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Viewing 31 to 60 of 4662
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Abstract Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1725
Tanawat Tessathan, Chutiphon Thammasiri, Prabhath De Silva, Rehan Hussain, Nuksit Noomwongs
Abstract It is common for users of commuting passenger cars in Thailand to use the vehicle’s HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) system predominantly in recirculation (REC) mode. This minimizes the compressor work, thereby saving fuel, and reduces dust and odor infiltration into the vehicle cabin. The car windows are rarely opened for ventilation purposes, except for exchanges at service stations such as garage entrances and tollway booths. As such, there are few opportunities for fresh air to enter the cabin with the consequent accumulation of CO2 in vehicle cabins due to occupants’ exhalations being well documented. Field experiments conducted showed that the in-vehicle CO2 concentrations could reach up to 15 times that of the ambient concentration level during typical city commutes. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to quantify the air exchanges between the cabin and the ambient when the doors are opened for occupant egression.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0508
Gabor Kiss, Yuya Ando, Martin Schifko
Abstract Simulation tools are becoming more and more popular in the automotive industry since they can significantly reduce the costs required for development of new models. Currently there are many computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools available on the market and becoming indispensable tools for R&D in many of the automotive applications. However there are some applications which require much effort by highly skilled engineers to prepare the model and impractical level of computation time even using a cluster computer using the conventional CFD tools due to the nature of physics and complexity of a geometry such like dip painting process. Therefore, corrosion protection engineers are striving to find an alternative solution. Another issue is that the main focus of those available CFD tools are problems occurring during the dip paint simulations and they omit problems occurring after the object dips out from the bath, such as retained water or bake drips.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0507
Christian K. Riener, Anna-Elisabeth Raab, Gerald Luckeneder, Martin Rosner
Abstract Zinc-coatings with a substantial Magnesium content have been in use for over 30 years by now. Unlike the well-established Zn-Al-Mg coatings originating from Japan which have significant higher alloying contents applied mainly for building applications, this Zinc Magnesium Aluminum coating (ZM) is also specifically designed to meet the requirements of car manufacturers. The ZM coating introduced by voestalpine, corrender, is in the upper range of ZM-alloying compositions, which was set by VDA (German Association of the Automotive Industry) and SAE to be within 1.0 to 2.0 wt. % Mg and 1.0 to 3.0 wt. % Al. The properties of these “European” Zinc-Magnesium coatings are well comparable within this range. Compared to GI and GA ZM coatings exhibit significant advantages in the press shops with its excellent formability and reduced galling and powdering respectively which is a significant advantage for the forming of outer panels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0143
Neelakandan Kandasamy, Steve Whelan
Abstract During cabin warm-up, effective air distribution by vehicle climate control systems plays a vital role. For adequate visibility to the driver, major portion of the air is required to be delivered through the defrost center ducts to clear the windshield. HVAC unit deliver hot air with help of cabin heater and PTC heater. When hot air interacts with cold windshield it causes thermal losses, and windshield act as sink. This process may causes in delay of cabin warming during consecutive cabin warming process. Thus it becomes essential to predict the effect of different windscreen defrost characteristics. In this paper, sensitivity analysis is carried for different windscreen defrosts characteristics like ambient conditions, modes of operation; change in material properties along with occupant thermal comfort is predicted. An integrated 1D/3D CFD approach is proposed to evaluate these conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0275
N. Obuli Karthikeyan, N. Prajitha, P. Sethu Madhavan
Abstract As technology gets upgraded every day, automotive manufacturers are paying more attention towards delivering a highly reliable product which performs its intended function throughout its useful life (without any failure). To develop a reliable product, accelerated combined stress testing should be conducted in addition to the conventional design validation protocol for the product. It brings out most of the potential failure modes of the product, so that necessary actions can be taken for the reliability improvement. This paper discusses about the field failure simulation and reliability estimation of automotive headlamp relays using accelerated combined stress testing. To analyze various field failure modes, performance and tear down analysis were carried out on the field failure samples. Field data (i.e. electrical, thermal and vibration signals) were acquired to evaluate normal use conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0363
Karthik Ramaswamy, Vinay L. Virupaksha, Jeanne Polan, Biswajit Tripathy
