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Viewing 91 to 120 of 4694
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
Abstract Driving is an action that depends strongly on visual information. For displays in the cockpit, a combination of “ease of viewing” to inform the driver of danger early and “annoyance reduction” to avoid drops in the driver’s perception is needed. In this study, we tried to capture “ease of viewing” and “annoyance” in one fixed-quantity indicator. We took up a Camera Monitor System (CMS) as the subject and analyzed the effect that annoyance with the display used in CMSs has on driving behavior. Based on our analysis, we hypothesize that evaluating carelessness in viewing behavior is related evaluating to annoyance. Next, we chose a Detection Response Task (DRT) technique as a method to evaluate driving behavior influenced by this annoyance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1366
Jeffrey Muttart, Swaroop Dinakar, Jeffrey Suway, Michael Kuzel, Timothy Maloney, Wayne Biever, Toby Terpstra, Tilo Voitel, David Cavanaugh, T.J. Harms
Abstract Collision statistics show that more than half of all pedestrian fatalities caused by vehicles occur at night. The recognition of objects at night is a crucial component in driver responses and in preventing nighttime pedestrian accidents. To investigate the root cause of this fact pattern, Richard Blackwell conducted a series of experiments in the 1950s through 1970s to evaluate whether restricted viewing time can be used as a surrogate for the imperfect information available to drivers at night. The authors build on these findings and incorporate the responses of drivers to objects in the road at night found in the SHRP-2 naturalistic database. A closed road outdoor study and an indoor study were conducted using an automatic shutter system to limit observation time to approximately ¼ of a second. Results from these limited exposure time studies showed a positive correlation to naturalistic responses, providing a validation of the time-limited exposure technique.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1368
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Steven Suway
Abstract Mapping the luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Such mappings are useful for a variety of purposes, including determining the effectiveness and appropriateness of lighting installations, and performing visibility analyses for accident case studies. One of the most common methods for mapping luminance is to use a spot type luminance meter. This requires individual measurements of all objects of interest and can be extremely time consuming. Luminance cameras can also be used to create a luminance map. While luminance cameras will map a scene’s luminance values more quickly than a spot luminance meter, commercially available luminance cameras typically require long capture times during low illuminance (up to 30 seconds). Previous work has shown that pixel intensity captured by consumer-grade digital still cameras can be calibrated to measure luminance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0388
Haeyoon Jung, MiYeon Song, Sanghak Kim
Abstract CO2 emission is more serious in recent years and automobile manufacturers are interested in developing technologies to reduce CO2 emissions. Among various environmental-technologies, the use of solar roof as an electric energy source has been studied extensively. For example, in order to reduce the cabin ambient temperature, automotive manufacturers offer the option of mounting a solar cell on the roof of the vehicle [1]. In this paper, we introduce the semi-transparent solar cell mounted on a curved roof glass and we propose a solar energy management system to efficiently integrate the electricity generated from the solar roof into internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. In order to achieve a high efficiency solar system in different driving, we improve the usable power other than peak power of solar roof. Peak power or rated power is measured power (W) in standard test condition (@ 25°C, light intensity of 1000W/m2(=1Sun)).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1543
Jonathan Jilesen, Adrian Gaylard, Jose Escobar
Abstract Vehicle rear and side body soiling has been a concern since the earliest cars. Traditionally, soiling has been seen to be less importance than vehicle aerodynamics and acoustics. However, increased reliance on sensors and cameras to assist the driver means that there are more surfaces of the vehicle that must be kept clean. Failure to take this into consideration means risking low customer satisfaction with new features. This is because they are likely to fail under normal operating conditions and require constant cleaning. This paper numerically investigates features known to have an influence on side and rear face soiling with a demonstration vehicle. These changes include rim design, diffuser strakes and diffuser sharpening. While an exhaustive investigation of these features is beyond the scope of this study, examples of each feature will be considered.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1634
Hui Sung Lee
Abstract When customers use a tailgate (or trunk), some systems such as power tailgate and smart tailgate have been introduced and implemented for improving convenience. However, they still have some problems in some use cases. Some people have to search for the outside button to open the tailgate, or they should take out the key and push a button. In some cases, they should move their leg or wait a few seconds which makes some people feel that it is a long time. In addition, they have to push the small button which is located on the inner trim in order to close the tailgate. This paper proposes a new tailgate control technology and systems based on acoustic patterns in order to solve some inconvenience. An acoustic user interaction (AUI) is a technology which responds to human’s rubbing and tapping on a specific part analyzing the acoustic patterns. The AUI has been recently spotlighted in the automotive industry as well as home appliances, mobile devices, musical instruments, etc.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1306
