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Viewing 4621 to 4645 of 4645
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260053
K. D. CHAMBERS
The complementary-color headlighting system is based upon the use of differentiated light, that is, light having different wave-lengths. Each head-lamp is oval and contains two paraboloid reflectors, one emitting light through an orange glass filter, the other through one of blue glass. While driving at night, the driver looks through a viewing-filter of transparent glass of the same color as that of the headlight which is in use. The viewing-filters are arranged so that whenever one is used, the headlight of the same color is automatically turned on. When the headlights are not in use, the filters are held in the filter-box and are out of sight. It is the intention that cars traveling in a general direction, say north and east, shall use the blue light; that those traveling south and west shall use the orange light. Each viewing-filter is transparent to the light that is thrown on the road by the headlights of the same car but is opaque to the lights of approaching cars.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260065
ADOLPH ROHRBACH
Reduction of cost and of the time required to construct airplanes and seaplanes by applying so-called shipbuilding practice to their fabrication, embodying late types of production methods, are discussed by the author, who says that the company he represents adheres to a number of technical principles to reduce to the minimum the risk of designing and constructing new types. The technical principles refer to general arrangement and to layout, as well as to the detail design of many parts of the planes. They include also very careful and minute preparation for the actual workshop construction by the supplying of perfect workshop-drawings and by proper organization of the technical departments. The paper outlines the technical principles, including reasons for their adoption, and then describes the organization of the work of construction. Wing-loading and power-loading are discussed, and the statement is made that the company builds monoplanes only.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250055
W D'A Ryan
Although agreeing in general with the sentiments expressed by Mr. Crane and Mr. Hunt, exception is taken to the statement that the solution of the headlighting problem is to be found in diffused lighting, because it has not sufficient range, is too glaring and is too dangerous in a fog. The trouble is said to lie not in the specifications but in the devices that they are supposed to cover. Suggestions are offered regarding modifications that might advantageously be made in the present specifications, and a detailed summation is given of the requirements considered essential to a first-class headlight. The statement is added that a headlight embodying all the points enumerated, while at the same time using a 21-cp. bulb, has already been perfected.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250054
J H HUNT
Two points are cited as illustrating the difficulty of enforcing the present regulations, namely, (a) the variation in the angle of the headlight beam caused by the compression of the springs when the loading of the car is changed from no load to full load and (b) the variation of the tilting of the beam caused by the pitching of the car on an ordinary road, the effect being similar to that produced by flashes of lightning in a pitch-dark night. Denial is made of the author's alleged advocacy of diffused lighting and comparison is made of the distribution-curves obtained with frosted bulbs and those obtained with fairly good lamps conforming to the Society's specifications.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250069
J J FEELY
Following a description of airplane structure, the author discusses structural requirements and outlines the main features of properly coordinating the engineering and the manufacturing activities. He says that each of the three subdivisions of airplane design has its own series of calculations, these being related to predictions of performance before the machine is built, to stability determinations and to the design of a self-contained structure of sufficient strength to withstand any stresses developed in flight or in landing. He states also that no inspection is worth the name or the money spent on it that does not include constructive work and a knowledge at all times that the intentions of the designers are being carried out in detail so that the safety of the craft is assured. Materials used in aircraft should be light and easily workable and should possess the desired physical and chemical properties; they must have the specified cross-section and be free from defects.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250021
GEORGE W KERR
Body construction, of a character such that the wooden framework is secured by suitably shaped steel joining-plates and bolts that separate the wooden members ⅛ in. at the joints, is illustrated and described. The outer surface of the body is completely covered with flexible textile fabric or leather-cloth. It is claimed that the effect is to impart to the finished body an easy deformability and to permit it to accommodate itself to distortions of the chassis frame, to which it is rigidly attached. A portion of the English patent specification is quoted, and details of the actual construction practised at the inventor's factory in Paris, Prance, are stated. Due to the absence of steel and to the extreme slenderness of the wooden parts, these bodies are very light. The required wood-working operations are few and simple. Only the minimum machine equipment is needed to fabricate the framework, and no great skill is demanded in its erection.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240044
JOHN R REYBURN