Abstract Expanded Polypropylene (EPP) foams are most commonly used in automotive applications for pedestrian protection and to meet low speed bumper regulatory requirements. In today’s automotive world the design of vehicles is predominantly driven by Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). This makes it necessary to have a validated material model for EPP foams in order to simulate and predict performance under various loading conditions. Since most of the automotive OEMs depend on local material suppliers for their global vehicle applications it is necessary to understand the variation in mechanical properties of the EPP foams and its effect on performance predictions. In this paper, EPP foams from three suppliers across global regions are characterized to study the inter-supplier variation in mechanical properties.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0417
Yingjun Li, Yunkai Gao, Gangan Ma, Qianqian Du, Yabin Wan
Abstract To solve the problem of serious roller wear and improve the smoothness of the sliding door motion process, the rigid-flexible coupling multi-body model of the vehicle sliding door was built in ADAMS. Force boundary conditions of the model were determined to meet the speed requirement of monitoring point and time requirement of door opening-closing process according to the bench test specification. The results of dynamic simulation agreed well with that of test so the practicability and credibility of the model was verified. In the optimization of the ride comfort of the sliding door, two different schemes were proposed. The one was to optimize the position of hinge pivots and the other was to optimize the structural parameters of the middle guide. The impact load of lead roller on middle guide, the curvature of the motion trajectory and angular acceleration of the sliding door centroid were taken as optimization objectives.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0504
Anthony Berejka, Dan Montoney, Dan Dispenza, Len Poveromo, Rick Galloway, Mark Driscoll, Marshall Cleland
Abstract Having demonstrated the feasibility of using X-rays derived from high current industrial electron beam accelerators (EB) to cure the matrices of carbon fiber composites and then scaled this up to cure large sized, non-structural automobile components, performance car hoods, the New York State Vehicle Composites Program had a chassis designed, a cured epoxy mold made and then the chassis matrix cured using X-rays with a formulated radiation responsive matrix material. A feasibility study had shown how X-rays could cure through materials embedded within the composite layers, such as metal inserts that could be used for mechanical fastening without fracturing the composite. In producing X-ray cured hoods, the power consumption for X-ray curing was found to be more than 20% lower than that needed for autoclave curing the same sized hoods using conventional thermosetting pre-pregs. More significant was the time-to-cure.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1298
Kamlesh Yadav, Abhishek Sinha, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract Vehicle Hood being the face of a passenger car poses the challenge to meet the regulatory and aesthetic requirements. Urge to make a saleable product makes aesthetics a primary condition. This eventually makes the role of structure optimization much more important. Pedestrian protection- a recent development in the Indian automotive industry, known for dynamics of cost competitive cars, has posed the challenge to make passenger cars meeting the regulation at minimal cost. The paper demonstrates structure optimization of hood and design of peripheral parts for meeting pedestrian protection performance keeping the focus on low cost of ownership. The paper discusses development of an in-house methodology for meeting Headform compliance of a flagship model of Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., providing detailed analysis of the procedure followed from introduction stage of regulatory requirement in the project to final validation of the engineering intent.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1304
Alejandro Rosas Vazquez, Fernando Paisano, Diego Santillan Gutierrez
Abstract For many years, the use of in-mold fasteners has been avoided for various reasons including: not fully understanding the load cases in the part, the fear of quality issues occurring, the need for servicing, or the lack of understanding the complexity of all failure modes. The most common solution has been the use of secondary operations to provide attachments, such as, screws, metal clips, heat staking, sonic welding or other methods which are ultimately a waste in the process and an increase in manufacturing costs. The purpose of this paper is to take the reader through the design process followed to design an in-molded attachment clip on plastic parts. The paper explores the design process for in-molded attachment clips beginning with a design concept idea, followed by basic concept testing using a desktop 3D printer, optimizing the design with physical tests and CAE analysis, and finally producing high resolution 3D prototypes for validation and tuning.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1303
Nobuhisa Yasuda, Shinichi Nishizawa, Maiko Ikeda, Tadashi Sakai
