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Viewing 151 to 180 of 4665
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1384
Mengshi Deng, Jian Lan
Abstract Glass lifter is a key part of automobile door system. Guide rail is the carrier of glass lifter, and it bears various load cases when glass lifer works. Mass, stiffness and natural frequencies are the factors that influence the performance of glass lifter. In order to design a lighter and reasonable glass lifter, topology optimization methods are studied in this paper. In a rope-wheel glass lifter, design domain is determined by the mechanical structure and working conditions. Firstly, the single target continuum structure topology optimization mathematic models of guide rail are built in this paper, and analysis of multi-stiffness topology optimization are carried out accordingly in which volume fraction is set as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. These models are based on SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization) theory.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1365
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
Abstract The overall automotive industry is moving toward first time right test which in turn needs first time right analysis. This is due to the enormous pressure of cost, mass, time to market and availability of prototype vehicles for testing. Use of finite element methods enables to upfront predict the system behavior in operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. In vehicle product development process, hood slam durability evaluation is one of the important tests for body closure structure. Current work showcases an effort made for developing virtual hood slam test. The virtual model consists of BIW, hood, hinge joint, interface like CRFM (cooling-radiator-fan module) and latch mechanism with spring preload. Analysis performed with LSDyna solver. An impact loading is applied by converting potential energy to kinetic energy, mimicking the hood dropping from a specified height on the hood latch.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1454
Libo Dong, Stanley Chien, Jiang-Yu Zheng, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (PAEB) for helping avoiding/mitigating pedestrian crashes has been equipped on some passenger vehicles. Since approximately 70% pedestrian crashes occur in dark conditions, one of the important components in the PAEB evaluation is the development of standard testing at night. The test facility should include representative low-illuminance environment to enable the examination of the sensing and control functions of different PAEB systems. The goal of this research is to characterize and model light source distributions and variations in the low-illuminance environment and determine possible ways to reconstruct such an environment for PAEB evaluation. This paper describes a general method to collect light sources and illuminance information by processing large amount of potential collision locations at night from naturalistic driving video data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1415
William T. Neale, James Marr, David Hessel
Abstract This paper presents a methodology for generating photo realistic computer simulation environments of nighttime driving scenarios by combining nighttime photography and videography with video tracking [1] and projection mapping [2] technologies. Nighttime driving environments contain complex lighting conditions such as forward and signal lighting systems of vehicles, street lighting, and retro reflective markers and signage. The high dynamic range of nighttime lighting conditions make modeling of these systems difficult to render realistically through computer generated techniques alone. Photography and video, especially when using high dynamic range imaging, can produce realistic representations of the lighting environments. But because the video is only two dimensional, and lacks the flexibility of a three dimensional computer generated environment, the scenarios that can be represented are limited to the specific scenario recorded with video.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1411
Sangmin Lee, Donghwa Shin, Jongseok Park, Ng Eng Chong, Fabrizio Cortigiani, Youngjae Choi
Abstract LED in automotive rear combination lighting (RCL) is becoming widely used in high end to mid class segment car. This is mainly fuelled by the strong influence of styling and requirement of a compact design. With OEMs competing to provide higher value to the customers such as longer warranty and advanced diagnostic features, the topic of semiconductor integration is becoming significant. Integration is a key to enable small form factor, high robustness and implementation of advanced technical functionality in the LED driver. However, the cost of implementing an integrated driver, if not partitioned effectively, will be much higher than the discrete solution. Therefore, it is important to implement the cost optimization strategy right from the conceptualization of the LED driver integrated device. In the beginning of this paper, the LED driving concept that is commonly used in the RCL lighting such as linear current sources and switching supply is discussed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1331
Shingo Hanano, Kanehiro Nagata, Yusuke Murase