A bumper is a bar attached transversely in front of or behind a car body to prevent contact between an obstruction and the car body or to cushion the shock of collision between vehicles. The impact-bars have various sectional forms, from flat to round and from tubes to channels, and are composed of steel, wood or rubberized fabric. The attaching devices are sometimes yielding, sometimes rigid. The evolution of the bumper is shown in the records of the Patent Office. Early types had yielding attaching-parts and rigid impact-parts. These were followed by types having a rigid bar connected with the frame by only a spiral spring, by those having channel-steel impact-bars and others having round spring-steel extending from the frame-horns. A strip of rectangular spring-steel was then used by a Western blacksmith, and later a similar non-reinforced bumper appeared which was cut in two in the middle, the ends being overlapped and the overlapped parts clamped together.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240019
GORDON LEFEBVRE
Recent improvements in the mechanical equipment and the processes employed in the various car-assembling plants of a large motor-car-building company are described. As a result of the changes these departments have been transformed from the most unsightly parts of the factory into the cleanest, most comfortable and least dangerous. The processes to which special attention is devoted are those for the enameling of fenders and sheet-metal parts and such small parts as various stampings, forgings and malleables and cover the application of two coats of an asphaltic-base enamel and a subsequent baking at about 450 deg. fahr.; in body enameling they cover the application of three coats of similar material and baking at from 290 to 350 deg. fahr. The course of the various parts is followed from the time of their receipt to that of their delivery to the assembling department to which they belong.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240047
W C BROWN
General considerations that affect the attainment of adequate lighting are mentioned, it being stated that proper lighting of the interior of a motorbus is influenced by limitations peculiar to the service, such as vibration, scant headroom, a restricted energy supply and relatively large voltage-variations. Available types of bus-lighting equipment are analyzed as to their suitability, from six different standpoints that are stated. “Glare” is defined and means of obviating it are suggested, inclusive of a discussion of desirable types of finish for the interior with regard to reflecting surfaces. The severe vibration produced by many motorbuses demands head-lamps of more rugged construction than that used for the headlighting of private cars. Eight essentials for motorbus head-lamps are specified. A very large percentage of the glare and poor illumination of the motor vehicles on the roads results from improper adjustment or the lack of any means for adjustment of the head-lamps.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230014
GEORGE J MERCER
The author quotes statistics relating to the proportion of closed to open bodies and outlines the changes that have taken place in body construction in recent years. He sketches the advances that have been made and states that the question to be answered now relates to what all this improvement in manufacturing methods has accomplished toward reducing the price of a closed-car body to the consumer. He compares the percentage of public benefit in 1922 with that of 1914, excluding the period of inflated prices immediately following the war, and states that it is 10 to 15 per cent, but says also that this is an unfair comparison because of the excessive increases in the cost of labor, lumber, sheet steel and trimming cloth. An unconventional type of body, covered entirely with fabric over a foundation of wire-mesh and buckram fastened to the conventional wood-framing, is illustrated and described in detail, together with a statement of its advantages.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230048
F H FORD
Instead of representing light intensity by lines to indicate photometric values the author recommends an arrangement for denoting the intensity by varying degrees of tint on the surface of a chart that is supposed to represent the roadway. In the opening paragraph the thought is brought out that present-day automobile lighting-equipment is not designed in such a way as to make its performance a selling feature and the several reasons why the efficient distribution of light on the road has been overlooked are pointed out, emphasis being laid on the fact that the average car-designer is not an illuminating engineer, and that even if he did wish to use the best light available on the car he would have to make personal tests of the devices under all conditions of night driving before being in a position to recommend the most efficient head-lighting device.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220026
C M MANLY, C B VEAL
Specifying the four general plans that have been followed by chassis builders in securing body equipment as being the building of bodies in their own shops; on contract by the body maker to plans and specifications of the chassis builder; by a local body maker to the order of the dealer or the owner; and the assembling from stock of standard sectional units recommended by the dealer or selected by the owner, the authors discuss each of these plans in detail. With regard to the plan of using standardized sectional bodies, the different sizes of chassis used for commercial purposes are separated into four specified groups and the production of a complete standard line including a number of styles of body for each chassis is commented upon and illustrated, inclusive of detailed considerations of the all-metal body.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210051
ETHELBERT FAVARY
Following a review of some of the factors that are productive of excessive weight in a motor vehicle, which causes fuel wastage, and a statement that a more thorough standardization of frames and other parts would eliminate much of this waste, the author presents in detail frame-stress calculations intended to enable the designer to proportion frames and parts with this end in view. Shearing stresses are treated in a similar manner and for a similar reason, use being made of diagrams that facilitate analysis of specific instances cited and being inclusive of a table of bending-moments derived from the diagrams. Laboratory tests of the ultimate strength, elastic limit, yield-point, elongation and reduction in area of materials are then described in some detail and the results obtained stated.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210010