Abstract The purpose of this study is to validate a reverse engineering based design method for automotive trunk lid torsion bars (TLTB) in order to determine a free, or unloaded, shape that meets a target closed shape as well as a specified torque. A TLTB is a trunk lid component that uses torsional restoring force to facilitate the lifting open of a trunk lid, as well as to maintain the open position. Bend points and torque of a TLTB at a closed trunk position are specified by a car maker. Conventionally, a TLTB supplier determines bend points of the free shape by rotating the given bend points from a closed position around a certain axis to satisfy the specified torque at the closed position. Bend points of a deformed TLTB shape in the closed position often do not match the target bend points given by a car maker when designed by the conventional method, which can potentially cause interference issues with surrounding components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1301
Deepak A. Patil, Hrishikesh Buddhe
Abstract Frontal collisions account for majority of car accidents. Various measures have been taken by the automotive OEMs’ with regards to passive safety. Honeycomb meso-structural inserts in the front bumper have been suggested to enhance the energy absorption of the front structure which is favorable for passive safety. This paper presents the changes in energy absorption capacity of hexagonal honeycomb structures with varying cellular geometries; under frontal impact simulations. Honeycomb cellular metamaterial structure offers many distinct advantages over homogenous materials since their effective material properties depend on both, their constituent material properties and their cell geometric configurations. The effective static mechanical properties such as; the modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity and Poisson’s ratio of the honeycomb cellular meso-structures are controlled by variations in their cellular geometry.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1308
Abhishek Softa, Anuj Shami, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The fuel efficiency of a vehicle depends on multiple factors such as engine efficiency, type of fuel, aerodynamic drag, and tire friction and vehicle weight. Analysis of weight and functionality was done, to develop a lightweight and low-cost Roof rack rail. The Roof rack rail is made up of a lightweight material with thin cross section and has the design that allows the fitment of luggage carrier or luggage rack on the car roof. In starting this paper describes the design and weight contribution by standard Roof rack rail and its related parts. Secondly, the selection of material within different proposed options studied and a comparison of manufacturing and design-related factors. Thirdly, it has a description of the design of Roof rack rail to accommodate the luggage carrier fitment on the car roof. Moreover, optimizations of Roof rack rail design by continuous change in position, shape, and parts used.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1310
Harihar T. Kulkarni, Yu Wang, James Alanoly
Abstract The perceived quality of automotive closures (flushness and margin) is strongly affected by flanging and hemming of the outer panels and assembly respectively. To improve the quality of closures, the traditional hardware approach needs significant amount of time and costly die re-cuts and trials with prototype panels. Thus, such approach may delay the vehicle program and increase the overall investment cost. The proposed CAE methodology provides upfront design guidance to dies and panels, reduces time and increases cost savings associated with flanging and hemming while improving overall quality of the closures. In this proposed approach, as a first step, analytical formulae and design of experiments (DOE) are followed to estimate magnitude of design parameters of panels and dies as the upfront design guidance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1309
S. M. Akbar Berry, Hoda ElMaraghy, Johnathan Line, Marc Kondrad
Abstract Modularity in product architecture and its significance in product development have become an important product design topics in the last few decades. Several Product Modularity definitions and methodologies were developed by many researchers; however, most of the definitions and concepts have proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to apply one universal definition for modular product architecture and in product development. Automotive seat modular strategy and key factors for consideration towards modular seat design and assemblies are the main focus of this work. The primary objectives are focused on the most “natural segmentation” of the seat elements (i.e., cushions, backs, trims, plastics, head restraints, etc.) to enable the greatest ease of final assembly and greatest flexibility for scalable feature offerings around common assembly “hard-points.”
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1417
Enrique Bonugli, Richard Watson, Mark Freund, Jeffrey Wirth
Abstract This paper reports on seventy additional tests conducted using a mechanical device described by Bonugli et al. [4]. The method utilized quasi-static loading of bumper systems and other vehicle components to measure their force-deflection properties. Corridors on the force-deflection plots, for various vehicle combinations, were determined in order to define the system stiffness of the combined vehicle components. Loading path and peak force measurements can then be used to evaluate the impact severity for low speed collisions in terms of delta-v and acceleration. The additional tests refine the stiffness corridors, previously published, which cover a wide range of vehicle types and impact configurations. The compression phase of a low speed collision can be modeled as a spring that is defined by the force-deflection corridors. This is followed by a linear rebound phase based on published restitution values [1,5].
