectly planar or axisymmetric problems, they may still be approximated in 2D planar or axisymmetric models, achieving results accurate enough to meet engineering requirements. In this paper, the authors have presented and summarized several complex 3D analytical situations which can be replaced by simplified plane axisymmetric models or 2D plane strain analytical models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0399
Dinesh Munjurulimana, Amit Kulkarni, Dhanendra Nagwanshi, Joel Luther Thambi, Ruud Winters, Matthew Delaney
Abstract Automotive OEMs are proactively working on vehicle light-weighting, powertrain optimization, alternate/renewable energy sources and combinations of the three to meet challenging corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. Light-weighting of the body-in-white (BIW) is an obvious choice for vehicle light-weighting as this structure contributes to more than 30-35% of the total weight of a car. Changing manufacturing and assembly lines requires substantial investment. As such, OEMs are exploring short-term light-weighting strategies that do not require any major changes to the BIW. Local reinforcement for the BIW are pertinent solutions that does not require any major changes in the existing assembly lines. This paper focuses on the development of BIW reinforcement solutions using engineering thermoplastic materials that can be mounted at appropriate locations on a vehicle’s BIW to achieve significant weight savings without compromising crash performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0402
Eric S. Elliott, Christopher Roche, Jashwanth Reddy
Since the inception of the IIHS Small Overlap Impact (SOI) test in 2012, automotive manufacturers have implemented many solutions in the vehicle body structure to achieve an IIHS “Good” rating. There are two main areas of the vehicle: forward of vehicle cockpit and immediately surrounding the vehicle cockpit, which typically work together for SOI to mitigate crash energy and prevent intrusion into the passenger zones. The structures forward of vehicle cockpit are designed to either 1) absorb vehicle energy from impact to the barrier, or 2) provide enough strength and rigidity to aid deflection of the vehicle away from the barrier. The structures which are immediately surrounding the vehicle cockpit (known as pillars and rocker/sills) are traditionally components designed to be highly rigid sheet metal panels to protect the occupant during crash events.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0404
Qianqian Du
Abstract Crashworthiness is one of the most important performances of vehicles, and the front rails are the main crash energy absorption parts during the frontal crashing process. In this paper, the front rail was simplified to a thin-walled beam with a cross section of single-hat which was made of steel and aluminum. And the two boards of it were connected by riveting without rivets. In order to optimize its crashworthiness, the thickness (t), radius (R) and the rivet spacing (d) were selected as three design variables, and its specific energy absorption was the objective while the average impact force was the constraint. Considering the error of manufacturing and measurements, the parameters σs and Et of the steel were selected as the uncertainty variables to improve the design reliability. The algorithm IP-GA and the approximate model-RBF (Radial Basis Function) were applied in this nonlinear uncertainty optimization.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0391
Tanmay Sushant Santra, Vikas Kumar Agarwal, Mihir Bhambri
This paper depict the difference in the endurance factor of safety with usage of static and quasi static FE analysis and corrective measures take to solve the problem. The importance of the dynamic loading and subsequent effect of it on the multi axial fatigue analysis. Considering the modern trend prevailing among the vehicle manufacturers and specifically talking about two wheeler industry, it is clear that while the engine remains the same but the frame is changed to cater the market with new models to cut down on the development time. Initially the crankcase was designed for a double cradle frame where the crankcase was mounted on the frame. Later, the frame design was changed to single cradle where engine acts as a stress member link. This kind of arrangement makes the crankcase mountings participate in the chassis loads. Therefore, the crankcase mounting experiences road loads when the vehicle encounter the road irregularities.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0387
Yunkai Gao, Jingpeng Han, Jianguang Fang, Shihui Wang
Abstract A compiled method of the programmed load spectrum, which can simplify and accelerate the fatigue bench test of a car body, is proposed and its effectiveness is checked by the fatigue simulation. By using the multi-body dynamics model with a satisfactory accuracy, the virtual iteration is applied to cascade body loads from the wheel hubs. Based on the rain-flow counting method and statistics theory, the distributions of the body loads are analyzed, and then the programmed load spectrum is compiled and simplified. Through comparative study, the simulation results of random and programmed load spectrum are found to agree well with each other in terms of the damage distribution and fatigue life, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0372