CHARLES A. HEERGEIST
Automobile body building derives its origin from carriage body building, which was highly developed before automobiles were thought of. The introduction of automobile bodies fitted to a metal frame changed body builders' rules and calculations. The influence of the metal frame is discussed briefly and the limiting sizes of body members are considered also. According to the ideas expressed, the weight of bodies can be reduced if the metal frame is designed so as to support the weight of the passengers and the body. The dead-weight also can be reduced if the frame is built in proportion to the amount of weight carried, the number of passengers and the style of bodies being considered. But in the construction of enclosed bodies, as in sedans, coaches and broughams, very little weight can be saved if stability, durability and lasting quality are to be retained.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210007
KINGSTON FORBES
The field of body engineering is broader than it is ordinarily considered to be; the author's intention is to bring to the attention of the automotive industry the breadth and scope of body engineering and outline the way this side of the industry can be considered and developed. After describing the body engineer's position, the author then discusses at some length the conflict between art and economy in this connection. He classifies a body-engineering department under the six main divisions of body construction, open and closed; sheet metal, body metal, fenders, hood, radiators and the like; trimming; top building; general hardware; painting and enameling, and comments upon each. Following this he elaborates the reasons for need of attention to details in body designing and mentions the opportunity there is at present for bringing the materials used in body construction to definite standards.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210041
P E STONE
The paper is devoted more especially to enclosed body construction, with the object of creating a closer relation between the chassis and the body designer, from the viewpoint of an automotive body constructor. After enumerating what are probably the most important materials that enter into enclosed-body construction, inclusive of glue, the author outlines what constitutes the proper seasoning of wood, this being very important because very little all-metal or steel construction has been developed as yet for enclosed bodies, owing to the fact that many parts are required that necessitate using wood. Chassis deflection is discussed in its relation to enclosed-body construction and an outline is presented of body-construction development in general. The author believes that body construction will not be changed radically until either the basic type of design or shape is transformed or there is a firmer foundation to build upon.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200003
WILLIAM BREWSTER
The author first considers the style and arrangement of the seats, the position of the rear axle as affecting the rear kick-up in the chassis frame, and the position of the rear wheels as determining the distance from the back of the front seat to a point where the curve of the rear fender cuts across the top edge of the chassis frame. The location of the driver's seat and of the steering-wheel are next considered, the discussion then passing to the requirements that affect the height of the body, the width of the rear seat, and the general shape. The evolution of the windshield is reviewed and present practice stated. Structural changes are then considered in relation to the artistic requirements, as regards the various effects obtained by varying the size or location of such details as windows, doors, moldings, panels, pillars, belt lines, etc., and the general lines necessary to produce an effect in keeping with the character of the car.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200074
GEORGE J MERCER
The author presents the practical side of the body designer's work and refers to him as being between the office and the shop, the one who stands in the way of the impatient man that wants action without preparation. The development of the body designer and body designing is reviewed and the position and duties of the designer are stated at some length. The design factors are considered in detail and the making and utilization of wax models are described, followed by a lengthy consideration of curved-surface bodies, wood body frames, style and body types. The fittings and minor design details are discussed and future designs predicted from present indications. The author explains the body designing business in detail to refute the suspicion that the working methods of body designers are different from those employed by the other members of an engineering force because body designing is different and distinct from the other branches of motor-car engineering work.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170011
F. W. PAWLOWSKI
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160044
WILLIAM B. STOUT
The automobile of to-day has been developed mechanically to such a high point that the art of building them, according to the author, is gradually becoming a studio task. The paper outlines the rules of appeal in body design and shows how former types of bodies have lost their appeal because they were not based on correct principles. The author gives the ways in which power, body width, mass, comfort and other car qualities can be suggested by proportions of the body or by its color. He states that the automobile of the future will take every advantage of art knowledge to build up an appeal consistent with its mechanical performance.
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150043
A. P. BRUSH
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150012
H. JAY HAYES
1914-01-01
Technical Paper
140047
HINSDALE SMITH
1912-01-01
Technical Paper
120030
C. M. Hall
1910-01-01
Technical Paper
100014
L. R. Smith
Viewing 4621 to 4645 of 4645