Abstract The need to add more color variations to the traditional black gloss has increased globally in recent years. The intention is for automobile manufacturers to differentiate their products in terms of appearance design. The most noticeable trend is to add embellishment around the front grill. The same trend can be seen in the areas around vehicle doors. It is most common to use a coating material to emphasize the black gloss. However, in overseas countries it is a challenge to meet the required appearance quality, and under the current circumstances CKD is imported from Japan to meet such requirements. Recently, a new film-transfer technique has been established that can express black gloss as well as any coating material by transferring the roughness of the film surface. It is achieved by crimping the PET film onto the vinyl-chloride surface after the extrusion molding is performed. Moreover, we have successfully localized this technique and reduced the manufacturing cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1330
Lei Shi, Peng Yi, Zhan Zhang
Abstract The body joint stiffness plays an important role in achieving vehicle attribute targets. One of the major drawbacks of joint stiffness evaluation is the lack of a rigorous criterion to assess whether the stiffness is proper for a body structure. This paper presents a general joint stiffness metric based on Hooke's law to better evaluate the stiffness of a body joint. A strategy for target setting of body joint stiffness was developed for vehicle body design. Finally, a vehicle body example was presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1329
Fulin Wei, Yanhua Shen, Tao Xu
Abstract Off-road dump truck body is exposed to abrasive wear during handling of granular materials. The wear rate of body of dump truck has direct influence on maintenance and replacement during its service process. In this paper the discrete element method (DEM) is used to simulate the granular materials of dump truck. The wear of body floor during one dumping process can be achieved by cosimulation of FEM-DEM. The wear depth variation of body has the stochastic characteristic which can be modeled by Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM). The two parameters in the stochastic differential equation, drift coefficient and diffusion coefficient, can be estimated by the wear depth measuring data. It is possible to quantitatively predict the wear evolution of every grid point of the body floor by solving this stochastic differential equation. The simulation result of the wear model is helpful to optimize design of off-road dump truck body.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1328
Praneeth Kurisetty, Naveen Sukumar, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract To compete with the current market trends, there is always a need to develop cost effective frame designs to meet the needs of the customer. During the development of new vehicles, the major focus is on weight reduction, so as to improve the load carrying capacity and fuel efficiency. Due to the introduction of new high strength materials, the static strength conditions can be met by the use of thinner frames, but the dynamic behavior of the frame deteriorates. The dynamic behaviors like ride and handling, comfort are affected by the stiffness of the vehicle frame. The stiffness of the frame is majorly defined by its vertical stiffness, lateral stiffness and torsional stiffness. The vertical stiffness of the frame plays major role in isolating road vibrations to frame mounted aggregates. The lateral stiffness plays a very important role in the handling of the vehicle and cornering ability of the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1266
Shinichi Urabe, Kazutaka Kimura, Yuki Kudo, Akinori Sato
Abstract Solar and other green energy technologies are attracting attention as a means of helping to address global warming caused by CO2 and other emission gases. Countries, factories, and individual homes around the world have already introduced photovoltaic energy power sources, a trend that is likely to increase in the future. Electric vehicles powered from photovoltaic energy systems can help decrease the CO2 emmissions caused by vehicles. Unlike vehicles used for solar car racing, it is not easy to equip conventional vehicles with solar modules because the available area for module installation is very small to maintain cabin space, and the body lines of conventional vehicles are also usually slightly rounded. These factors decrease the performance of photovoltaic energy systems and prevent sufficient electric power generation. This research aimed to estimate the effectiveness of a solar module power generating system equipped on a conventional car, the Toyota Prius PHV.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1351
Simhachalam Bade
Abstract Aluminum alloys are widely used in the transportation because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and outstanding capability in absorbing energy. In this paper, performance of bumper with crash tubes using aluminum alloy AA7003 materials is compared with that of AA6061 and high strength steel (DP800) using numerical methods. Quasi-static test is simulated using the LS-DYNA implicit finite element program. Bumper and crash tubes are included in the finite element model. Symmetric Holes are provided in the crash tubes to initiate crushing. The energy absorbed by bumper and crash tubes are compared. Dynamic simulation is done using LS-Dyna explicit program. True stress-true plastic strain curves at different strain rates from the literature is used in the dynamic simulation of AA7003 material to study the strain rate effects on impact behavior of tubes. The impact mass is represented by RigidWall Planar Moving Force option in LSDYNA.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1508
Gernot Pauer, Michal Kriska, Andreas Hirzer