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1368
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Steven Suway
Abstract Mapping the luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Such mappings are useful for a variety of purposes, including determining the effectiveness and appropriateness of lighting installations, and performing visibility analyses for accident case studies. One of the most common methods for mapping luminance is to use a spot type luminance meter. This requires individual measurements of all objects of interest and can be extremely time consuming. Luminance cameras can also be used to create a luminance map. While luminance cameras will map a scene’s luminance values more quickly than a spot luminance meter, commercially available luminance cameras typically require long capture times during low illuminance (up to 30 seconds). Previous work has shown that pixel intensity captured by consumer-grade digital still cameras can be calibrated to measure luminance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
Abstract Driving is an action that depends strongly on visual information. For displays in the cockpit, a combination of “ease of viewing” to inform the driver of danger early and “annoyance reduction” to avoid drops in the driver’s perception is needed. In this study, we tried to capture “ease of viewing” and “annoyance” in one fixed-quantity indicator. We took up a Camera Monitor System (CMS) as the subject and analyzed the effect that annoyance with the display used in CMSs has on driving behavior. Based on our analysis, we hypothesize that evaluating carelessness in viewing behavior is related evaluating to annoyance. Next, we chose a Detection Response Task (DRT) technique as a method to evaluate driving behavior influenced by this annoyance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1342
Nicolas Zagorski, Eric Nelson, Ari Caliskan, Allen Li
Abstract The use of structural optimization in the design of automotive structures is increasingly common. However, it is often challenging to apply these methods simultaneously for different requirements or model configurations. Multi-model optimization (MMO) aims to simplify the iterative design process associated with optimizing multiple parts or configurations with common design variables especially when conflicting requirements exist. In this paper, the use of MMO is demonstrated to evaluate the feasibility of an automotive door concept using an alternative material.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1272
Nick Parson, Jerome Fourmann, Jean-Francois Beland
Abstract One of the main applications for aluminum extrusions in the automotive sector is crash structures including crash rails, crash cans, bumpers and structural body components. The objective is usually to optimize the energy absorption capability for a given structure weight. The ability to extrude thin wall multi-void extrusions contributes to this goal. However, the alloy used also plays a significant role in terms of the ability to produce the required geometry, strength - which to a large extent controls the energy absorption capability and the “ductility” or fracture behavior which controls the strain that can be applied locally during crush deformation before cracking. This paper describes results of a test program to examine the crush behavior of a range of alloys typically supplied for automotive applications as a function of processing parameters including artificial ageing and quench rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0473
Satoshi Nakada, Toru Furusawa, Eiichiro Yokoi, R Carbas, M Costa, E Marques, G Viana, LFM da Silva
Abstract In recent years, adhesive bonding is increasingly being applied in the construction of vehicle frames in order to improve body stiffness and crash performance. Regarding crash performance, the behavior of impacted components is affected by the fracture energy value of the adhesive. However, the relationship between the ductility and fracture energy values under mixed-mode loadings has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this paper, the fracture energy of three structural adhesives in a static mixed-mode loading using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens is presented. To derive the fracture energy values, the Compliance Based Beam Method (CBBM) was used, which allowed for precise determination of fracture energy values. Static mixed-mode loading tests were performed in six configurations of mixed-mode loading, ranging from pure peel mode state to almost pure shear mode state.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1737
Piyapong Premvaranon, Jenwit Soparat, Apichart Teralapsuwan, Sutee Olarnrithinun
Abstract Beyond the modern design and illumination quality of automotive lamps, thermal management plays a crucial role and must be fulfilled in the early stages of the design process. An excessive thermal radiation from incandescent bulb can cause a severe thermal degradation of plastic parts such as housing or optical lens. Hence, to assess such impact of heat on the plastic parts, thermal analysis of a license plate lamp was investigated by a proposed technique combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and ray tracing mapping method. Then, the accuracy and computational cost of the method were compared with thermal results obtained by a thermal radiation model using Monte Carlo (MC) technique for calculating radiation effect coupled with CFD in heat transfer analysis. Finally, a comparison of temperature results from both techniques were validated with practical thermal measurements of license plate lamp prototype.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1538
Jiaye Gan, Longxian Li, Gecheng Zha, Craig Czlapinski
Abstract This paper conducts numerical simulation and wind tunnel testing to demonstrate the passive flow control jet boat tail (JBT) drag reduction technique for a heavy duty truck rear view mirror. The JBT passive flow control technique is to introduce a flow jet by opening an inlet in the front of a bluff body, accelerate the jet via a converging duct and eject the jet at an angle toward the center of the base surface. The high speed jet flow entrains the free stream flow to energize the base flow, increase the base pressure, reduces the wake size, and thus reduce the drag. A baseline heavy duty truck rear view mirror is used as reference. The mirror is then redesigned to include the JBT feature without violating any of the variable mirror position geometric constraints and internal control system volume requirement. The wind tunnel testing was conducted at various flow speed and yaw angles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1529