Michael Ulizio, DeWitt Lampman, Mukesh Rustagi, Jason Skeen, Chester Walawender
Abstract Automotive manufacturers are requiring lightweight materials, including glazing materials to improve vehicle fuel economy mandates. Since windshields are one of the largest glazing surface areas, reducing the thickness of the glass in its construction can significantly provide weight savings opportunities. Automotive glazing design considerations must include overall glass strength, rigidity, acoustical, and solar performance, which are affected by changes of glass thicknesses. This paper will evaluate those design considerations in the lightweighting of windshield glazings. One important design consideration for the windshield position is the impact of debris from the environment. Lightweighting of glazings in this body position affects the way the construction reacts to an impact. Use of asymmetry in glass plies in a laminated construction can have a marked effect on the part’s impact performance and surface damage creation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1416
B. Nicholas Ault, Daniel E. Toomey
Abstract Reconstruction of passenger vehicle accidents involving side impacts with narrow objects has traditionally been approached using side stiffness coefficients derived from moveable deformable barrier tests or regression analysis using the maximum crush in available lateral pole impact testing while accounting for vehicle test weight. Current Lateral Impact New Car Assessment Program (LINCAP) testing includes 20 mph oblique lateral pole impacts. This test program often incorporates an instrumented pole so the force between the vehicle and pole at several elevations along the vehicle - pole interface is measured. Force-Displacement (F-D) characteristics of vehicle structures were determined using the measured impact force and calculated vehicle displacement from on-board vehicle instrumentation. The absorbed vehicle energy was calculated from the F-D curves and related to the closing speed between the vehicle and the pole by the vehicle weight.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1463
Xianping Du, Feng Zhu, Clifford C. Chou
Abstract A new design methodology based on data mining theory has been proposed and used in the vehicle crashworthiness design. The method allows exploring the big dataset of crash simulations to discover the underlying complicated relationships between response and design variables, and derive design rules based on the structural response to make decisions towards the component design. An S-shaped beam is used as an example to demonstrate the performance of this method. A large amount of simulations are conducted and the results form a big dataset. The dataset is then mined to build a decision tree. Based on the decision tree, the interrelationship among the geometric design variables are revealed, and then the design rules are derived to produce the design cases with good energy absorbing capacity. The accuracy of this method is verified by comparing the data mining model prediction and simulation data.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0441
Zhenyu Wang, Mei Zhuang
Abstract A numerical study on sunroof noise reduction is carried out. One of the strategies to suppress the noise is to break down the strong vortices impinging upon the trailing edge of the sunroof into smaller eddies. In the current study, a serrated sunroof trailing edge with sinusoidal profiles of wavelengths is investigated for the buffeting noise reduction. A number of combinations of wavelengths and amplitudes of sinusoidal profiles is employed to examine the effects of trailing edge serrations on the noise reduction. A generic vehicle model is used in the study and a straight trailing edge is considered as a baseline. The results indicate that the trailing edge serration has a significant impact on the sound pressure level (SPL) in the vehicle cabin and it can reduce the SPL by up to 10~15 dB for the buffeting frequency.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1305
Yucheng Liu, Jeremy Batte, Zachary Collins, Jennifer Bateman, John Atkins, Madelyn Davis, David Salley, Cindy L. Bethel, John Ball, Christopher Archibald
Abstract A robot mining system was developed by the State Space Robotic undergraduate student design team from Mississippi State University (MSU) for the 2016 NASA Robotic Mining Competition. The mining robot was designed to traverse the Martian chaotic terrain, excavate a minimum of 10 kg of Martian regolith and deposit the regolith into a collector bin within 10 minutes as part of the competition. A Systems Engineering approach was followed in proceeding with this design project. The designed mining robot consisted of two major components: (1) mechanical system and (2) control system. This paper mainly focuses on the design and assessment process of the mechanical system but will also briefly mention the control system so as to evaluate the designed robotic system in its entirety. The final designed robot consisted of an aluminum frame driven by four motors and wheels. It utilized a scoop and lifting arm subsystem for collecting and depositing Martian regolith.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1513
Young-Chang Cho, Chin-Wei Chang, Andrea Shestopalov, Edward Tate
Abstract The airflow into the engine bay of a passenger car is used for cooling down essential components of the vehicle, such as powertrain, air-conditioning compressor, intake charge air, batteries, and brake systems, before it returns back to the external flow. When the intake ram pressure becomes high enough to supply surplus cooling air flow, this flow can be actively regulated by using arrays of grille shutters, namely active grille shutters (AGS), in order to reduce the drag penalty due to excessive cooling. In this study, the operation of AGS for a generic SUV-type model vehicle is optimized for improved fuel economy on a highway drive cycle (part of SFTP-US06) by using surrogate models. Both vehicle aerodynamic power consumption and under-hood cooling performance are assessed by using PowerFLOW, a high-fidelity flow solver that is fully coupled with powertrain heat exchanger models.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1511