Abstract Active bonnet safety systems are implemented into vehicles, to fulfill pedestrian head impact requirements despite little available deformation space. For such systems it is necessary to consider a variety of aspects already from the very beginning of the vehicle design process and the functionality of the whole system needs to be continually cross-checked throughout the whole design process. Many of these aspects are already supported by finite element (FE) methods from vehicle manufacturers and in this paper it is shown, how the last missing links within the development process, the optimization of pedestrian detection sensor signals can also be efficiently supported by FE simulation. The modeling and validation of a pressure tube based sensor system and so called “misuse objects” are demonstrated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1335
Abhishek Sinha, Kamlesh Yadav, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. Working on global platform is challenging in order to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) and, at the same time, to meet the styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper: a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem in meeting both the requirements with limited space.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0022
Kenta Morishima, Shigeru Thomas Oho, Satoshi Shimada
Abstract A virtual power window control system was built in order to look into and demonstrate applications of microcontroller models. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations. The microcontroller program, which was written in binary digital codes, was executed step-by-step as the virtual ECU simulation went on. Thus, production-ready codes of ECUs are of primary interest in this research. The mechanical system of the power window, the DC motor to lift the window glass, the H-bridge MOSFET drivers, and the current sensing circuit to detect window locking are also modeled. This means that the hardware system of the control system was precisely modeled in terms of mechanical and circuit components. By integrating these models into continuous and discrete co-simulation, the power window control system was analyzed in detail from the microscopic command execution of the microcontroller to the macroscopic motion of the window mechanism altogether.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1532
Kyoungtaek Kwak, Seungwoo Seo, Randi Potekin, Antoine Blanchard, Alexander Vakakis, Donald McFarland, Lawrence Bergman
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop a dynamic model that can accurately predict the motion of the door handle and counterweight during side impact crash tests. The door locking system, mainly composed of the door outside handle and door latch, is theoretically modeled, and it is assumed that the door outer panel can rotate and translate in all three directions during a side impact crash. Additionally, the numerical results are compared with real crash video footage, and satisfactory qualitative agreement is found. Finally, the simplified test rig that efficiently reflects the real crash test is introduced, and its operation is analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1408
John D. Bullough, Nicholas P. Skinner, Timothy T. Plummer
Abstract Although adaptive driving beam headlight systems are not presently defined in North American headlighting standards, evidence for the potential safety benefits of these systems is increasing. Field measurements of the photometric performance of an adaptive driving bean system were made in response to simulated headlight and tail light conditions. Roadway geometries were varied and multiple measurements for many conditions were made to assess repeatability of measurements. The results of the testing are summarized in the context of validating the likely safety impacts of these systems and of providing recommendations for standardized measurement conditions to ensure reliability.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1406
Rainer Neumann
Abstract Adaptive driving beam (ADB), which was first homologated in the ECE world (ECE 123) in 2012 has changed the automotive Front Lighting philosophy completely. Whereas we currently live with separate low beam and high beam features, also used in a combined way, we will have in the future a camera driven light distribution, which is a kind of modified high beam light pattern. ADB is a camera based lighting system, which enables the driver to achieve at night nearly high beam visibility without glaring oncoming or proceeding vehicles and road users. Once the presence of other vehicles is detected the headlamps change the light pattern and block the light where the oncoming or proceeding vehicles are located. The typical low beam light distribution with given and specified cutoff line will only be used in small speed areas.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1339
Piyush Bubna, Marc Wiseman
Abstract OEMs are investigating opportunities to reduce vehicle mass, driven by a need to meet upcoming CAFE targets, increase the range and reduce battery size of EVs. A number of lightweight materials including high strength steels, aluminum alloys, plastics and composites are now in production. To facilitate development of corporate R&D and commercialization plans for new materials, it is beneficial to understand the current manufacturing costs for production components, and their impact on piece price at different volumes. This paper investigates design and cost impact of light-weighting with respect to front door and floor assembly of Toyota Corolla and BMW i3. Toyota Corolla has a traditional steel body and is sold in high volumes while BMW i3 has relatively low annual sales and is primarily made of composite, aluminum and plastic parts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0399
Dinesh Munjurulimana, Amit Kulkarni, Dhanendra Nagwanshi, Joel Luther Thambi, Ruud Winters, Matthew Delaney