Nicholas Simmonds, John Pitman, Panagiotis Tsoutsanis, Karl Jenkins, Adrian Gaylard, Wilko Jansen
Abstract Cooling drag, typically known as the difference in drag coefficient between open and closed cooling configurations, has traditionally proven to be a difficult flow phenomenon to predict using computational fluid dynamics. It was seen as an academic yardstick before the advent of grille shutter systems. However, their introduction has increased the need to accurately predict the drag of a vehicle in a variety of different cooling configurations during vehicle development. This currently represents one of the greatest predictive challenges to the automotive industry due to being the net effect of many flow field changes around the vehicle. A comprehensive study is presented in the paper to discuss the notion of defining cooling drag as a number and to explore its effect on three automotive models with different cooling drag deltas using the commercial CFD solvers; STARCCM+ and Exa PowerFLOW.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1531
Keiichi Taniguchi, Akiyoshi Shibata, Mikako Murakami, Munehiko Oshima
Abstract This paper describes a study of drag reduction devices for production pick-up trucks with a body-on-frame structure using full-scale wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. First, the flow structure around a pick-up truck was investigated and studied, focusing in particular on the flow structure between the cabin and tailgate. It was found that the flow structure around the tailgate was closely related to aerodynamic drag. A low drag flow structure was found by flow analysis, and the separation angle at the roof end was identified as being important to achieve the flow structure. While proceeding with the development of a new production model, a technical issue of the flow structure involving sensitivity to the vehicle velocity was identified in connection with optimization of the roof end shape. (1)A tailgate spoiler was examined for solving this issue.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1359
Michael Hamm
Abstract Headlamp performance has changed in the last 20 years significantly. Sealed beam lamps were replaced by VHAD, VOR and VOL types, but still the optical input in terms of tungsten filament based luminous flux remained more stable. With Xenon discharge lamps and now LED the performance of a headlamp may vary strongly and thus the optical performance. Various rating systems have been developed to assess the quality of lamps and light distribution, some based on laboratory based data, some based on static or dynamic street test drives with online measurements and assessments. Basic interest is to understand the performance of the light for a real driver. This article will discuss the influence parameters on achieving a repeatable and precise rating as well as the outer influence that creates glare and varying seeing distance. Mostly mechanical headlamp and car conditioning will influence the result as well as human factors like aiming precision and aiming tolerances.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1592
Jingdong Cai, Saurabh Kapoor, Tushita Sikder, Yuping He
Abstract In this research, active aerodynamic wings are investigated using numerical simulation in order to improve vehicle handling performance under emergency scenarios, such as tight cornering maneuvers at high speeds. Air foils are selected and analyzed to determine the basic geometric features of aerodynamic wings. Built upon the airfoil analysis, the 3-D aerodynamic wing model is developed. Then, the virtual aerodynamic wings are assembled with the 3-D vehicle model. The resulting 3-D geometry model is used for aerodynamic analysis based on numerical simulation using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The CFD-based simulation data and the vehicle dynamic model generated are combined to study the effects of active aerodynamic wings on handling performance of high-speed vehicles. The systematic numerical simulation method and achieved results may provide design guidance for the development of active aerodynamic wings for high-speed road vehicles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1634
Hui Sung Lee
Abstract When customers use a tailgate (or trunk), some systems such as power tailgate and smart tailgate have been introduced and implemented for improving convenience. However, they still have some problems in some use cases. Some people have to search for the outside button to open the tailgate, or they should take out the key and push a button. In some cases, they should move their leg or wait a few seconds which makes some people feel that it is a long time. In addition, they have to push the small button which is located on the inner trim in order to close the tailgate. This paper proposes a new tailgate control technology and systems based on acoustic patterns in order to solve some inconvenience. An acoustic user interaction (AUI) is a technology which responds to human’s rubbing and tapping on a specific part analyzing the acoustic patterns. The AUI has been recently spotlighted in the automotive industry as well as home appliances, mobile devices, musical instruments, etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0423
Lei Yang, Qiang Li, Chuxuan Wang, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract This paper focuses on dynamic analysis and frame optimization of a FSAE racing car frame. Firstly, a Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) model of the racing car is established using ADAMS/Car. The forces and torques of the mechanical joints between the frame and suspensions are calculated in various extreme working conditions. Secondly, the strength, stiffness and free vibration modes of the frame are analyzed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The extracted forces and torques in the first step are used as boundary conditions in FEA. The FEA results suggest that the size of the frame may be not reasonable. Thirdly, the size of the frame is optimized to achieve minimized weight. Meanwhile the strength and stiffness of the frame are constrained. The optimization results reveal that the optimization methodology is powerful in lightweight design of the frame.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 4662