Anton Kabanovs, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore, Adrian Gaylard
Abstract The motivation for this paper is to consider the effect of rear end geometry on rear soiling using a representative generic SUV body. In particular the effect of varying the top slant angle is considered using both experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Previous work has shown that slant angle has a significant effect on wake shape and drag and the work here extends this to investigate the effect on rear soiling. It is hoped that this work can provide an insight into the likely effect of such geometry changes on the soiling of similarly shaped road vehicles. To increase the generality of results, and to allow comparison with previously obtained aerodynamic data, a 25% scale generic SUV model is used in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel. UV doped water is sprayed from a position located at the bottom of the left rear tyre to simulate the creation of spray from this tyre.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1310
Harihar T. Kulkarni, Yu Wang, James Alanoly
Abstract The perceived quality of automotive closures (flushness and margin) is strongly affected by flanging and hemming of the outer panels and assembly respectively. To improve the quality of closures, the traditional hardware approach needs significant amount of time and costly die re-cuts and trials with prototype panels. Thus, such approach may delay the vehicle program and increase the overall investment cost. The proposed CAE methodology provides upfront design guidance to dies and panels, reduces time and increases cost savings associated with flanging and hemming while improving overall quality of the closures. In this proposed approach, as a first step, analytical formulae and design of experiments (DOE) are followed to estimate magnitude of design parameters of panels and dies as the upfront design guidance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0443
Yong Hyun Nam, Gwansik Yoon
Abstract Significant effort has been expended to improve the sound made by a closing car door. This study focuses on reducing door glass rattle sounds, not only evaluating the rattle influence of door glass support but also introducing an approach to reduce glass rattle noise by using sealing components. The first part of the study is dedicated to minimizing vibration. A jig is constructed to evaluate the influence of a door glass support on the rattling. The jig is employed so that the glass meshing between the A and B pillars can be controlled; the glass holder moves in the x- and z-directions and the belt molding moves in the y-direction. An impact hammer test was adopted for investigating door glass rattle. The frequency response obtained via impact hammer testing is analyzed by varying the glass support points and important factors that should be considered in early design stages are obtained. The second study is about optimizing vibration absorption.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1304
Alejandro Rosas Vazquez, Fernando Paisano, Diego Santillan Gutierrez
Abstract For many years, the use of in-mold fasteners has been avoided for various reasons including: not fully understanding the load cases in the part, the fear of quality issues occurring, the need for servicing, or the lack of understanding the complexity of all failure modes. The most common solution has been the use of secondary operations to provide attachments, such as, screws, metal clips, heat staking, sonic welding or other methods which are ultimately a waste in the process and an increase in manufacturing costs. The purpose of this paper is to take the reader through the design process followed to design an in-molded attachment clip on plastic parts. The paper explores the design process for in-molded attachment clips beginning with a design concept idea, followed by basic concept testing using a desktop 3D printer, optimizing the design with physical tests and CAE analysis, and finally producing high resolution 3D prototypes for validation and tuning.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0290
Veera Aditya Yerra, Srikanth Pilla
Abstract The advancements in automation, big data computing and high bandwidth networking has expedited the realization of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). IIoT has made inroads into many sectors including automotive, semiconductors, electronics, etc. Particularly, it has created numerous opportunities in the automotive manufacturing sector to realize the new aura of platform concepts such as smart material flow control. This paper provides a thought provoking application of IIoT in automotive composites body shop. By creating a digital twin for every physical part, we no longer need to adhere to the conventional manufacturing processes and layouts, thus opening up new opportunities in terms of equipment and space utilization. The century-old philosophy of the assembly line might not be the best layout for vehicle manufacturing, thus proposing a novel assembly grid layout inspired from a colony of ants working to accomplish a common goal.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1271
David Wright, John Henshaw, Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey
Abstract High-strength aluminum alloys such as 7075 can be formed using advanced manufacturing methods such as hot stamping. Hot stamping utilizes an elevated temperature blank and the high pressure stamping contact of the forming die to simultaneously quench and form the sheet. However, changes in the thermal history induced by hot stamping may increase this alloy’s stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility, a common corrosion concern of 7000 series alloys. This work applied the breaking load method for SCC evaluation of hot stamped AA7075-T6 B-pillar panels that had been artificially aged by two different artificial aging practices (one-step and two-step). The breaking load strength of the specimens provided quantitative data that was used to compare the effects of tensile load, duration, alloy, and heat treatment on SCC behavior.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1415