Abstract Automotive OEMs are proactively working on vehicle light-weighting, powertrain optimization, alternate/renewable energy sources and combinations of the three to meet challenging corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. Light-weighting of the body-in-white (BIW) is an obvious choice for vehicle light-weighting as this structure contributes to more than 30-35% of the total weight of a car. Changing manufacturing and assembly lines requires substantial investment. As such, OEMs are exploring short-term light-weighting strategies that do not require any major changes to the BIW. Local reinforcement for the BIW are pertinent solutions that does not require any major changes in the existing assembly lines. This paper focuses on the development of BIW reinforcement solutions using engineering thermoplastic materials that can be mounted at appropriate locations on a vehicle’s BIW to achieve significant weight savings without compromising crash performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0530
Jon Goering, Harun Bayraktar
Abstract Composites reinforced with 3D woven fiber preforms are known to display improved through thickness performance when tested using methods such as the ASTM D6415 curved beam protocol. The presence of reinforcing fiber in the through-thickness direction eliminates delamination as a mode of failure and allows the composite to continue to carry increasing loads well beyond first crack initiation. We propose that this characteristic of 3D woven composites may be exploited for applications such as automotive crash structures, which are required to dissipate large amounts of energy during an impact event. The rate dependent nature of these materials, however, is not well understood. An empirical study was conducted to provide an initial understanding of the dynamic behavior of 3D composites.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1349
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
Abstract In the current scenario, the major thrust is to simulate the customer usage pattern and lab test using virtual simulation methods. Going ahead, prime importance will be to reduce the number of soft tool prototype for all tests which can be predicted in CAE. Automotive door slam test is significantly complex in terms of prediction through simulation. Current work focuses on simulating the slam event and deriving load histories at different mounting locations through dynamic analysis using LSDyna. These extracted load histories are applied to trimmed door Nastran model and modal transient analysis is performed to find the transient stress history. This approach has a significant advantage of less computation time and stress-convergence with Nastran for performing multiple design iterations compared to LSDyna. Good failure correlation is achieved with the test using this approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1398
Ahmet Turan
Abstract Optimization of a structure which is subjected to simultaneous multiple load cases starts with the investigation of worst possible load case combination. This is called conventional optimization approach, which can be considered impractical due to the excessive CPU times in the application of multiple load cases. This computational difficulty can be overcome by deploying singular value decomposition (SVD) to find the worst possible load case against which the structure should be optimized. To this end, the SVD based optimization approach to optimization of a structure subject to simultaneous multiple load cases is presented. Conventional Multiobjective optimization and SVD based Multi-objective optimization approaches are applied to a sample Commercial Truck Chassis Frame structure for durability vs. weight objectives. This will enable designer to select the optimum design parameters out of the calculated Pareto sets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1420
Shinichi Kojima, Shigeyoshi Hiratsuka, Nobuyuki Shiraki, Kazunori Higuchi, Toshihiko Tsukada, Keiichi Shimaoka, Kazuya Asaoka, Sho Masuda, Kazuhiko Nakashima
Abstract This study aims at the development of a projection pattern that is capable of shortening the time required by a driver to perceive a pedestrian at night when a vehicle’s high beams are utilized. Our approach is based on the spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. Visual contrast sensitivity is dependent on spatiotemporal frequency, and maximum contrast sensitivity frequency varies depending on environmental luminance. Conventionally, there are several applications that utilize the spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. For example, the National Television System Committee (NTSC) television format takes into consideration low-sensitivity visual characteristics. In contrast, our approach utilizes high-sensitivity visual characteristics based on the assumption that the higher contrast sensitivity of spatio-temporal frequencies will correlate more effectively with shorter perception times.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1417
Toshinao Fukui, Kazuhiko Nakamoto, Hiroyuki Satake
Abstract The use of a head-up display (HUD) system has become popular recently, as it can provide feedback information at a position easily seen by the driver. However, the outline of the HUD bezel often reflects on the windshield of a HUD equipped vehicle. This phenomenon occurs when the sun is at a high position and reflects off the top of the instrument panel and the front view is dark. For this reason, it can occur when driving on asphalt paved roads, causing annoyance to the driver. Under fixed environmental conditions, the vehicle based factors that influence the annoyance caused by reflected boundary lines are the position of the reflection, line thickness, and the contrast of the reflected boundary line. These can be represented by the conspicuity of a striped pattern (contrast sensitivity function). In previous research in 1991, M. S. Banks et al. studied a contrast sensitivity function that included the factors stated above.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1541