Thomas Thesing, Neil Bishop
Abstract Conventional approaches for the fatigue life evaluation of automotive parts like headlamps involves the evaluation of random stress conditions in either the time or frequency domain. If one is working in the frequency domain the fatigue life can be evaluated using one of the available methods like the Rayleigh (Narrow Band) approach or the more recent Dirlik method. Historically, the random stresses needed as input to these methods have been evaluated by the FEA solver (eg Abaqus, or Nastran) and these “in built” stress evaluations have limitations which relate to the fact that the stress conditions are complex and so the common “equivalents” for stress like von-Mises or Principal have not been available. There have also been limitations in the location and method of averaging for such stresses. In addition, the fatigue calculation approach for doing the evaluation has been constrained to the linear stress based (S-N) method.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0300
Lei Shi, Ji Yang, Zhaomin Zhang, Zhan Zhang
Abstract Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) has been widely used in the automotive industry to balance overall weight and stringent vehicle attributes, such as safety, NVH, durability, etc. To improve product quality and shorten product development cycle, a comprehensive MDO-based platform for vehicle attribute integration is developed in this paper. Some key issues in the platform development are addressed: Parameter model synchronization, Metamodel predictive capabilities, and Pre/post processing, etc. In addition, a strategy for body design is proposed to achieve weight targets while meeting other vehicle attributes. Lastly, the proposed methodology is demonstrated by a real world example for vehicle body design.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0511
Na Qiu, Yunkai Gao, Jianguang Fang, Shanshan Wang
Abstract As a potential material for lightweight vehicle, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) has proven to perform well in optical behavior and weather resistance. However, the application in automotive glazing has seldom been studied. This paper investigates the defrost performance of PMMA rear window using both numerical and experimental methods. The finite element analysis (FEA) results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated finite element model, we further optimized the defrost efficiency by changing the arrangement of heating lines. The results demonstrated the frost layer on the vision-related region of PMMA rear window can melt within 30 minutes, which meets the requirement of defrost efficiency.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0510
Praveen Mishra, Subramanian Ganeshan
Abstract An automobile outer rear view mirror (ORVM) is fixed at the front exterior of the vehicle for helping the driver see areas behind and sides of the vehicle which are outside of their peripheral vision. Mirror Scalp is the cover which protects the components inside from human and other environmental damage. Hence the scalp must be properly designed and fitted to the rest of the assembly so that it allows the safe functioning of the ORVM, which is an active safety device. During automatic car washing, sometimes the scalp may get removed due to the huge force exerted by the scrubber, if the scalp is not fitted properly. Mirror scalp is fitted to the rest of the ORVM through snap-fits. Snap-fits are the simplest, quickest and most cost effective method of assembling two parts. When designed properly, parts with they can be assembled and disassembled numerous times without any adverse effect on the assembly and hence are most environmentally friendly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1266
Shinichi Urabe, Kazutaka Kimura, Yuki Kudo, Akinori Sato
Abstract Solar and other green energy technologies are attracting attention as a means of helping to address global warming caused by CO2 and other emission gases. Countries, factories, and individual homes around the world have already introduced photovoltaic energy power sources, a trend that is likely to increase in the future. Electric vehicles powered from photovoltaic energy systems can help decrease the CO2 emmissions caused by vehicles. Unlike vehicles used for solar car racing, it is not easy to equip conventional vehicles with solar modules because the available area for module installation is very small to maintain cabin space, and the body lines of conventional vehicles are also usually slightly rounded. These factors decrease the performance of photovoltaic energy systems and prevent sufficient electric power generation. This research aimed to estimate the effectiveness of a solar module power generating system equipped on a conventional car, the Toyota Prius PHV.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 4667