John D. Struble, Donald E. Struble
Abstract Crash tests of vehicles by striking deformable barriers are specified by Government programs such as FMVSS 214, FMVSS 301 and the Side Impact New Car Assessment Program (SINCAP). Such tests result in both crash partners absorbing crush energy and moving after separation. Compared with studying fixed rigid barrier crash tests, the analysis of the energy-absorbing behavior of the vehicle side (or rear) structure is much more involved. Described in this paper is a methodology by which analysts can use such crash tests to determine the side structure stiffness characteristics for the specific struck vehicle. Such vehicle-specific information allows the calculation of the crush energy for the particular side-struck vehicle during an actual collision – a key step in the reconstruction of that crash.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0257
Mandar Bhatkhande, Rahul Mahajan, Amol Joshi
Abstract Front windscreen wiping test is legal requirement for all motor vehicles as per standards like IS15802:2008 [1], IS15804:2008 [2] in India. This test requires windscreen mock-up/actual vehicle to be tested along with all wiping mechanisms such that minimum percentage areas to be wiped should meet the requirements specified in the IS standard. From manufacturer’s perspective this involves investment of lot of time and cost to arrive at the final design solution in order to meet the wiping requirements. The work scope in this paper is limited to bus category of vehicles. The methodology presented in this paper would enable quick design solutions for bus body builders or manufacturers to meet the wiping requirements specified in IS standard. The methodology presented in this paper was developed to carry out windscreen wiping test through commercially available simulation software.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0304
P M Aneeth, Rajeev Dave, Manoj Yadav, Shinoy Kattakayam
Abstract The entire commercial vehicle industry is moving towards weight reduction to leverage on the latest materials available to benefit in payload & fuel efficiency. General practice of weight reduction using high strength steel with reduced thickness in reference to Roark’s formula does not consider the stiffness & dent performance. While this helps to meet the targeted weight reduction keeping the stress levels within the acceptable limit, but with a penalty on stiffness & dent performance. The parameters of stiffener like thickness, section & pitching are very important while considering the Stiffness, bucking & dent performance of a dumper body. The Finite Element Model of subject dumper body has been studied in general particularly on impact of dent performance and is correlated with road load data to provide unique solution to the product. The impact of payload during loading of dumper is the major load case.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0289
H. Rajesh, Mahesh Anand Patwardhan, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth, Mandar Bhatkhande, R Ramkumar, Ninad Pachhapurkar, M Saraf, Y.P. Reddy
Abstract The design and development of complete vehicle, understanding of chassis system development process is an important task. Chassis frame of a vehicle is supporting member, both structurally and functionally, to all other chassis aggregate systems viz. suspension, steering, braking system etc. In this paper, a methodology for chassis frame model construction and validation is explained. In present work, chassis frame model is validated in terms of modal parameters and also against static loading conditions. Existing chassis 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) data was generated using scanning and cloud point data conversion technique. FE model was generated and validated through experimental measurements viz. modal testing, vertical bending, lateral bending, and torsional bending test. Loading and boundary conditions were replicated on the complete FE model in CAE domain and test validation was carried out using appropriate mesh biasing and weld modeling techniques.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0325
Anup Batra, Sreenivasa Gupta, Husain Agha, K Rajakumar, Rajiv Modi
Abstract With the advancement in vehicle technology over the years, many intuitive technologies are coming in automotive passenger vehicles to improve the safety aspects during vehicle driving in night conditions. In addition to headlamps, cornering lamps or infrared camera with head up display etc. are evolving as a part of AFS (Advanced Front Lighting Systems) to aid driver vision. Many OEMs are following conventional methodology of subjective assessments with the ratings on different numerical scale mapped with customer acceptance to validate head lamps and its tech updates. These methods lag in getting repeatability of results, acceptance reliability and not knowing the limitations of the installed system due to high dependency on the selected evaluators. This paper emphasizes on robust test methodology development to validate the complete performance of cornering lamps with the objective test data analysis.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0322
Saktheeswaran Kasinathan, Sreenivasa Gupta, Husain Agha, Rajiv Modi