Zuolong Wei, Hamid Reza Karimi, Kjell Gunnar Robbersmyr
Abstract The analysis of the vehicle crash performance is of great meaning in the vehicle design process. Due to the complexity of vehicle structures and uncertainty of crashes, the analysis of vehicle crashworthiness is generally depending on the researchers' experiences. In this paper, different deformation modes of energy absorption components are studied. More specifically, the bumper, crash box, the front longitudinal beam and the engine/firewall have different frequency characteristics in the deformation process. According to these characteristics, it is possible to identify the performance of each component in the crash process of assembled structures. To achieve this goal, the crash response of the passenger cabin is decomposed by the time-frequency transformation. Different frequency components exist mainly in a specified period of the crash process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0402
Eric S. Elliott, Christopher Roche, Jashwanth Reddy
Since the inception of the IIHS Small Overlap Impact (SOI) test in 2012, automotive manufacturers have implemented many solutions in the vehicle body structure to achieve an IIHS “Good” rating. There are two main areas of the vehicle: forward of vehicle cockpit and immediately surrounding the vehicle cockpit, which typically work together for SOI to mitigate crash energy and prevent intrusion into the passenger zones. The structures forward of vehicle cockpit are designed to either 1) absorb vehicle energy from impact to the barrier, or 2) provide enough strength and rigidity to aid deflection of the vehicle away from the barrier. The structures which are immediately surrounding the vehicle cockpit (known as pillars and rocker/sills) are traditionally components designed to be highly rigid sheet metal panels to protect the occupant during crash events.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1520
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou
Abstract The present work is concerned with the objective of design optimization of an automotive front end structure meeting both occupant and pedestrian safety requirements. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the mass of the front end structure meeting the safety requirements without sacrificing the performance targets. The front end structure should be sufficiently stiff to protect the occupant by absorbing the impact energy generated during a high speed frontal collision and at the same time it should not induce unduly high impact loads during a low speed pedestrian collision. These two requirements are potentially in conflict with each other; however, there may exist an optimum design solution, in terms of mass of front end structure, that meets both the requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1510
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Pratapnaidu Vallabhaneni, Munenori Shinada, Kazuto Sato
Abstract Many active safety systems are being developed with the intent of protecting pedestrians namely; pedestrian airbags, active hood, active emergency braking (AEB), etc. Effectiveness of such protection system relies on the efficiency of the sensing systems. The pop-uphood system was developed to help reduce pedestrian head injuries. A pop-up system is expected to make full deployment of the hood before the pedestrian’s head could hit the hood. The system should have the capability to detect most road users ranging from a six year old (6YO) child to a large male. To test the sensing system, an impactor model (PDI-2) was developed. Sensor response varies for vehicles with different front end profile dimensions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0532
Masaya Miura, Koichiro Hayashi, Kenichiro Yoshimoto, Natsuhiko Katahira
Abstract Weight reduction for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) is important to contribute a long driving range. One approach to reduce vehicle weight involves using a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) which has a high specific strength and stiffness. However, a conventional thermoset CFRP requires a long chemical reaction time and it is not easy to introduce into mass production vehicles. In this study, a new compression-moldable thermoplastic CFRP material for mass production body structural parts was developed and applied to the stack frame of the Toyota Mirai.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1471
Anthony Timpanaro, Charles Moody, Wesley Richardson, Bradley Reckamp, Orion Keifer
Abstract It is well known that older vehicles’ headlight assemblies degrade with exposure to the elements and can become cloudy or crazed. It is also known that the degradation decreases the amount of useful light projected forward, which can drastically reduce night time or down-road visibility. Testing has been performed to measure the available light projected by old degraded headlamp assemblies and new replacement assemblies, to quantify the decrease in emitted light caused by the degradation. The work has been extended to quantify the improvement in available light when the degraded lenses are treated with commercially available restoration products. Five different vehicle headlamp assemblies representing four different manufacturers were tested measuring the illumination at a given distance with a modified Extech® illuminance meter.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 4665