Abstract In any industry, early detection and mitigation of a failure in component is vital for feasible design changes or development iterations or saving money. So it becomes pivotal to capture the failure mode in an accelerated way. This theory poses many challenges in devising the methodology to validate the failure mode. In real world, vehicle head lamp is exposed to all possible kinds of harsh environments such as variable daily ambient, rain, dust and engine compartment temperature …etc. This brings rapid thermal stress onto headlamp resulting into warpage cracks. At vehicle level on particular model, this failure is typically observed after 20,000-25,000 kms in a span of 3-4 months of running. Any corrective action to revalidate the design change or improvement will need similar timelines in regular way to test, which is quite high in product development cycle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0207
Dayal Mirthinti, Dinesh Sahrawat, Rohit Dang
Abstract In automobile, NVH has been playing an important role in defining the overall quality of the vehicle. Continuous efforts are being put in globally by engineers to make the travel experience as comfortable as possible for both commercial and passenger segment vehicles. The front wiping system being a critical safety feature in an automobile is one of the sources of structural vibrations/noise due to numerous moving child parts. Therefore, the layout of the wiper motor in the vehicle is an important aspect of Vehicle NVH. These vibrations and noise levels become more pronounced if the wiper motor is mounted inside the passenger compartment, a layout that is commonly seen in commercial vehicles. This paper focuses on measures to improve the NVH while having the layout of the wiping system inside the passenger compartment of the vehicle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0254
Ganesh Krishna Babar
Abstract Canopy design is governed by CPCB regulations. The regulations explicitly tells about noise levels. It’s very important to have the proper ventilation of canopy to ensure the proper working at all climatic conditions. Mostly it is installed at commercial locations & hence the ownership cost matters. Reducing the footprint without affecting the power output is challenging. It implies the need of the CFD simulation to predict the cooling performance of the canopy. The baseline canopy is tested to estimate the performance parameters. It is modelled in CFD with all the minute details. All the parts including engine, alternator, fan, fuel tank are modelled. MRF(Moving Reference Frame) model used to simulate fan performance. The cooling systems like radiator & oil cooler is modelled as porous region. The total flow across canopy & the air velocity across critical regions is used to define the performance.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0023
Amit Pathak, Anish Kumar, Rahul Lamba
Abstract Risk of injury to occupant in the event of side impact is considerably higher compared to frontal or rear impact as the energy absorbing zones at the front and rear of vehicle is high whereas limited space is available to dissipate the impact energy in the event of side impact. In such scenario strength of side door plays an important role in protecting the occupant. Side door beam in door structure contributes significantly towards the lateral stiffness and plays dominant role in limiting the structural intrusion into passenger compartment. Hence it is interesting to understand the effect of beam specification and orientation on side door strength. Since these factors not only affect the strength but also the cost and weight targets, their study and analysis is important with respect to door design This paper showcases the effect of beam layout and its specifications on the overall strength of the door with an experimental approach using physical test.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0007
Siva Murugesan, Vishakha S Bhagat, B V Shamsundara, Abhay Mannikar
Abstract In year 2015, 17 people were killed every hour by road accidents in India [1]. The occurrence of road accidents is observed to be higher during night, when visibility is at its lowest. The two factors which affect visibility are insufficient illumination and glare caused by the oncoming traffic. The Adaptive Front Lighting System [AFS] is an active safety feature which addresses these problems by employing specific lighting modes for Town, Country, Expressway conditions and automatic switching between Driving Beam and Passing Beam whenever required. Matrix of LEDs or a Projector with an actuator or a combination of both is employed in achieving different Lighting modes. The projector based AFS module is preferred for implementing the AFS control logic for passing beam owing to its economic cost.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0221
Swamy Mukkera, Aditya Pandey, Kodali Ajay Krishna, Sanjeev Patil, P L N Prasad
Abstract Wind noise is becoming important for automotive development due to significant reductions in road and engine noise. This aerodynamic noise is dominant at highway speeds and contributes towards higher frequency noise (>250Hz). In automotive industry accurate prediction and control of noise sources results in improved customer satisfaction. The aerodynamic noise prediction and vehicle component design optimization is generally executed through very expensive wind tunnel testing. Even with the recent advances in the computational power, predicting the flow induced noise sources is still a challenging and computationally expensive problem. A typical case of fluid-solid interaction at higher speeds results into broadband noise and it is inherently an unsteady phenomenon. To capture such a broad range of frequency, Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) has been proven to be the most practical and fairly accurate technique as sighted in literature.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0029
Shohei Suzuki
Abstract One of the issues when developing motocrossers is that, when a motocrosser jumps and lands, the landing applies heavy loads on various parts of the bike, particularly the frame, and produces high stresses. This sometimes causes deformation, cracks, breakage, etc. during strength tests on actual bikes, and it takes much time and money to check the effects and develop solutions. To solve this problem, we have developed a method for simulating the jump-landing of motocrossers.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 4694